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Summary of LdP's distinctive features

The idea

LdP's key idea is that an optimal constructed IAL should be based on 10-12 most spoken languages of the planet, those which, according to forecasts, will only strengthen their influence in the future.

Phonology

The phonological system of LdP contains 17 basic consonants and 5 vowels, altogether 22 phonemes. All sounds of the system are simple for pronouncing and differ considerably between themselves. A relatively small number of phonemes (for comparison: Esperanto contains 28 phonemes) is, however, sufficient for recognizability of words imported from major languages and a bright enough distinction between words for clear comprehension of speech. There are no phonemes that differ only in voicedness/unvoicedness. Therefore, for example, [dZ] and [tS] are versions of the same phoneme, and [z] is only a variant of the phoneme /s/ (it may be voiced between vowels). An essential distinctive feature of sounds in pairs b – p, d – t, g – k is presence or absence of aspiration.

Vocabulary

On the whole, European lexicon prevails, however an essential part of most frequent words are of Chinese, Russian, Hindi, and Arabic origin.

LdP tends to use living words of major languages, changed as little as possible. As a rule, words resembling phonetically their equivalents in other languages are taken. Often these are loanwords but not necessarily. Let's take, for example, the word "darba" (strike). It is of the Arabic origin, however it resembles the Russian "udar" and the Chinese "da" (to strike). A remote similarity may also be found with the English "strike" and Hindi's "prahar".

Sound symbolism is also taken into account. For example, as in most natural languages, words indicating small or closely located objects tend to use the vowel [i] while those indicating something big or far — the vowels [a] or [o]. Examples: dale far — blise near, dar there — hir here, augmentative particle gro — diminutive particle ki.

Semantics

LdP is created as a language intended primarily for live contact. There are no obligatory grammatical meanings (such as gender, number, tense), and the word itself bears rather a certain general idea. The exact meaning of phrase is defined substantially through context. So LdP is simple to learn and use.

Grammar

The grammatical system of LdP is analytical one. Grammatic meanings that a speaker may need (such as gender for a noun or tense for a verb) can be expressed by means of special particles. The form of the main word (a noun or a verb) is not changed.

The word order is basically direct: Subject – Verb – Object. However, in order to stress a certain word, the order can be changed. A modifying word, as a rule, stands before the modified word.

In word formation, besides compounding and particles, mostly suffixes beginning with a consonant are used. They are simply added to the main word, without changing its form or root stress. E.g.: dumi to think — dumishil thoughtful — dumishiltaa thoughtfulness.

There are no obligatory endings for different parts of speech, which allows to import any international word without serious change. At the same time there are preferable ones. For example, many adjectives end in –e. But adjectives like gao (high) and lao (old) are also admissible.

There are no articles.


Fo unitaa de Arda!
For the unity of the Planet!

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