Lidepla–English dictionary

Edition 1.2, as of 2015-03-12

Pronunciation        Short grammar

Preliminary notes

1. This is a Lidepla-English dictionary based on Edition 1.2. Newly created expressions that have been included since the publication of Edition 1.2 are highlighted in red. Words that are no longer to be used look like this. Further information: General information about Lidepla: wikipedia.

2. Word etymologies are given sparingly; usually only one source language is indicated. However, one should bear in mind that many words have roots in several different languages; these have been given preference. E.g. the word "kitaba" is originally from Arabic, but the root is also present in Turkish, Hindi, and a lot of other languages. Moreover, the etymology indicated is often not the earliest one. Thus, you'll see "Turkish" under the words "banka" and "dolar" not because they are originally Turkish words but because in Turkish they have the same form as in Lidepla.

3. It is important to know that where there are several English equivalents, they are separated either by a comma or a semicolon. If there is a comma, only a related or common meaning is implied; a semicolon indicates different meanings. E.g.

filakwo row, line; queue, file

"Row" and "line" are separated by a comma, which makes it clear that in this case "row" does not mean either "quarrel" or "travel in a rowboat". Similarly, "queue" and "file" have many different meanings, but only the common meaning "a line of waiting people or vehicles" is valid in this case.

Grammatical abbreviations

exklami exklami-partikla (≈interjection)
gramatika gramatika-partikla (grammatical particle)
gramatika-komo gramatika-partikla (grammatical particle) or komo-worda (adverb)
inplas-komo inplas-komo-worda (the word that substitutes an adverb)
inplas-kwanto inplas-kwanto-worda (the word that substitutes a numeral)
inplas-kwel inplas-kwel-worda (the word that substitutes an adjective)
inplas-kwo inplas-kwo-worda (the word that substitutes an noun)
komo komo-worda (adverb)
konekti konekti-partikla (preposition)
konekti-komo konekti-partikla (preposition) or komo-worda (adverb)
konekti-syao konekti-partikla (preposition) or syao-worda (affix)
kwanto kwanto-worda (numeral)
kwel kwel-worda (adjective)
kwesti kwesti-worda (question word)
kwo kwo-worda (noun)
loko-komo loko-komo-worda (adverb of place)
modus-komo modus-komo-worda (adverb of manner)
sta sta-worda (words describing state, e.g., modal verbs)
syao syao-worda (affix)
syao-gramatika syao-worda (affix) or gramatika-partikla (grammatical particle)
syao-komo syao-worda (affix) or komo-worda (adverb)
taim-komo taim-komo-worda (adverb of time)
unisi unisi-partikla (conjunction)
zwo zwo-worda (verb)


a – 1) (konekti) to (aim, direction) cf. versu
go a shop – go to the shop
lai a dom – come home
returni a janmalanda – return to one's native land
a oli taraf – in/to all directions
2) (konekti) to (dative case)
a yu – to you
a may amiga – to my friend
shwo a swa – say to oneself
me ve rakonti a yu om to – I'll tell you about that
3) the name of the letter A

aa(exklami) ah, oh (an exclamation of understanding, recognition) see also: ah
Written with two letters for distinction from the conjunction a (but pronounced the same way)
Aa, es yu! – Ah, it's you!
Aa, me samaji. – Oh, I see.

abat(kwo) abbot
abatguan(kwo) abbey see: guan

abeta(kwo) fir (tree)

abisma(kwo) abyss

abnegi(zwo) abnegate, deny oneself; renounce
lu abnegi-te fuming – he gave up smoking
abnega(kwo) abnegation, self-denial

aboli(zwo) abolish
abola(kwo) abolishment

abordaja(kwo) boarding (attacking an enemy ship)

aborigene(kwel) aboriginal
aborigena(kwo) aborigine

abrevi(zwo) abbreviate (words); abridge (a book), curtail (a narrative)
abreva(kwo) abbreviation
abreven (abrevi-ney)(kwel) abbreviated, abridged
abrevem (abrevi-nem)(komo) in abbreviated form
abrevitura(kwo) acronym

abrupte(kwel) precipitous, abrupt; brusque; sudden, abrupt syn.: krute

absente(kwel) absent, not present
absensia(kwo) absence

abses(kwo) abscess

absolute(kwel) absolute
absolutem(komo) absolutely
absoluta(kwo) (the) absolute

absorbi(zwo) absorb
Gunsa absorbi ta. – His work absorbed him.
absorba(kwo) absorption

abstrakti(zwo) abstract
abstrakta(kwo) abstraction
abstrakte (abstrakta-ney)(kwel) abstract ant.: konkrete

absurde(kwel) absurd
absurda(kwo) absurd
absurditaa(kwo) absurdity

abundante(kwel) abundant
abundantem(komo) abundantly, amply, generously
abundansia(kwo) abundance

abyas(kwo) habit, custom
pa abyas – through habit
hev abyas – to be accustomed, to be wont, to be in the habit of
abyas-ney(kwel) habitual see also: pinchan
abyas-nem(komo) habitually
abyasi(zwo) get accustomed/used (a koysa – to smth), get into the habit of
mah koywan abyasi a koysa – to accustom smb to smth
abyasen (abyasi-ney)(kwel) accustomed, used (a koysa – to smth)
abyasen a mushkila – accustomed to difficulties

acha(kwo) axe

adapti(zwo) adapt, adapt oneself
adapta(kwo) adaptation
adapter(kwo) adapter
adaptibile(kwel) adaptable
adaptibilitaa(kwo) adaptability

adar(loko-komo) thither, there, that way see: a, dar
bu go adar – don’t go there

adi(zwo) add cf. aditi
ada(kwo) addition
adiwat(kwo) additive, addition (smth added)
adike(kwel) additional

aditi(zwo) add (math.), add up, tot up cf. adi
adita(kwo) addition (math.)

adle(kwel) noble (of nobility)
adla(kwo) nobleman (a member of nobility)
adlitaa(kwo) nobility


administri(zwo) administer (manage, conduct)
administra(kwo) administration (administering)
administrasion(kwo) administration (managers)

admiral(kwo) admiral

admiri(zwo) admire
admira(kwo) admiration
admirival(kwel) admirable
admirer, admiri-sha(kwo) admirer

admiti(zwo) admit (grant entrance, whether into a place or into the mind)
admita(kwo) admission, admittance
noadmitibile(kwel) inadmissible

adopti(zwo) adopt
adopta(kwo) adoption

adres(kwo) address (location or its description)
adresi(zwo) address, accost
adresing(kwo) addressing, address (act)

adulte(kwel) adult
adulta(kwo) adult
adulto(kwo) adult male
adultina(kwo) adult female

adyoo(exklami) Goodbye! Adieu!
(kwo) farewell
shwo adyoo, fai adyoo – to say goodbye
al fai adyoo – at parting

adyutanta(kwo) aide de camp, adjutant

afisha(kwo) bill, poster, placard
afishi(zwo) bill (advertise)

aflui(zwo) flow towards rush towards, stream towards see: a, flui
afluisa(kwo) flow, flood (of tide), rising tide; influx, inflow
afluisa e defluisa – flow and ebb

afsos(kwo) regret, pity
pa afsos – regrettably, sadly, unfortunately
afsosi(zwo) regret, be sorry about
afsos!(exklami) alas! it is a pity!
afsos-ney, afsosival(kwel) regrettable, sad, unfortunate

afte(konekti) after; in (at the end of)
afte yu – after you
afte to – after that
un afte otre – one after another
afte vidi – having seen
afte tri dey – in three days
afte un ora – in one hour
aften(taim-komo) afterwards, later on, subsequently
Nu nadi ke aften ve ye meno gwer in munda. – We hope that afterwards (in future) there will be fewer wars in the world.
Nu he diskusi se olo aften. – We have discussed this all later on.

aftechi(zwo) eat with, eat smth after drinking see: afte, chi
Ta pi un glasakin vodka e aftechi bay marinaden gurka. – He had a glass of vodka with pickled cucumber.

agenda(kwo) agenda

agenta(kwo) agent (one empowered to act for or represent another)
agentaguan(kwo) agency

agiti(zwo) agitate (also: to stir up public interest in a cause)
agiten (agiti-ney)(kwel) agitated, excited
agita(kwo) agitation
agitation(kwo) agitation (stirring up of public interest)

agni(kwo) fire
agnibeda(kwo) fire (occurrence of fire in a certain place)
agnibrigada(kwo) fire-brigade
agninka(kwo) spark
fai agninka(zwo) spark
agniyuan(kwo) fireman
agni-luma(kwo) blaze, glow
agni-ston(kwo) flint; gunflint
agni-ney(kwel) aflame; fiery
agnisi (mah-agni)(zwo) burn up, fire up; sear

agra(kwo) (ploughed) field tillage cf. felda
agralanda(kwo) countryside
agrajen(kwo) peasant syn.: kisan
agrare(kwel) agrarian

agravi(zwo) aggravate cf. vexi
agrava(kwo) aggravation

agresi(zwo) aggress; feel aggression
agresa(kwo) aggression
agresive(kwel) aggressive
agreser(kwo) aggressor

agrisha(kwo) gooseberry

agude(kwel) sharp, acute
agudisi (mah-agude)(zwo) sharpen

agudmente(kwel) witty see: agude, menta
agudmentanik(kwo) wit, witty man
agudmentika(kwo) witticism
agudmentitaa(kwo) wit (ability)

ah(exklami) ah (expresses strong emotions) see also: aa
fai ah(zwo) gasp with surprise

ahaa(exklami) aha

ahak(kwo) lime (geol.)

ahfi(zwo) hide, conceal
ahfi swa – hide oneself
ahfi-geim(kwo) hide-and-seek
ahfilok(kwo) hiding-place
ahfem (ahfi-shem)(komo) hidingly, in a hiding way
ahfishil(kwel) reserved, reticent, secretive
buahfen (buahfi-ney)(kwel) unconcealed, undisguised
ahfi-go(zwo) slink, sneak, steal
ahfi-kan(zwo) peep, watch furtively

ahir(loko-komo) hither, here, this way see: a, hir
Lai ahir. – Come here.

ahmak(kwo) fool syn.: stupida

ahuki(zwo) hitch, hook, couple link, catch see: a, huk, i
May palto ahuki a naga e tori. – My coat caught on a nail and tore.

aida(exklami) let's go, come along (invitation to go somewhere)
Aida a riva! – Let’s go to the river!
Aida fo yabla! – Let’s go to get some apples!
Turkish, Slavic

aika(modus-komo) quite, rather
aika hao – quite well

aira(kwo) air
aira-kastela – castles in the air
airaportu(kwo) airport

ais(kwo) ice
ais-lenge(kwel) ice-cold
ais-ney(kwel) ice, icy
aiskrem(kwo) ice cream
aisifa(kwo) icing up

aivi(kwo) ivy

ajibe(kwel) queer, weird, odd see also: astoni-she, nopinchan, strane

ajile(kwel) agile, alert, brisk
do peda ajile – swift-footed, light-footed
do menta ajile – with agile mind, quick-witted
ajilitaa(kwo) agility, alertness, swiftness, legerity
ajilisi (mah-ajile)(zwo) brisk up

ajorni(zwo) adjourn, put off, defer cf. deri
ajorna(kwo) adjournment, postponement, reprieve

ajusti(zwo) adjust, regulate, set
ajusti kloka, ajusti radio – adjust the clock/watch, adjust the radio

AKabbr. of afte Krista (AD, anno Domini)

akademia(kwo) academy
akademiayuan(kwo) academician

akauda(kwo) the sign "@" see also: kauda

akaunta(kwo) account (a registry of pecuniary transactions; a subscription to a service)

aklami(zwo) acclaim, praise enthusiastically, cheer
aklama(kwo) acclaim, acclamation

akompani(zwo) accompany
Ob yu akompani me a dom? – Will you see me home?
akompana(kwo) accompaniment

akorda(kwo) chord (combination of pitches sounded simultaneously)

akordion(kwo) accordion

akre(kwel) acrid, caustic, pungent

akrobat(kwo) acrobat

akseleri(zwo) accelerate also: mah-kway, fa-kway
akselera(kwo) acceleration

aksenta(kwo) accent cf. stres
aksenti(zwo) accent, accentuate see also: emfasi

aksepti(zwo) accept
aksepta(kwo) acceptance
aksepter(kwo) acceptor

akses(kwo) access
aksesi(zwo) access, have access to
aksesibile(kwel) accessible

aksham(kwo) evening ant.: sabah see also: suryalwo, tarde
klok pet de aksham – (at) five o’clock in the evening
sey aksham – this evening, tonight
manya aksham – tomorrow evening
akshamfan(kwo) evening meal; supper

aksia(kwo) share (finance)

aksidenta(kwo) accident (in an ill sense), mishap
aksidente (aksidenta-ney)(kwel) accident-related

akti(zwo) act
akta(kwo) act; action (smth done)
fai akta fo/kontra koysa – take action for/against smth
akting(kwo) action (functioning; effect)
aktive(kwel) active
aktivenesa(kwo) activity (the state or quality of being active)
aktivitaa(kwo) activity
aktivisi (mah-aktive)(zwo) activate
aktivisa(kwo) activation
aktivista(kwo) activist

aktiva(kwo) assets (finance)

aktor(kwo) actor
aktoro(kwo) male actor
aktorina(kwo) actress

aktuale(kwel) topical, of current importance, actual cf. reale
aktualisi (mah-aktuale)(zwo) actualize

aktum(kwo) act (theater; legal document)

akumuli(zwo) accumulate
akumula(kwo) accumulation

akusi(zwo) accuse, inculpate, charge with, indict
akusa(kwo) accusation

akwa(kwo) water
akwe (akwa-ney)(kwel) water; aqueous
akwish(kwel) watery

akwalwo(kwo) waterfall see: akwa, lwo

akwarium(kwo) aquarium

akwatuber(kwo) plumber (one who works with water pipes) see: akwa, tuba

akwiri(zwo) acquire syn.: gwin
akwira(kwo) acquisition

al(konekti) when doing smth, while, at, under (simultaneity, circumstances)
al suryachu – at dawn
al ke me kuki – while I’m cooking
al bakdao – on the way back
al klosi-ney dwar – behind closed doors, with doors closed
al sey halat – under these circumstances
al un-ney kansa – at first sight
al shwo om se – when speaking about it
"Hao", ela shwo al smaili. – "OK", she said smiling.
al nau – currently, at the present moment

ala(kwo) wing

alarma(kwo) alarm
aira-alarma(kwo) air-raid warning
alarmi(zwo) alarm
alarmifi(zwo) get alarmed, uneasy
alarmi-ney(kwel) alarmed

alauda(kwo) lark, skylark

albatros(kwo) albatross (sea bird)

album(kwo) album

alee(kwo) lane, walk, path (in a garden, park etc., generally between rows of trees)

alegre(kwel) merry; cheerful; lighthearted; lively
alegritaa(kwo) merriment; mirth; gaiety; liveliness

alfabet(kwo) alphabet
segun alfabet – alphabetically

alga(kwo) alga(e): seaweed, kelp, dulse, etc.

algebra(kwo) algebra

algoritma(kwo) algorithm

aliansa(kwo) alliance
politike aliansa – political alliance
alianser(kwo) ally

alibi(kwo) alibi

alif(kwel) tame

aligi(kwo) attach, append see: a, ligi
aligi fail a leta – attach a file to the letter

alkali(kwo) alkali
alkali-ney(kwel) alkaline

alkohol(kwo) alcohol

almu(kwo) alms

along(konekti) along
go along gata – go along the street
along riva – along the river

also(unisi) therefore, so, then; accordingly; consequently see also: ergo

altaimi(zwo) update see: al, taim

altar(kwo) altar

alternative(kwel) alternative
alternativa(kwo) alternative

alterni(zwo) alternate, take turns
alterna(kwo) alternation

amasi(zwo) knead

amator(kwo) amateur
amator-ney(kwel) amateur

amaxi(modus-komo) at most, not more than
to ve duri amaxi un ora – that will last one hour at most

amba(kwo) amber

ambi(inplas-kwo, kwel) both
Nu ambi pri sey kitaba. – We both like this book.
Ambi sista pri plei kun doga. – Both sisters like to play with the dog.

ambigue(kwel) ambiguous, equivocal
ambiguitaa(kwo) ambiguity

ambision(kwo) ambition
ambisionful(kwel) ambitious, full of ambition

ambrela(kwo) umbrella
Tok Pisin

ambulansia(kwo) ambulance

ambush(kwo) ambush
fai ambush – make/lay an ambush

amen(exklami) amen

Amerika(kwo) America (continent)
Amerika-ney(kwel) American (of or pertaining to the Americas)
Amerika-jen(kwo) American (an inhabitant of the Americas) cf. USA-jen
Norde Amerika(kwo) North America
Sude Amerika(kwo) South America

amerikan – 1) (kwo) American (American person)
2) (kwel) American (of or pertaining to the USA or the American culture)
fama-ney amerikan poeta – famous American poet

amiga(kwo) friend
amigo(kwo) male friend
amigina(kwo) female friend
amige (amiga-ney), amigalik(kwel) amiable, affable, friendly
amigitaa(kwo) friendship, amity

amini(modus-komo) at least
to ve duri amini un ora – that will last one hour at least

amper(kwo) ampere
sto amper – 100 amperes
shi mikroamper – 10 microamperes

amplituda(kwo) amplitude

amusi(zwo) amuse, entertain
amusi swa – amuse oneself
amusa(kwo) amusement
amusi-she(kwel) amusing

an(konekti) indicates object of action
fai gola an koysa – take aim at smth
darba an tabla – a strike on the table
wuli an luna – howl at the moon
kansa an dwar – a glance at the door
lopi kun sikin an koywan – to run at someone with a knife

anakronisma(kwo) anachronism

analis(kwo) analysis
analisi(zwo) analize

analoge(kwel) analogous
analogem(komo) analogously
analoga(kwo) analogue
analogitaa(kwo) analogy, analogousness

ananas(kwo) pineapple

anar(kwo) pomegranate (fruit)
anarbaum(kwo) pomegranate (tree)

anarkia(kwo) anarchy
anarkike(kwo) anarchic
anarkista(kwo) anarchist

anchun(kwel) safe, secure
anchuntaa(kwo) safety, security

anekdot(kwo) anecdote, joke, funny story

anestesia(kwo) anaesthesia

angila(kwo) eel

anglosaxon(kwo, kwel) Anglo-Saxon

angula(kwo) angle; corner
agude angula – acute angle
tupe angula – obtuse angle
rekte angula – right angle
triangula(kwo) triangle
rektangula(kwo) rectangle
turni angula – turn (round) the corner

animal(kwo) animal syn.: bestia

animi(zwo) animate, endow with life; enliven, give animation to
animi-ney(kwel) animated
anima(kwo) animation
shwo kun anima – speak with animation
animasion(kwo) animation ((making) cartoon)

anis(kwo) anise

anjel(kwo) angel
anjellik(kwel) angel-like, angelic

anka(kwo) anchor
fai anka, anki(zwo) anchor
mah-lwo anka – cast/drop anchor
ankilok(kwo) berth (space to moor)

ankur(kwo) sprout, shoot
ankuri(zwo) sprout, spring up

anonime(kwel) anonymous

ansambla(kwo) ensemble

anshi(zwo) hint
ansha(kwo) hint

antena(kwo) antenna

antilopa(kwo) antelope

antipatia(kwo) antipathy

antonim(kwo) antonym

antra(kwo) gut
antratot(kwo) intestine

anubav(kwo) experience
anubav-ney jen – experienced person, man of experience
anubavi(zwo) experience cf. trajivi

anunsi(zwo) announce; give notice of
anunsa(kwo) announcement

anus(kwo) anus

aparat(kwo) apparatus

apari(zwo) appear (come into existence; to become visible) cf. sembli ant.: desapari
apara(kwo) appearance

aparte(kwel) separate, detached, apart (from others)
apartem(komo) apart
apartem fon otres – apart from the others

apeli(zwo) appeal (but not "to be attractive")
apela(kwo) appeal

apena(komo) hardly, scarcely, barely

apetit(kwo) appetite

apliki(zwo) apply (put on, upon, or to; put to or adapt for a special use; put into action)
aplika(kwo) application
apliken (apliki-ney)(kwel) applied
apliken fisika – applied physics

aplodi(zwo) applaud
aploda(kwo) applause, clapping

apoga(kwo) support, prop, rest
apogi(zwo) prop, lean, rest
apogi on tabla – lean against the table

apoplexia(kwo) apoplexy
apoplexike darba – apoplectic stroke
also: japat

aprikos(kwo) apricot

april(kwo) April also: mes-char

aprobi(zwo) approve, give approbation to
aproba(kwo) approbation

apropoo(konekti-komo) apropos; by the way
Apropoo, me haishi bu he lekti sey kitaba. – By the way, I have not yet read this book.
Apropoo sey kitaba, it es ya muy interes-ney. – Apropos of this book, it is really interesting.

arabeska(kwo) arabesque

arabi – 1) (kwel) Arabic
2) (kwo) Arab
3) (kwo) Arabic language

aranji(zwo) arrange (plan or prerare for; bring about or come to an agreement; settle)
aranji mita – make an appointment
Aranjen! – It’s a deal! Agreed!
aranja(kwo) arrangement, deal

arda(kwo) earth see also: Merkuri, Venus, Marsa, Jupiter, Saturna, Uran, Neptun, Pluton
ardagloba(kwo) globe (the planet Earth)

ardanuta(kwo) peanut see: arda, nuta

area(kwo) area (measure of extent of a surface)

arena(kwo) arena

arendi(zwo) lease, rent, charter
arenda(kwo) lease
arendaguan(kwo) rental agency

aresti(zwo) arrest, make a prisoner
aresta(kwo) arrest, custody

argenta(kwo) silver

argumenta(kwo) argument (statement put forth as proof, reason)

arhiduka(kwo) archduke

arigatoo(exklami) thanks, thank you syn.: danke, shukran

aritmetika(kwo) arithmetic
aritmetike(kwel) arithmetic, arithmetical

arivi(zwo) arrive (at destination, at a certain place) ant.: departi
ariva(kwo) arrival

arka(kwo) arc; arch cf. raduga

arkaike(kwel) archaic

arkitekter(kwo) architect
arkitektura(kwo) architecture

arku(kwo) bow (weapon)
Arkuman(kwo) Sagittarius

arma(kwo) weapon
stal-arma(kwo) cold steel
agni-arma(kwo) firearm
armas(kwo) arms, armament
armisi(zwo) arm
armisa(kwo) arming
arma-dun(kwo) loophole, embrasure

armee(kwo) army
armeeyuan(kwo) military man, serviceman

aroma(kwo) aroma
aroma-herba(kwo) aromatic herbs
aromaful(kwel) full of aroma, aromatic, fragrant or sweet-smelling
aromike(kwel) aromatic (chem.)

arosi(zwo) moisten, wet, water (with any liquid)
aroser(kwo) watering-pot

arpa(kwo) harp

arsenal(kwo) arsenal

arta(kwo) art
artista(kwo) artist

arteria(kwo) artery cf. jila, vena

artifisiale(kwel) artificial (man-made; false; unnatural) cf. jengun-ney

artikla(kwo) article (a part of speech in some languages) cf. makala

artileria(kwo) artillery

artishok(kwo) artichoke

arya(kwo) Aryan
arya-ney(kwel) Aryan

as(kwo) ace (playing card; expert)

asada(kwo) siege
asadi(zwo) siege, besiege

asembli(zwo) assemble: collect, bring together (people, materials, etc.) syn.: jami
asembla(kwo) assemblage, assembly; meeting, gathering
generale asembla – general meeting/assembly
desasembli(zwo) disassemble, take to pieces

asendi(zwo) go up, ascend, mount syn.: go uupar ant.: desendi
asendi kaval – mount a horse
asendi sulam – mount a ladder/stairway
avion oltaim asendi-te – the plane kept ascending
prais asendi – prices come up
asenda(kwo) ascension

aserti(zwo) assert, aver, claim, state ant.: negi
aserta(kwo) assertion, claim, statement

asfalta(kwo) asphalt

Asia(kwo) Asia

asilum(kwo) asylum, sanctuary syn.: refuja

asimili(zwo) assimilate (physiol. and fig.) cf. similisi
asimila(kwo) assimilation

asimut(kwo) azimuth

asla(kwo) donkey, ass

aspa(kwo) quotation mark

asparaga(kwo) asparagus

aspekti(zwo) look, appear
aspekti fatigi-ney – look tired
aspekta(kwo) aspect, view, sight, look, appearance
fai aspekta – pretend, affect, feign

aspiri(zwo) aspire, desire eagerly, long for, aim at, seek after
aspira(kwo) aspiration, striving

asteroida(kwo) asteroid (astron.)

astoni(zwo) astonish, amaze
fa-astoni(zwo) be amazed, be astonished, marvel, wonder
astoni-she, astonival(kwel) astonishing, marvelous see also: ajibe, nopinchan, strane
astonem (astoni-shem)(komo) astonishingly
astoni-shem jamile gela – astonishingly beautiful girl
astona(kwo) amazement, astonishment

Astrakan(kwo) astrakhan

astronomia(kwo) astronomy
astronomier(kwo) astronomer
astronomike(kwel) astronomical

ataki(zwo) attack, assail, assault
ataka(kwo) attack, assault
chu-ataka(kwo) sally, sortie

atarafi(kwo) move aside, draw aside; step aside see: a, taraf

ateni(zwo) attain, reach, achieve
ateni e sobrepasi – catch up and overtake
lopi-ateni(zwo) catch up by running
raki-ateni(zwo) catch up by car (or other vehicle)
atena(kwo) achievement, attainment, accomplishment

atenta(kwo) attention cf. chauka
fai nul atenta om koysa – pay no attention to smth
atenti(zwo) be attentive to, heed, mind, pay attention to
atente (atenta-ney)(kwel) attentive, alert
atentem (atenta-nem)(komo) attentively, closely, carefully.

atlas(kwo) atlas (anat., geog.)

atletika(kwo) athletics
atletike(kwel) athletic

atma(kwo) soul
atma-ney(kwel) of soul see also: unatme
dusatma-ney(kwel) bad souled, base

atmosfera(kwo) atmosphere

atom(kwo) atom
atom-ney(kwel) atomic

atrakti(zwo) attract
atrakta(kwo) attraction
atraktive(kwel) attractive

audi(zwo) hear; listen see also: slu
Me bu audi nixa. – I don’t hear anything.
Audi ba! – Listen!
hao-audi-ke musika – a music that is good to hear
bu-gwo-audi-ke – unheard-of
auda(kwo) hearing (auditory faculty)
auding(kwo) listening; audition
audibile(kwel) audible
audike(kwel) auditory
audibilitaa(kwo) audibility
audisens(kwo) sense of hearing
audimogsa(kwo) hearing ability
fa-audi(zwo) be heard, be audible
finaudi(zwo) listen to the end
auder(kwo) (telephone) receiver

audio(kwo, kwel) audio
rekordi audio – record audio

augusto(kwo) August also: mes-ot
in augusto – in August

aur(kwo) ear
aurganda(kwo) cerumen cf. waxa

aus – 1) (konekti-komo) out (of) (outward movement)
pren kalam aus posh – take a pencil out of the pocket
Lai aus! – Come out!
2) (konekti-komo) (made) of (material), out of
botela aus glas – bottle made of glass, glass bottle
Me he zwo palas aus shamba. – I made a palace out of the room.
ausen(konekti-komo) outside of, on the outside, beyond the limits of
ausen dom – outside the house
Me jivi ausen urba. – I live out of town.
Sedey ye frosta ausen. – It freezes outdoors.
Sey dwar bu ofni fon ausen, sol fon inen. – This door does not open from outside, only from within.
ausen-ney(kwel) outer, external syn.: externe
ausenklaida(kwo) overclothes
ausen-taraf(kwo) the outside
ausen-munda(kwo) the outer world

ausjivi(zwo) survive, remain alive see: jivi
ausjiving(kwo) survival, surviving

auskati(zwo) cut out, carve out see: kati

auskavi(zwo) dig out, dig up see: kavi

auskupi(zwo) redeem; ransom see: kupi
auskupa(kwo) redemption, redeeming; ransom

auslanda(kwo) foreign countries see: landa
in auslanda – abroad
auslanda-ney(kwel) foreign, of foreign countries
auslandajen, auslander(kwo) foreigner, a person from a foreign country cf. gariba

auslasi(zwo) let out, release; emit (of sound) see: lasi

auslyu(zwo) omit, leave out see: lyu

ausmorti(zwo) die out, become extinct see: morti

auspren(zwo) take out, pull out, extract see: pren

ausspiri(zwo) exhale, breathe out see: spiri ant.: inuspiri
ausspira(kwo) exhalation, outward breath

ausyusi(zwo) wear out see: yusi
ausyusa(kwo) wear and tear

autentike(kwel) authentic (genuine, real)
autentikitaa(kwo) authenticity

auto(kwo) automobile, car, motor-car

automat(kwo) automatic machine, automaton, automat
automatike(kwel) automatic
automatikem(komo) automatically
automatisi(zwo) automatize
automatisa(kwo) automatization

autopilota(kwo) autopilot

autor(kwo) author

autoritaa(kwo) authority (power to influence or persuade resulting from knowledge or experience) cf. mahta, potensia

autostop(kwo) hitch-hiking
fai autostop – hitch-hike

avan(komo) forward, ahead (in space or time)
Avan, sempre avan! – Forward, always forward!
Kan avan, bu kan bak. – Look forward, don't look back.
Go avan, bu turni. – Go ahead, don't turn.
Treba mah kloka un ora avan. – One should set the clock one hour ahead.
avanen(konekti-komo) ahead (of) (at what place?)
avanen oli – ahead of everybody
avanen kolona – ahead of the column
Lu es yo dalem avanen. – He is already far ahead.
May kloka es pet minuta avanen. – My watch is 5 minutes fast.

avane(kwel) front, fore
avanpatas(kwo) front paws
avana(kwo) front, facing side also: avantaraf cf. fronta, frenta

avangarda(kwo) avant-garde, vanguard, advance guard
avangarde (avangarda-ney)(kwel) vanguard, leading

avanpasi(zwo) pass ahead of, outstrip

avansi(zwo) advance, go forward; further, promote
avansa(kwo) advance, advancement

avantaja(kwo) advantage

avare(kwel) avaricious, miserly, greedy
avaritaa(kwo) avarice, greed
avarnik(kwo) miser, niggard

aventura(kwo) adventure
dusaventura(kwo) adventure (reckless scheme, shady enterprise)

avenu(kwo) avenue (broad street)

avide(kwel) greedy, avid
aviditaa(kwo) greed, avidity
avida (avido, avidina)(kwo) greedy person

avion(kwo) airplane
aviondom(kwo) hangar see: dom

avokado(kwo) avocado

avos(komo) hopefully, maybe, perhaps, with luck we may
pa avos – on the off-chance, at random, in a hit-or-miss fashion

axa(kwo) axis, axle
axike(kwel) axial

axila(kwo) armpit

ay(exklami) ouch

azure(kwel) azure


ba(gramatika) marks imperative cf. bye, hay
Nu go ba! – Let us go!
Manya yu hev skola. Tayari ba yur leson! – Tomorrow you have classes. Prepare your lesson!
Ta lai ba! – Let him come!

badal(kwo) cloud
gro-badal(kwo) big cloud
swate badal – black cloud
badal-ney dey – cloudy day

bade(kwel) bad; evil cf. buhao, dushte
bu bade – not bad
baditaa(kwo) evil
lucha de haotaa e baditaa – struggle of the good and the evil
badifi (fa-bade)(zwo) become worse, deteriorate

bagaja(kwo) luggage
bagajadan(kwo) luggage rack; luggage storage compartment
Crimean Tatar

bagula(kwo) heron

bahana(kwo) pretext, excuse
bahani(zwo) pretext see also: skusi
bahani-yen ke – under the pretext of

bahmal(kwo) velvet

bait(kwo) byte

baji(zwo) ring, resound; play (a musical instrument); strike (about the clock) cf. plei
baji pa dwar – ring at the door
Hu-ney fon zai baji? – Whose phone is ringing?
baji piano – play piano
baji gana pa gitara – play a song on the guitar
baja(kwo) ring, ringing
Me audi-te baja pa dwar. – I heard a ring at the door.
bajika(kwo) doorbell, buzzer

bak – 1) (komo) back (in space or time), backwards
Go avan, bu go bak. – Go ahead, don't go back.
Mata wud yao ke suy kindas lai bak a ela. – The mother would like her children to come back to her.
Gai pon bak olo ke yu pren. – You should put back everything that you take.
al bakdao – on the way back
bakmuvi – move back
dai bak – give back
Treba mah kloka un ora bak. – One should set the clock one hour back.
2) (komo) ago
dwa yar bak – two years ago
Gro-longtaim bak ye rega. – Once upon a time (long ago) there lived a king.
baken(konekti-komo) behind (at what place?)
baken dom – behind the house
Me bu vidi surya nau: it es baken badal. – Now I don't see the sun: it is behind the cloud.
Wen me lai a shulin, me bu dumi om problema. Me lyu li oli baken in urba. – When coming to the forest, I do not think about problems. I leave them all behind in the town.
May kloka es pet minuta baken. – My watch is 5 minutes slow.
fon baken dom – from behind the house

bakak(kwo) frog

bakapi(zwo) backup (data)
bakapa(kwo) backup; backup copy

bake(kwel) rear, back, hind
bakpatas(kwo) hind legs
baka(kwo) the back (back side, reverse side, or area behind) also: baktaraf

bakra(kwo) goat
gin-bakra (bakrina) – female goat
man-bakra (bakro) – male goat

bakshish(kwo) baksheesh see also: rishvat

bakshwo(zwo) say back see: bak, shwo syn.: repliki

bakteria(kwo) bacterium cf. basila

bal(kwo) ball (dance)

balada(kwo) ballad

balansa(kwo) balance, equilibrium cf. pondika, skala, vaka
balansi(zwo) balance, maintain equilibrium; counterpoise, counterbalance
balansing(kwo) equilibration, balancing
balansen (balansi-ney)(kwel) balanced

balbati(zwo) gurgle
ruchey balbati – brook gurgles

baldakin(kwo) baldaquin

balena(kwo) whale

balet(kwo) ballet

balja(kwo) bulge
balji(zwo) bulge

balka(kwo) log, beam; rafter, balk
balka-dom(kwo) loghouse

balkon(kwo) balcony

balon(kwo) balloon

balsam(kwo) balsam, balm

balut(kwo) acorn (fruit of the oak tree)

bambu(kwo) bamboo

banale(kwel) banal, trite

banana(kwo) banana
bananaplanta(kwo) banana-plant

banda – 1) (kwo) band (strip; a part of spectrum); ribbon; see also: teip
banda de frekwensa – frequency band
2) (kwo) band (group)

bandaja(kwo) bandage
bandaji(zwo) bandage

bandana(kwo) bandana

bandanoda(kwo) bowknot, bow see: banda, noda

bandita(kwo) bandit

banduk(kwo) rifle

bangi(zwo) burst
bang!(exklami) Bang!

bani(zwo) bathe
bani swa – bathe oneself
baning(kwo) bath (bathing)
banidom (baniguan)(kwo) bath-house, baths
banishamba(kwo) bathroom
banipen – bathtub

banka(kwo) bank (financial institution)
banker(kwo) banker
bankayuan(kwo) bank clerk

banket(kwo) banquet (ceremonial dinner)

bao(kwo) bag
beybao(kwo) rucksack
handabao(kwo) handbag

baobaba(kwo) baobab

bar(kwo) bar (pub, tavern)

barak(kwo) barrack

barana(kwo) fence
bushbarana(kwo) hedge see: bush

barba(kwo) beard
barba-ney man – bearded man

barbare(kwel) barbarian, barbarous
barbara(kwo) barbarian
barbaritaa(kwo) barbarism; barbarity

barela(kwo) barrel
barelakin(kwo) keg, small barrel / cask

bari(zwo) bar, block, obstruct
daobarika(kwo) road barrier
barilok(kwo) enclosured place

bariera(kwo) barrier

barometra(kwo) barometer

baron(kwo) baron / baroness
barono(kwo) baron
baronina(kwo) baroness

barsuk(kwo) badger

bartan(kwo) household vessel; tableware
woshi bartan – wash the dishes
bartanlemar(kwo) dresser (cupboard or set of shelves for dishes or kitchen utensils)

barut(kwo) gunpowder
barut-depo(kwo) powder magazine

basa(kwo) base
basi(zwo) base
basike(kwel) basic
basikem(komo) basically
sinbasa-ney(kwel) groundless, unfounded

basar(kwo) market, marketplace, bazaar; fair
basar-ekonomia(kwo) market economy
basar-teatra(kwo) a fair theatre

bashan(kwo) speech (oration) see also: shwosa
bashani(zwo) orate, give a speech

basila(kwo) bacillus cf. bakteria

basina(kwo) basin (geog., geol.)

basketa(kwo) basket
basketabol(kwo) basketball

basta – 1) (komo) enough see also: sufi-shem
nu hev basta pan – we have enough bread
sauna bu es haishi basta garme – it is not yet hot enough in the sauna
2) (exklami) that will do! enough!
Basta! Me bu yao audi nixa om to. – Enough of that! I do not want to hear anything about it.

baston(kwo) staff, stick; crosier

basu(kwo) bass (low sound)
shwo pa basu – speak/say in low voice
basu-ney(kwel) bass
basu-ney vos – bass voice

bat(unisi) but
Me hev kitaba bat me bu yao lekti. – I have the book but I don't want to read.

batali(zwo) fight, battle
batala(kwo) fight, battle
handa-batala(kwo) hand-to-hand fighting
batalakin(kwo) skirmish

batalion(kwo) battalion

bataria(kwo) battery

batata(kwo) sweet potato

bati(zwo) beat (hit or strike repeatedly) cf. darbi
bater(kwo) bat (club); beater

baum(kwo) tree

bavul(kwo) suitcase

bay – 1) (konekti) by, with, by means of (a means or tool)
skribi bay kalam – write with a pencil
lai bay avion – come by airplane
bay forsa – by force
bay to ke yu zwo – by what you do
ofensi bay bu shwo danke – to offend by not thanking
2) (konekti) by (doer or author)
se es zwo-ney bay me – this is done by me
kitaba bay Mark Twen – book by Mark Twain

baya(kwo) bay (nautical)

bayonet(kwo) bayonet

bethe name of the letter B

bebi(kwo) baby
bebi gari – perambulator, baby carriage see: gari

beda(kwo) misfortune, distress, trouble, disaster cf. disasta

bedlam(kwo) bedlam

beduin(kwo) bedouin

begin(zwo) begin, commence syn.: inisi, starti
Nu begin ba! – Let’s begin!
beginsa(kwo) beginning
in beginsa – at the beginning
ribegin(zwo) recommence

begun(zwo) work, process, treat see: gun
begun data – process data
begunsa(kwo) processing, treatment, working

beje(kwel) beige

bekon(kwo) bacon

belka(kwo) squirrel

belta(kwo) belt (band)
piga belta – leather belt

bencha(kwo) bench; pew

bensin(kwo) benzine, petrol, gasoline
bensin-station(kwo) gas station

bereta(kwo) beret

beri(kwo) berry

beril(kwo) beryl

berna(kwo) bear

bes(kwo) devil (as a half-animal creature, not Satan, not the chief one) see also: diabla, satan

besbol(kwo) baseball

bestia(kwo) beast syn.: animal
bestialik(kwel) bestial, brutish

betel(kwo) betel

beton(kwo) concrete (building material)

bey(kwo) back (the rear of body); backrest
stula bey – back of chair
stan al bey versu koywan – stand with one's back to smb
beybao(kwo) rucksack

Bharat – India also: India see also: hindi

bharat-europike(kwel) Indo-European

bi(zwo) be (binwas, esis, ve bi – will be)
Gai bi honeste. – One should be honest.
Bi hao! – 1) You are welcome! (a reply to thanking); 2) Bless you! (after smb's sneezing); 3) Good luck! (when parting)
bia(kwo) being

bichi(zwo) despise, disdain, disparage, scorn
bicha(kwo) contempt, scorn, disdain

bifoo(konekti) before (in space or time)
bifoo dom – before the house
bifoo festa – before the holiday
bifoo ke lu en-somni – before he fell asleep
bifoo olo – first of all
Woshi handas bifoo chifan! – Wash your hands before eating!
En-stan ba bifoo me. – Stand up before me!
bifoo-ney(kwel) former, previous, one-time
pa bifoo-ney taim – once, in former times
bifoo-dey, bifoo-aksham(kwo) eve
bifoovati(zwo) anticipate, act before

bifooen(taim-komo) formerly, previously, before
Laojen oftem shwo ke bifooen olo bin pyu hao kem nau. – Old people often say that formerly everything was better than now.
Bifooen nu jivi in otre urba. – Previously we lived in another town.
pa bifooen – in advance, beforehand

biftek(kwo) beefsteak

bigari(zwo) spoil
bigara(kwo) spoiling, spoilage

bigudi(kwo) hair-roller

bik(kwo) beak
biki(zwo) peck
bika(kwo) peck
biking(kwo) pecking

bikam(zwo) become
Ob yu yao bikam leker? – Do you want to become a physician?
Lu bikam-te fama-ney kway. – He quickly became famous.
Sun ela bikam mata. – She will become a mother soon.

bikini(kwo) bikini

bikos(unisi) because

bil(kwo) bill, invoice

bildi(zwo) build syn.: konstrukti
bildi dom – build a house
bilda, bilding(kwo) building (act)
bildura(kwo) building (structure)
bildilok(kwo) building site

bileta(kwo) ticket

biliar(kwo) billiards

bilion(kwo) trillion, a million millions, 1 000 000 000 000 = 1012

bin – was, were (past tense of bi)
Me bin dar pluri ves. – I have been there several times.

biografia(kwo) biography
biografike(kwel) biographic
biografier(kwo) biographer

biologia(kwo) biology
biologike(kwel) biological
biologier(kwo) biologist

bioteknologia(kwo) biotechnology

bira(kwo) beer
biraguan(kwo) beerhouse

birinja(kwo) brass (metallic alloy)
birinje (birinja-ney)(kwel) brass


birka(kwo) birch

bisepsa(kwo) biceps

bisikla(kwo) bicycle also: baik

biskwit(kwo) biscuit, cookie

bisnes(kwo) business (commercial activity)

bison(kwo) bison

bit(kwo) bit (computing)

bitum(kwo) bitumen

BKabbr. of bifoo Krista (BC, before Christ)

blada(kwo) blade (of a knife, sword; of an oar, propeller)

blage(kwel) blessed, connected with God's grace; beneficial
blagitaa(kwo) grace (religion); beneficence

blagewanda(kwo) pilgrimage see: blage, wanda
blagewandi(kwo) go on pilgrimage
blagewander(kwo) pilgrim

blami(zwo) blame, condemn, censure cf. damni, kondamni, shatami
blama(kwo) blame, censure

blan(kwel) white
blantaa – whiteness

blesi(zwo) bless
blesa(kwo) blessing, benediction

bli(konekti-komo) near, nearby, beside, close to see also: sirke
bli may dom – near my house
bli klok char – around 4 o'clock
Ela zai sidi-te bli. – She was sitting beside.
bli-ney(kwel) near, nearby, neighbouring
bliwan(kwo) neighbour, fellow human

blik(kwo) catchlight, flare (reflection of light)

blin(kwo) pancake

blinde(kwel) blind
blinditaa(kwo) blindness
blinda(kwo) a blind person
blindisi(zwo) blind; dazzle
blindisi-she(kwel) blinding

blise(kwel) close, near, nearby
blisem(komo) closely
blisitaa(kwo) closeness, nearness, proximity; affinity
blisejen(kwo) one’s near and dear
blislok – hereabouts
blisifi (fa-blise)(zwo) approach, come closer
blisifi a koysa – approach smth, come close to smth
blisisi (mah-blise)(zwo) draw/bring nearer
blisi(zwo) approach/bring nearer

bliza(kwo) lightning

blog(kwo) blog

blok(kwo) block; unit (a part of a mechanism)

bloki(zwo) block, blockade
fa-bloki(zwo) become blocked; get stuck
debloki(zwo) unblock, deblock

blonde(kwel) blond (fair-haired) syn.: klarhar-ney
blonda(kwo) blond (person of fair hair)

blu(kwel) blue
blutaa(kwo) blue
klarblu(kwel) light blue, sky blue

blueta(kwo) cornflower

blusa(kwo) blouse

boa(kwo) boa

bobina(kwo) bobbin, spool, reel

bobra(kwo) beaver

boh(kwo) god
bohina(kwo) goddess
boh-ney, bohlik(kwel) divine
bohmata(kwo) mother of god
boh-blama(kwo) blasphemy
fai boh-blama – commit blasphemy

bohema(kwo) bohemia
bohema-ney jiva – bohemian life
bohemnik(kwo) bohemian (person living an unconventional life)

bol(kwo) ball
snegabol(kwo) snowball
bolkalam(kwo) ballpoint pen

bolta(kwo) bolt (metal fastener)

bomba(kwo) bomb
bombi(zwo) bomb, bombard
bombing(kwo) bombardment, bombing
bombiavion, bomber(kwo) bomber (aircraft)
bombi-sha(kwo) bomber (person)

bona(kwo) bean

bonbon(kwo) bonbon, candy, sweet

borda(kwo) border (outer edge; frontier), brink; edge; board (of ship)
pa borda de abisma – at the brink of the abyss
bay pamaborda – with edge of one’s hand
lingwa borda inter jenmin – language borders between peoples
stata borda – the state border
fule til borda – full to the brim
mucho jen on borda – many people on board
bordi(zwo) border (on), adjoin
bordi-she(zwo) adjoining, next, adjacent

bori(zwo) bore, drill
boring(kwo) boring
borer, boritul(kwo) borer (tool)
trabori(zwo) drill through, perforate

borsta(kwo) bristle, stubble
borsti(zwo) bristle

borya(kwo) woven mat

bosmen(kwo) boatswain

bota(kwo) boat
botajen(kwo) boatman

botela(kwo) bottle

boxa(kwo) box (container)

boxi(zwo) box (strike with fists)
boxing(kwo) boxing
boxer(kwo) boxer

boy(kwo) boy see also: yungo ant.: gela

boyar(kwo) boyar(d)
boyarina(kwo) boyarynia, boyar’s wife

bracha(kwo) arm; arm of a chair
uuparbracha(kwo) upper arm see: uupar
nichbracha(kwo) forearm see: nich

brai(zwo) roar, bellow
braisa(kwo) roar, bellow

brancha(kwo) branch see also: suhbranchika

brandi(kwo) brandy

branka(kwo) branchia, gill
brankas(kwo) branchiae, gills

brash(kwo) brush (tool)
brashi(zwo) brush
brashing(kwo) brushing

brata(kwo) brother cf. sista
bratalik(kwel) brotherly
May ko-bratas do kalam. – My co-brethren of the quill.

brata-docha(kwo) fraternal niece (brother's daughter) see: brata, docha


brata-son(kwo) fraternal nephew (brother's son) see: brata, son

brave(kwel) brave, gallant, stalwart, dashing
bravnik(kwo) bold fellow, daring fellow, dare-devil

bravo(exklami) bravo
Bravo gro! – Bravissimo!

brecha(kwo) breach (opening, gap, tear, rupture)

brein(kwo) brain
breinvati(zwo) ponder, think over, turn over in one's mind

brek(kwo) brake
breki(zwo) brake, apply a brake
breking(kwo) braking

bresa(kwo) heather

breve(kwel) brief, concise
brevem(komo) briefly, in a few words

brida(kwo) bridle
bridi(zwo) bridle
nobridi-ney(kwel) unbridled, unruly
nobridibile(kwel) indomitable

brig(kwo) brig

brigada(kwo) brigade
agnibrigada(kwo) fire-brigade

brij(kwo) bridge (card game)

brik(kwo) brick

brili(zwo) shine, glitter, glow
brili-she(kwel) brilliant, shining, shiny
brila(kwo) shining, glitter, brilliance
brilika(kwo) spangle
debrilifi(zwo) lose its lustre, grow dim

briliante(kwel) brilliant (glorious, superb, wonderful) syn.: gro-hao, magnifike

bringi(zwo) bring
go bringi koysa – go to fetch smth
lopi bringi koysa – run for smth, run to fetch smth

brisa(kwo) breeze (of wind)

brokat(kwo) brocade

brokoli(kwo) broccoli

bronsa(kwo) bronze

brova(kwo) eye-brow, brow
brovamuy(kwel) with thick eyebrows

bru(zwo) brew (prepare liquor)
bruing(kwo) brewing

brum(kwo) broom
brumi(zwo) sweep (with a broom)
bruming(kwo) sweeping

brun(kwel) brown

brutale(kwel) brutal syn.: ferose, kruele
brutalitaa(kwo) brutality

bruxisma(kwo) bruxism

bu, bu…(syao-gramatika) not (negation) see also: bye, non
Me bu yao go adar. – I don't want to go there.
Tak, bu kontra-nem. – So, not otherwise.
Se es buevitibile. – This is inevitable.
Bu go adar! – Don't go there!

Buda(kwo) Buddha
budisma(kwo) Buddhism

bufal(kwo) buffalo

bufeta(kwo) buffet (a counter or sideboard from which food and drink are served or may be bought)

bugundey(kwo) day free from work, day off, rest-day see: bu, gun, dey

buhao(kwel, komo) not good, bad; badly see: bu, hao cf. bade, dushte
sta buhao – feel unwell

bujeta(kwo) budget

buketa(kwo) bouquet (bunch of flowers; specific scent)

bukwa(kwo) beech (tree)

bulba(kwo) bulb

bulbul(kwo) nightingale

bulevar(kwo) boulevard

buli(zwo) boil
buli-she akwa – boiling water
buli-ney milka – boiled milk
buling(kwo) boiling

bulyon(kwo) broth, bouillon

bumbar(kwo) bumblebee

bunte(kwel) variegated, many-coloured, motley

bure(kwel) gray-brown

burjua(kwo) bourgeois
burjua-ney(kwel) bourgeois
hao-burjua-ney(kwel) bourgeois, plain
shma-burjua-ney(kwel) bourgeois, square


burnus(kwo) burnous

burokratia(kwo) bureaucracy
burokratike(kwel) bureaucratic

buroo(kwo) bureau

bursa(kwo) exchange (a place for trading, such as a stock exchange)

bus(kwo) bus (coach)
pai bus – get the bus
bus-stopika(kwo) bus stop
busyuan(kwo) ticket collector (in bus)

bush(kwo) bush, shrub

bushel(kwo) bushel (unit of volume)

busta(kwo) bust (head and shoulders of body; woman's bosom)

buta(kwo) boot
tasmi (fai) butas – lace up one’s boots
gaobuta(kwo) high boot

buton(kwo) button (fastener; device meant to be pressed; bud)
florbuton(kwo) flower bud
presi buton – press the button
buton de jaketa – button of jacket
do dwa buton fila – double-breasted
mausbuton(kwo) a mouse button
butoni(zwo) button
butondun(kwo) buttonhole

buy(kwo) buoy

bye(gramatika) negative imperative particle syn.: buba
Bye go adar! – Don't go there!
Boh bye lasi! – God forbid!

byen(kwel) convenient; comfortable; handy, easy-to use; opportune ant.: nobyen
es muy byen – it's very opportune, it comes in handy
nobyen-taim-ney – ill-timed
byentaa(kwo) convenience; ease, handiness
flat do oli byentaa – apartment with all conveniences


chabi(zwo) chew
chabing(kwo) chewing, mastication
chabiguma, chabika(kwo) chewing gum

chalma(kwo) turban

champion(kwo) champion, winner, titleholder

chapa(kwo) hoe, mattock

chapela(kwo) chapel (place of worship)

chapta(kwo) chapter (section in a book)

char(kwanto) four (4) see also: nol, un, dwa, tri, pet, sit, sem, ot, nin, shi, sto, mil
charfen(kwanto) fourth
un (de) charfen – one fourth
tri (de) charfen – three fourths
charfenka(kwo) quarter
charple(kwel) quadruple
charshi(kwanto) forty
charsto(kwanto) four hundred
char-ney(kwel) the fourth
char-nem(komo) fourthly

chardi(kwo) Thursday also: jupidi see also: undi, dwadi, tridi, petdi, sitdi, semdi

charma(kwo) charm (appeal, attraction) cf. jadu, talisman
charmi(zwo) charm (seduce, fascinate)
charmaful(kwel) charming

chati(zwo) chat, babble, chatter
chata(kwo) chat, babble, chatter

chauki(zwo) beware (of), be on one’s guard against, take care
chauki doga! – beware of dogs!
chauka(kwo) caution, wariness, vigilance cf. atenta
chauka-stepa – precautionary measures
chauke (chauka-ney)(kwel) cautious, watchful, wary, vigilant
chaukem (chauka-nem)(komo) cautiously, warily, vigilantly
buchauke(kwel) incautious, imprudent
nochauke(kwel) foolhardy, reckless, desperate

chaure(kwel) wide, broad
chaurem(komo) broadly, widely, wide
chauritaa(kwo) breadth, width
chaurifi (fa-chaure)(zwo) widen (become wide or wider), broaden
chaurisi (mah-chaure)(zwo) widen (make wide or wider), broaden
chauri(zwo) widen (tr./intr.)

chay(kwo) tea
chayguan(kwo) tea room, tea house
chayvati(zwo) tea
chayvati koywan – to take smb to tea

chethe name of the letters CH

chek(kwo) cheque, (bank-) check, receipt (written acknowledgement)

cheki(zwo) check (verify; inspect)
cheka(kwo) check (inspection; verifying)

chelo(kwo) cello

cherma(kwo) bird cherry

cherpi(zwo) draw liquids, scoop (out); (fig.) to take, borrow
cherpika(kwo) scoop cf. skupa

chi(zwo) eat
chi masu – eat meat
hao-chi-ke fan – a tasty food
chi sabahfan – have breakfast
chi deyfan – have a midday meal
chi akshamfan – have evening meal/supper
chibile(kwel) edible
chia(kwo) eating
syao chia – snack
chiwat(kwo) eats, food
chifan(zwo) meal, have a meal
chifanshamba(kwo) dining room
chifansa(kwo) meal
mah-chi(zwo) feed
jen-chier – cannibal, man-eater
chitul(kwo) eating tool see also: chiza, furka, kwaizi, sikin

chiatuba(kwo) esophagus see: chia, tuba

chibuk(kwo) chin

chihi(zwo) sneeze
chiha(kwo) sneeze
laute ek-chiha – a violent sneeze
chihing(kwo) sneezing; catarrh
mah-chihi-she(kwel) sternutatory
chih!(exklami) Achoo!

chinara(kwo) plane (tree of the genus Platanus)

chipe(kwel) cheap ant.: guy
chipenesa(kwo) cheapness, low prices

chiriki(zwo) twitter, chirp
chiriking(kwo) twitter, chirp, chirping

chitan(kwo) pond

chiza(kwo) spoon see also: chitul
chaychiza(kwo) teaspoon

chokolat(kwo) chocolate

chori(zwo) steal, thieve
bechori koywan – to rob smb
chora(kwo) theft
chori-sha, chorer(kwo) thief
chorishil(kwel) thievish

Chosen(kwo) North Korea

chou(kwel) stinking, foul, fetid

chu(zwo) go out, leave, exit; issue (from); ooze out; come out, be issued
lu chu shamba – he left the room
sudor chu on luy fas – the sweat stood out on his face
chu dwar – go out of the door
chusa(kwo) going out, leaving, withdrawal; exit, way out; outlet
chudao(kwo) way out
otre chudao yok – there is no other way out
chudwar(kwo) exit door
chuwat(kwo) issue (smth issued)
mah-chu(zwo) issue (smth); utter
ta mah-chu un strane suon – she uttered a strange sound

chuf(kwo) tuft (cluster of elongated strands as of yarn, hair, or grass)

chukanda(kwo) beet, beetroot
chukandasup(kwo) beet soup, borscht

chunauta(kwo) challenge, defiance
chunaute (chunauta-ney)(kwel) defiant
chunautem (chunauta-nem)(komo) defiantly

chuyshu(zwo) boast, brag
chuyshu-ke, chuyshushil(kwel) boastful, vainglorious

chyen(kwel) shallow ant.: glube
chyenlok(kwo) ford, wade; shoal, sandbank



da(gramatika) optional nominative particle

dabe(unisi) in order to, in order that, so that see also: fo ke
Me shwo a yu dabe yu mog samaji me. – I speak to you in order that you can understand me.

dacha(kwo) dacha, summer house

dadu(kwo) bet, wager
fai dadu(zwo) bet, wager
fai dadu kun koywan – bet with smb
fai dadu om koysa – make a bet about smth
fai dadu pa shi dolar – make a bet of 10 dollars

dafni(zwo) inter, bury
dafna(kwo) interment, burial, funeral

dafta(kwo) exercise book, notebook

dai(zwo) give cf. doni
daisa(kwo) giving
dai bak(zwo) give back

daklis(kwo) threshold

dal-(gramatika) marks non-immediate (but blood) relatives cf. -inloo
dal-brata(kwo) cousin
dal-son(kwo) nephew see also: onkla-son, tia-son
dal-docha(kwo) niece see also: onkla-docha, tia-docha
dal-kindocha(kwo) grandniece
dal-dal-brata(kwo) second cousin

dale(kwel) far, distant, remote
dalem(komo) afar
fon dalem – from afar
dalitaa(kwo) distance (a considerable amount of space), expanse, remoteness cf. distansia
dalifi (fa-dale)(zwo) become more remote
dalisi (mah-dale)(zwo) distance, move away from

dale Esta(kwo) Far East
dale Esta-ney(kwel) Far Eastern

dalta(kwo) chisel

dalwa(kwo) bucket, pail

dam(kwo) dam, dike

dama(kwo) married or widowed woman; dame; lady; (in cards, chess, checkers) a queen

damaja(kwo) damage
damaji(zwo) damage

damay(kwo) barley

damni(zwo) damn cf. blami, kondamni, shatami
damna(kwo) damnation

dan1 – 1) (taim-komo) then (at that time) see also: poy
Dan me bin haishi yunge. – I was still young then.
depos dan – since then
2) (taim-komo) then (in that case)
si … dan … – if … then …

…dan2(syao) suffix for container
chaydan(kwo) teapot
nayudan(kwo) butterdish
milkadan(kwo) milk can
flordan(kwo) flowerpot
kalamdan(kwo) pencil-box
kahwadan(kwo) coffee-pot
manidan(kwo) wallet

dandi(kwo) dandy, fop
dandivati(zwo) behave foppishly

danja(kwo) danger, peril
danja-ney, danjaful(kwel) dangerous, perilous

dank a(konekti) thanks to, owing to
dank a lu – thanks to him
dank a to ke yu he zwo – thanks to what you have done

danke(exklami) thank you, thanks syn.: arigatoo, shukran
Danke! - Es nixa. Bi hao! – Thank you! - Don't mention it. You are welcome!
Danke gro! – Thank you very much!
danki(zwo) thank
me danki yu por helpi – I thank you for your help
bu val danki, bu dankival – don't mention it
danka(kwo) gratitude
dankaful(kwel) thankful, grateful

dansa(kwo) dance
dansi(zwo) dance
danser(kwo) dancer
dansilok(kwo) dance floor, dance hall

dantela – lace (light fabric)

dao(kwo) way (path; method)
shefdao(kwo) main road, trunk road, highway
sirkum-dao – roundabout way
pa sey dao – by this way
pa nul dao – in no way, by no means
Milkadao(kwo) Milky way
daojen(kwo) wayfarer, traveller; wanderer
daokin(kwo) path (trail), pathway
daokrosa(kwo) crossroads, crossing

dar(loko-komo) there see also: adar ant.: hir
May sista es dar. – My sister is there.
Dar es garme. – It's hot there.
Bu go dar! – Don't go there!

darbi(zwo) strike (hit) cf. bati
darba(kwo) blow, stroke

darfi(sta) have permission, be allowed, (one) may
Lu darfi gun kom leker. – He is allowed to work as a doctor.
Me darfi zin ku? – May I come in?
bu darfi – is not allowed
hir bu darfi fumi – smoking is not allowed here

dashat(kwo) horror, terror cf. teror
dashatfilma(kwo) thriller, horror film
dashat-ney(kwel) awful, frightful, dreadful syn.: foba-ney, terible
dashati(zwo) dread, be terrified/horrified
dashatisi(zwo) terrify, horrify

dashi(kwo) ambassador
dashiguan(kwo) embassy

dasin(kwo) virtue (moral excellence, an example or kind of it) cf. merita
dasin-ney(kwel) virtuous

dasta(kwo) detachment, party
avan-dasta – advanced detachment, vanguard

data(kwo) data

datsan(kwo) datsan (Buddhist monastery)

datum(kwo) date (day, month and year)

dave(kwel) bygone, distant in time, ancient, old cf. longtaim-ney
davem(komo) long ago
yo fon davem – long since, for a long time
nodave(kwel) recent
nodavem(komo) recently, not long ago, lately

de1 – 1) (konekti) of (genitive)
kitaba de toy boy – the book of that boy
jamilitaa de munda – beauty of the world
lingwa de planeta – language of the planet
raita de elekti e gei elekti – the right to elect and be elected
2) (konekti) of (partialness – optional)
un pes (de) sukra – a piece of sugar
tasa (de) chay – a cup of tea
3) the name of the letter D

de…2, des…(syao) opposite action (des if before a vowel)
desharji(zwo) discharge
delodi(zwo) unload
desorganisi(zwo) disorganize

deba(kwo) debt, duty (obligation)
zwo swa-ney deba – do one's duty
debi(zwo) owe, be obliged to
Ta debi a me dwashi dolar. – He owes me $20.
Me debi a ta may jiva. – I owe my life to him.

debati(zwo) debate see also: diskusi
debata(kwo) debate

debuti(zwo) debut
debuta(kwo) debut, début

dediki(zwo) dedicate (address or inscribe to another) cf. devoti
dedika(kwo) dedication

dedukti(zwo) deduce
dedukta(kwo) deduction, conclusion
deduktive(kwel) deductive

defekta(kwo) defect, flaw, impairment
defekte (defekta-ney)(kwel) flawed, imperfect, defective

defensi(zwo) defend
defensa(kwo) defence
defense (defensa-ney)(kwel) defensive

defini(zwo) define, give the definition of
defina(kwo) definition

deflui(zwo) flow away, rush from see: de…2, flui
defluisa(kwo) ebb, reflux
afluisa e defluisa – flow and ebb

defolta(kwo) default (original settings)

deformi(zwo) deform, put out of shape
pa deformi-ney inglish – in broken English
deforma(kwo) deformity
deformitura(kwo) deformation

degami(zwo) divorce see: de…2, gami
degama(kwo) divorce

degenerati(zwo) degenerate, undergo degeneration
degenerata(kwo) degeneration

degenerative(kwel) degenerative

degradi(zwo) degrade, debase
degrada(kwo) degradation

dek(kwo) (ship’s) deck

dekadi(zwo) be decadent, be in state of decay, decline (physically or morally)
dekada(kwo) decadence, decline

dekan – 1) (kwo) dean (senior official in college)
2) (zwo) stop looking at, take one's eyes off see: de…2, kan

dekapisi(zwo) decapitate see: de…2, kapa
dekapisa(kwo) decapitation

deklami(zwo) declaim
deklama(kwo) declamation

deklari(zwo) declare
deklara(kwo) declaration

deklini(zwo) deflect; decline (gram., phys. astr.)
deklina(kwo) deflection, declination

dekori(zwo) decorate, make decor syn.: orni
dekora(kwo) decoration; decor

dela(kwo) affair, business, case, issue, matter
bu es may dela – that is none of my business
dela go hao – the affair goes well
prave dela – just/righteous cause
fai dela kun – deal with, have to do with

delegi(zwo) delegate
delega(kwo) delegation (act)
delegasion(kwo) delegation (group of people)
delegiwan(kwo) delegate

delfin(kwo) dolphin

delikate(kwel) delicate, fine

delir(kwo) delirium, ravings
deliri(zwo) be delirious, rave
delir-ney(kwel) delirious

demandi(zwo) demand (claim, request or ask forcefully)
demanda(kwo) demand (claim; desire to purchase goods; request for some product)

demision(kwo) resignation, retirement
demisioni(zwo) resign, retire

demokratia(kwo) democracy
demokratike(kwel) democratic
demokratisi(zwo) democratize
demokratisa(kwo) democratization
demokratier (demokrat)(kwo) democrat

demon(kwo) demon (evil spirit)

demonstri(zwo) demonstrate
demonstra(kwo) demonstration
demonstre (demonstra-ney)(kwo) demonstrative
demonstrasion(kwo) demonstration (public display of group opinion)

den(gramatika) optional accusative particle
Den se me he zwo yo. – This I have done already.

denadi(zwo) despair see: de…2, nadi
denada(kwo) despair

dense(kwel) dense
dense shulin – dense forest
dense tuman – dense fog
densifi (fa-dense)(zwo) become dense
densisi (mah-dense)(zwo) make dense, condense
densitaa(kwo) density
densika(kwo) thicket
nodense(kwel) thin, sparse, rarefied cf. dine
nodensifa(kwo) rarefaction

denta(kwo) tooth; prong
diki denta – show/bare one's teeth
shwo tra denta – say between one's teeth
dentista(kwo) dentist
dentagron(kwo) tusk

dentaflesh(kwo) gum (in mouth) see: denta, flesh

departi(zwo) depart, leave (a koysa – for smth) ant.: arivi
me departi a Rusia – I am leaving for Russia
departa(kwo) departure

depatmen(kwo) department

dependi(zwo) depend (fon koysa/koywan – on smth/smb)
Fon hu se dependi? – On whom does it depend?
dependa(kwo) dependence
nodependa(kwo) independence
rekoni nodependa – to recognize the independence
nodepende (nodependa-ney)(kwel) independent

depo(kwo) depot, store, storehouse
depo-shamba(kwo) storeroom; pantry

depon(zwo) take off, lay off, put off see: de…2, pon
Depon ba palto! – Take off the coat!

depos(konekti) since, starting from cf. fon1
depos toy dey – since that day
me es hir depos klok shi – I have been here since ten o'clock
depos dan – since then
depos nau – from now on, henceforth
depos longtaim – long since

depresion(kwo) depression (psychology, economy)

deri(zwo) delay; linger cf. ajorni
deri spira – hold one's breath
dera(kwo) delay

derivi(zwo) derive
deriva(kwo) derivation
derivi-ney(kwel) derivative, derived
derivitura(kwo) derivative

derma(kwo) skin, hide
tumderma-ney(kwel) swarthy, dark-skinned
dedermisi(zwo) skin, flay, excoriate

des…(syao) opposite action see: de…2

desapari(zwo) disappear, vanish see: des…, apari
desapara(kwo) disappearance

desemba(kwo) December also: mes-shi-dwa

desendi(zwo) descend, go down syn.: go nich ant.: asendi
desendi kaval – dismount a horse
desendi sulam – go downstairs
kamina desendi a riva – the road descends to the river
desenda(kwo) descent

deser(kwo) dessert

deserti(zwo) desert (abandon, withdraw)
deserter(kwo) deserter

desidi(zwo) decide
desida(kwo) decision

desinfekti(zwo) desinfect

deskovri(zwo) discover
deskovra(kwo) discovery

deskribi(zwo) describe
deskriba(kwo) description

desne(kwel) right (not left) ant.: lefte
desna(kwo) right, right side
a desna(loko-komo) (to the) right
Kan a desna! – Look right!
Hir treba turni a desna. – Here one should turn right.
desnen(konekti-komo) at the right (of)
May dom es desnen. – My house is at the right.
Desnen dom ye garden. – There is a garden to the right of the house.

despota(kwo) despot

destini(zwo) destine
destina(kwo) destination (ultimate purpose for which smth is created or intended) cf. safara-gola

destrukti(zwo) destroy syn.: nihilisi
destrukta(kwo) destruction
destruktive(kwel) destructive, disruptive

detal(kwo) detail
detal-ney(kwel) detailed
detal-nem(komo) in detail
detalisi(zwo) detail
detalisa(kwo) detailing

detekti(zwo) detect
detekta(kwo) detection
detekter(kwo) detector

detektif(kwo) detective

determini(zwo) determine (establish or ascertain definitely, give direction to, fix the limits of)
determina(kwo) determination (but not resolution) cf. resolutitaa

developi(zwo) develop
developa(kwo) development

devisa(kwo) motto

devori(zwo) devour

devoti(zwo) devote cf. dediki
devoti swa a koysa/koywan – to devote oneself to smth/smb
devoti-ney(kwel) devoted
devota(kwo) devotion (act of devoting or the state of being devoted)

dey(kwo) day (in all meanings) ant.: nocha
deyfan(kwo) midday meal; dinner
lumadey(kwo) daylight, daytime
bugundey(kwo) day free from work, day off, rest-day
festadey(kwo) holiday, day of celebration
gundey(kwo) working day, workday
janmadey(kwo) birthday
hao dey! – good day!
fa-dey – it is dawning, day is breaking
fa-deysa(kwo) dawn, daybreak

diabla(kwo) devil, fiend (Satan or demon) see also: bes, satan
Pa diabla! – What the devil!

diagnos(kwo) diagnosis
diagnosi(zwo) diagnose

diagonale(kwel) diagonal
diagonala(kwo) diagonal

diagrama(kwo) diagram

dialekta(kwo) dialect

dialoga(kwo) dialogue

diamanta(kwo) diamond

diametra(kwo) diameter

diarea(kwo) diarrhoea

diba(kwo) bottom (the lowest part) cf. popa
mar diba – sea bottom

dieta(kwo) diet, ration

difusi(zwo) diffuse
difusa(kwo) diffusion (but not prolixity)

digesti(zwo) digest (physiol.)
digesta(kwo) digestion

digne(kwel) dignified, stately
dignitaa(kwo) dignity

diki(zwo) show, display
diki lisan a leker – show one's tongue to the doctor
diki suy joisa – show one's joy
dikifinga(kwo) index finger
dika(kwo) showing, demonstration
diker(kwo) pointer, indicator
oradiker(kwo) hour hand
minutadiker(kwo) minute hand

dikiwinda(kwo) shop window

diktat(kwo) diktat, dictate (command)
diktati(zwo) dictate (impose, order)
diktater(kwo) dictator
diktatura(kwo) dictatorship

dikti(zwo) dictate (say or read aloud)
dikter(kwo) announcer
diktura(kwo) dictation (school excercise)

dilim(kwo) slice, clove
luna-dilim – crescent also: luna-orak

dimension(kwo) dimension

dinamika(kwo) dynamics
dinamike(kwel) dynamic

dine(kwel) thin (about size) ant.: grose cf. nodense

diploma(kwo) diploma

diplomatia(kwo) diplomacy
diplomatike(kwel) diplomatic

direksion(kwo) direction (path, course) cf. diriging

direkte(kwel) direct (not indirect) cf. rekte
direkte kontakta – direct contact
direktem(komo) directly; straightforwardly syn.: ga, rek

direktor(kwo) director (person chosen to control or govern the affairs of an institution or corporation)
direktor de skola – director of a school

dirigi(zwo) direct (aim at; manage, control)
fa-dirigi(zwo) make one’s way (to), direct one’s steps, head
diriging(kwo) directing; direction (guidance; the skill of directing a film, play etc.) cf. direksion

disain(kwo) design (shape, appearance, plan for the structure and functions)
disaini(zwo) design, lay out, make a design
disainer(kwo) designer

disasta(kwo) disaster, calamity, catastrophe cf. beda

disekti(zwo) dissect, anatomize
disekta(kwo) dissection

disertasion(kwo) dissertation see also: tesa

dish(kwo) dish (the vessel or its contents) syn.: pyata

disipi(zwo) dissipate, squander, waste ant.: ekonomi, spari
disipi jiva – live fast, lead a dissipated life
disipa(kwo) dissipation, squander, waste

disipla(kwo) disciple ant.: guru, talimer

disiplina(kwo) discipline (behaviour control)

diska(kwo) disk

diskrete(kwel) discrete, discontinuous

diskusi(zwo) discuss see also: debati
diskusa(kwo) discussion

disposi(zwo) dispose (arrange; have at one’s disposal)
disposa(kwo) disposition, disposal (positioning; control)

disputi(zwo) argue, spar, bicker
disputa(kwo) dispute, controversy
disputibile(kwel) disputable, arguable
disputnik(kwo) debater, squabbler
prais-disputnik – haggler

distansia(kwo) distance cf. dalitaa

distili(zwo) distil
distila(kwo) distillation
distiler(kwo) distiller

distinti(zwo) distinguish
fa-distinti in batala – distinguish oneself in action
distinta(kwo) distinction
fai distinta inter koysa e koysa – make difference between smth and smth
distinte (distinta-ney)(kwel) distinct
distintive(kwel) distinctive

distrati(zwo) distract, divert
distrata(kwo) distraction, diversion; (fig.) absence of mind
distraten (distrati-ney), distratishil(kwel) absent-minded

distribu(zwo) distribute
distribusa(kwo) distribution

disturbi(zwo) disturb, trouble, bother, unsettle, put out of order
disturba(kwo) disturbance

diva(kwo) miracle, marvel, wonder
diva yok – no wonder
diva-ney(kwel) marvellous, wonderful
divi(zwo) wonder, marvel, look with amazement

divan(kwo) divan (sofa)

diverse(kwel) diverse, sundry, several, various
diversitaa(kwo) diversity, variety, multiplicity

dividi(zwo) divide
shi-dwa dividi bay char es tri – twelve divided by four is three
divida(kwo) dividing, division (act) cf. division

division(kwo) division (military formation) cf. divida

do(konekti) precedes a specific characteristic distinctive feature, or destination of object
gela do grin okos – green-eyed girl
jen do lignagamba – a man with a wooden leg
sikin do kalam – penknife
okula do surya – sun spectacles
bota do parus – sailing boat
auto do mil dolar – a car for 1000 dollars
es kosa do ridi – this is ridiculous

docha(kwo) daughter cf. son

dodo(kwo) dodo (extinct bird)

doga(kwo) dog
man-doga (dogo)(kwo) male dog
gin-doga (dogina)(kwo) bitch, female dog
yundoga(kwo) pup, puppy

doh(exklami) (in response to a negative question or statement) yes; oh yes; on the contrary, quite the contrary syn.: kontrem
Also yu bu lai? - Doh! – So you won't come? - Oh, yes, I will!

doiche – 1) (kwel) German (relating to ethnicity, language or country)
2) (kwo) German (person of German ethnicity)
3) (kwo) German language

Doichland(kwo) Germany
Doichland-jen(kwo) inhabitant/citizen of Germany

do-janma-ney(kwel) innate, inborn, inherent, native

dok(kwo) dock (in port)
doker(kwo) docker
doki(kwo) dock

doktor(kwo) doctor (holder of a doctorate; physician) see also: leker

doktrina(kwo) doctrine

dokumenta(kwo) document
dokumenti(zwo) document
dokumentale(kwel) documental

dol(kwo) dale, vale

dolar(kwo) dollar
auto do mil dolar – a car for 1000 dollars

dolche(kwel) sweet
dolchevos-ney – having a sweet voice
dolchitaa(kwo) sweetness, sweet (basic taste sensation)
dolcha, dolchika(kwo) sweet (smth sweet)

dom(kwo) house; home syn.: hom
me es pa dom – I am at home
chu dom – to leave home
treba go a dom – we should go home
domlik(kwel) home, cozy
domyuan(kwo) member of household
dom-masta – householder
banidom(kwo) bath-house
forjidom(kwo) smithy, forge
grendom(kwo) granary, barn
melidom(kwo) mill
mifendom(kwo) hive
furmidom(kwo) anthill

domen(kwo) domain, sphere; domain (computing)

domini(zwo) dominate; wield
domini auditoria – hold one's audience
domini tema – be master of one's subject
domini kalam – wield a skilful pen
domini garibe lingwa – have a good command of a foreign language
domini swa – possess oneself
domini-she(kwel) dominant, dominating
domina(kwo) domination

domino(kwo) domino

domisi(zwo) domesticate

doni(zwo) give as a gift; donate; make a present cf. dai
dona(kwo) gift, present; donation
dona de shwosa – gift of speech
donakin(kwo) sop; tip
donishil(kwel) generous, unstinting
donishiltaa(kwo) generosity

dosa(kwo) dose

dosh(kwo) vice, defect, flaw ant.: merita
dosh-ney(kwel) vicious

dosile(kwel) docile

doti(zwo) endow; furnish a dowry
dota(kwo) dowry, endowment; gift, talent, endowment
dotika(kwo) dowry (payment or property)
sindotnik(kwo) person without talent

dragon(kwo) dragon cf. lung

draka(kwo) scuffle, tussle, fight

drama(kwo) drama

dranga(kwo) pressure, stress, force, push, dash; urge, drive
por dranga de halat – through force of circumstances
dranga fo libritaa – drive for freedom
drangi(zwo) urge, hustle, press, force
fa-drangi(zwo) jostle, hustle, crowd
fa-drangi tra jenmenga – thrust one’s way through the crowd
dranging(kwo) crush, jam, squash

drastike(kwel) drastic
drastike shanja – drastic alterations
drastike meja – drastic measures

drega(kwo) dregs (also fig.)

dreni(zwo) drain, draw off liquid
dreni-tuba – drain, drain pipe
drena, drenaja(kwo) drainage

drimi(zwo) dream (hope, wish, daydream) cf. sonji
drima(kwo) dream (hope, wish, cherished desire), daydream
drimnik(kwo) (day)dreamer
drime (drima-ney)(komo) dreamy, pensive
drimem (drima-nem)(komo) dreamily, musingly

drir(kwel) uncompromising, steadfast, firm, unflinching, inflexible, unbending

drole(kwel) funny, amusing

droni(zwo) drown; sink
dronijen, droni-ney jen(kwo) drowned man
mah-droni(zwo) drown (deprive of life)
mah swa droni – drown oneself

dros(kwo) thrush (bird)
gana-dros – song-thrush

duan(kwo) segment, section, piece
laste daoduan – last section/length of road
taimduan(kwo) space of time
studi-duan – semester (term of an academic year)

dubi(zwo) doubt, question
duba(kwo) doubt
dubival(kwel) doubtful, dubious, questionable
sin duba, duba yok – undoubtedly, no doubt

dubli(zwo) dub (a film)

duda(kwo) pipe (music) cf. flauta, pipa, tuba
dudi(zwo) play the pipe

duel(kwo) duel
dueli(zwo) duel

duhi(zwo) anguish
duha(kwo) anguish, misery, distress
duhaful(kwel) agonizing, distressing, trying

duka(kwo) duke / duchess
duko(kwo) duke
dukina(kwo) duchess

dukan – boutique, shop syn.: shop

dukti(zwo) lead (guide or conduct), conduct (manage, carry on) cf. kondukti
dukti kinda bay handa – lead a child by the hand
dukti auto – drive/steer a car
baum-alee dukti a dom – alley of trees leads to the house
se mog dukti a bade sekwitura – this may lead to bad consequences
dukti leson – conduct a lesson
dukti elekti-kampania – conduct an election campaign

dulari(zwo) coddle, pamper, fondle

dule(kwel) tender (affectionate)
dulitaa(kwo) tenderness

dulha(kwo) fiancée/bride or fiancé/bridegroom syn.: gamer
dulho(kwo) fiancé/bridegroom
dulhina(kwo) fiancée/bride
dulhifa(kwo) betrothal

dumi(zwo) think
me dumi ke … – I think that …
en-dumi(zwo) begin to think
duma(kwo) thought, idea
dumishil(kwel) thoughtful
duming(kwo) thinking
dumi-shem(komo) thoughtfully, meditatively

dun(kwo) hole (opening; hollow)
baum dun – tree hollow
dun-ney(kwel) having a hole; full of holes
duni(zwo) hole
duner(kwo) puncher; holer
butondun(kwo) buttonhole
nosdun(kwo) nostril
dunbartan(kwo) colander
dunmuh(kwo) mouth of hole

duna(kwo) dune

duran(konekti) during
duran laste dwa yar – in the course of the last two years
duran leksia – during the lecture
duran to, duranem(taim-komo) meanwhile
duran ke(konekti) while

duri(zwo) last (continue, endure)
dura(kwo) duration

durte(kwel) sly, cunning, wily
durtitaa(kwo) cunning; slyness
nodurte(kwel) artless, simple-hearted, ingenuous; naive
durta (durto, durtina)(kwo) cunning person (man, woman)

dus…(syao) "bad, mal-, ill-"
fauha – smell   ⇒   dusfauha – fetor, stench
trati – to treat   ⇒   dustrati – to maltreat
dusfama-ney – ill-famed
dustaim – bad times
dussigne (dussigna-ney) – ill-omened, sinister
pa dusfortuna – by ill luck
dus-ney(kwel) bad, ill, evil, foul

dusha(kwo) shower (bath)
fai dusha – take a shower

dushman(kwo) enemy
dushman-ney, dushmanlik(kwel) hostile, inimical
dushmantaa(kwo) enmity, hostility

dushte(kwel) malicious spiteful cf. bade, buhao
dushtitaa(kwo) malice, spite

dusproba(kwo) trial, ordeal see: dus…, proba
subi dusproba – undergo an ordeal

duyfu(zwo) cope with, manage, overcome, deal effectively
duyfu gunsa – cope with work
nu ve duyfu se – we'll cope with that
duyfu sin koysa – do without smth, manage without smth

duza(kwo) belly, abdomen cf. stomak

duzashwo(zwo) ventriloquize see: duza, shwo
duzashwoer(kwo) ventriloquist

dwa(kwanto) two (2) see also: nol, un, tri, char, pet, sit, sem, ot, nin, shi, sto, mil
li dwa jen – the two of them, they both
nu toki ba pa dwa jen – let the two of us have a talk
mah-dwa(zwo) bisect, divide into two
fa-dwa(zwo) become double; bifurcate
dwafen(kwanto) half
un (de) dwafen – one half
dwaple(kwel) double, dual; twofold
dwaplem(komo) doubly
dwaplem santush – doubly glad
dwapla(kwo) double (twice the number, amount, etc.)
dwashi(kwanto) twenty
dwasto(kwanto) two hundred
dwa-ney(kwel) second
dwa-nem(komo) secondly
dwanik(kwo) (smb's) double
dwaka(kwo) two
Skribi dwaka. – Write the figure two.

dwadi(kwo) Tuesday also: marsadi see also: undi, tridi, chardi, petdi, sitdi, semdi

dwapunta(kwo) colon (punctuation mark)

dwar(kwo) door
klefi dwar – lock the door
bakdwar(kwo) back door
dwaryuan(kwo) doorkeeper, doorman


e – 1) (unisi) and see also: i
Me pri rasmi e gani. – I like to draw and sing.
Me pri rasmi e lu pri gani. – I like to draw, and he likes to sing.
2) the name of the letter E

edikta(kwo) edict, decree, ukase

editi(zwo) publish (a book, a paper), print cf. redakti
edita(kwo) edition
un-ney edita – the first edition

eduki(zwo) bring up, educate, breed
hao eduki-ney – well-bred, well-mannered, well brought up
eduka(kwo) upbringing

efthe name of the letter F

efekta(kwo) effect
efektive(kwel) efficacious, effective
efektivitaa(kwo) effectiveness, efficacy, efficaciousness

efemere(kwel) ephemeral syn.: kway-pasi-ke

eforti(zwo) make/exert effort
eforta(kwo) effort

egale(kwel) equal
es egale a me – it's all the same to me, it doesn't matter to me
egale geim – draw (game)
egalem(komo) equally
egalitaa(kwo) equality
egalisi(zwo) equalize
egalsenta-ney(kwel) indifferent, not caring

egla(kwo) leech

ego(kwo) ego
egoisma(kwo) egoism
egoista(kwo) egoist
egoistike(kwo) egoistic

eho(kwo) echo

ejekti(zwo) eject
ejekta(kwo) ejection

ek-(syao) "one time or suddenly" (single or momentary action) cf. en-2
tuki – to knock   ⇒   ek-tuki – to give a knock
salti – to jump   ⇒   ek-salti – to jump up

ekinoxa(kwo) equinox
oton-ekinoxa – autumnal equinox
vesna-ekinoxa – vernal equinox

ekipi(zwo) equip
ekipa(kwo) equipment
ekiping(kwo) equipping

eklipsa(kwo) eclipse

ekologia(kwo) ecology
ekologike(kwel) ecological
eko-(syao) denotes ecology or ecological

ekonomi(zwo) economize syn.: spari ant.: disipi
ekonoming(kwo) economizing, economization
ekonoma(kwo) economy (sparing use or example/result of it)
ekonoma-ney(kwel) economical (prudent; intended to save money) economy (economical or inexpensive to buy or use)

ekonomia(kwo) economics; economy (management; system of production)
ekonomike(kwel) economic
ekonomista(kwo) economist

ekran(kwo) screen (viewing area) cf. shirma

eksiti(zwo) excite (arouse, incite, rouse, provoke)
eksita(kwo) excitation

ekwator(kwo) equator

el1the name of the letter L

el-2abbr. for elektre

ela(inplas-kwo) she; her see also: me, yu, lu, it, ta, nu, li
Ela es jamile. – She is handsome.
Lu lubi ela. – He loves her.
Lu doni flor a ela. – He gives flowers to her.
elay (ela-ney)(inplas-kwel) her see also: suy, ta-ney
Lu pri elay smaila. – He likes her smile.

elabori(zwo) elaborate (work out with care and detail)
elabora(kwo) elaboration

Elada(kwo) Greece

elastike(kwel) elastic see also: upruge

elay(inplas-kwel) her short form of ela-ney

elefanta(kwo) elefant
elefanto(kwo) male elefant
elefantina(kwo) female elefant

elegante(kwel) elegant
elegansia(komo) elegance

elekti(zwo) elect, select by vote
elekta(kwo) election

elektre(kwel) electric, electrical also: el-
el-ketla – electric kettle
elektritaa(kwo) electricity
elektrisi(zwo) electrify
elektriser(kwo) electrizer
elektrifi(zwo) electrify (intr.), become electric
elektrisa, elektrifa(kwo) electrization

elektronika(kwo) electronics
elektronike(kwel) electronic

elementa(kwo) element
elementare(kwel) elementary

elin – 1) (kwel) Greek (relating to ethnicity, language or country)
2) (kwo) Greek (person of Greek ethnicity)
3) (kwo) the Greek language

elipsa(kwo) ellipse

elita(kwo) elite
elita-ney(kwel) elite

elixir(kwo) elixir

eludi(zwo) elude, evade see also: eviti
eludive(kwel) elusive
eluda(kwo) evasion, elusion

emthe name of the letter M

emal(kwo) enamel

embrasi(zwo) embrace, hug
embrasa(kwo) embrace, hug

embrio(kwo) embryo

emerji(zwo) emerge (from a liquid); (fig.) rise into view
emerja(kwo) emersion, emergence

emfasi(zwo) emphasize, stress, single out as important see also: aksenti
emfasa(kwo) emphasis

eminente(kwel) eminent, distinguished, notable

emisi(zwo) emit
emisa(kwo) emission

emosion(kwo) emotion

empatia(kwo) empathy

emploi(zwo) employ (give work/job)
emploier(kwo) employer
emploiyuan (yuan)(kwo) employee
emploisa(kwo) employment
noemploisa(kwo) unemployment

en1the name of the letter N

en-2(syao) "begin" (beginning of action) cf. ek-
somni – to sleep   ⇒   en-somni – to fall asleep
lubi – to love   ⇒   en-lubi – to fall in love
jan – to know   ⇒   en-jan – to get to know, find out

energetika(kwo) energetics

energia(kwo) energy
energike(kwel) energetic, energy

eni, eni…(inplas-kwel) any
Eni kinda mog zwo se. – Any child can do this.
in eni kasu (enikas) – in any case
enikomo(inplas-komo) in any way, anyhow see: komo
Yu mog zwo se kom yu yao. Yu mog zwo se enikomo. – You may do it as you like. You may do it in any way.
Yu mus zwo se enikomo. – You must do it anyhow.
enilok(inplas-komo) anywhere, at any place see: lok
Me bu remembi a wo me he pon may kalam. It mog bi enilok. – I don't remember where I've put my pencil. It may be anywhere.
Yu mog pon yur bao a enilok. – You may put your bag wherever you like.
enisa(inplas-kwo) anything
Yu mog kuki enisa ke yu yao. – You can cook whatever you like.
enitaim(inplas-komo) anytime see: taim
Yu mog lai enitaim. Me sempre joi al vidi yu. – You may come anytime. I am always glad to see you.
enives(taim-komo) ever (at any time) see: ves
Ob yu enives lekti sey kitaba? – Have you ever read this book?
eniwan(inplas-kwo) anyone see: wan
Kada jen yao bi felise. Kwesti ba eniwan. – Every person wants to be happy. Ask anyone.

enkarga(kwo) errand, commission, order
enkargi(zwo) commission (with), charge (with)
enkargi koysa an koywan – charge smb with smth
enkargi koywan zwo koysa – charge smb to do smth
Molya enkargi me kupi pan. – My wife told me to buy bread.


enkla(kwo) ankle

enoi(zwo) be bored, feel dull, have a tedious time cf. tedi
enoisa(kwo) boredom, ennui
enoisaful(kwel) boring, dull

ensiklopedia(kwo) encyclopedia
ensiklopedike(kwel) encyclopedic

envi(zwo) envy
envi koywan – to envy smb
enva(kwo) envy
envishil(kwel) envious
envival(kwel) enviable

epidemia(kwo) epidemic
epidemike(kwel) epidemic

epilepsia(kwo) epilepsy
epileptike(kwel) epileptic

episoda(kwo) episode
episodike(kwel) episodic; occasional

epoka(kwo) epoch
Mide Epoka(kwo) Middle Ages

erthe name of the letter R

era(kwo) era

ergo(unisi) consequently see also: also

ermina(kwo) ermine

erupti(zwo) erupt
erupta(kwo) eruption
erupta de vulkan – the eruption of a volcano

es – 1) (zwo) is, are, am (the present tense of bi)
Ela es jamile. – She is handsome.
(Se) es kitaba. – This is a book.
Se es yo zwo-ney. – This is already done.
2) the name of the letter S

esensia(kwo) essence (phys. and metaphys.) cf. substansa, substansia
esensiale(kwel) essential (showing essence; of high importance; also biochem.)

eskadra(kwo) squadron

eskapi(zwo) escape
eskapa(kwo) escape

eskorta(kwo) escort
eskorti(zwo) escort

Espania(kwo) Spain
Espania-jen(kwo) inhabitant/citizen of Spain

espaniol – 1) (kwel) Spanish (relating to ethnicity, language or country)
2) (kwo) Spanish (person of Spanish ethnicity)
3) (kwo) Spanish language

esperanto(kwo) Esperanto
esperanto-ney(kwel) Esperantist (of, relating to, or characteristic of Esperanto)
esperantista(kwo) Esperantist (speaker of/specialist in Esperanto)

esta(kwo) east see also: norda, suda, westa
este (esta-ney)(kwel) east, eastern; oriental
este feng – east wind
esten(konekti-komo) to the east, east of
urba es esten – the town is to the east
esten urba ye shulin – forest is east of the town

establi(zwo) establish (set up, bring into force, settle) syn.: fundi

estepa(kwo) steppe

estriba(kwo) stirrup syn.: raidi-pedika

etaja(kwo) storey cf. poda
uuparetaja(kwo) upper floor
char-etaja-ney dom – four-storey house

eter(kwo) ether

eterne(kwel) eternal, everlasting

etfabbr. of e tak for (and so on)

etiket(kwo) etiquette

etna(kwo) ethnic group
etnike(kwel) ethnic

Eurasia(kwo) Eurasia

eureka(exklami) eureka

euro(kwo) euro
tri euro petshi sentu – three euros fifty cents

Europa(kwo) Europe
Europa-ney(kwel) European
Europa-jen(kwo) European (person living or originating from Europe)

evalu(zwo) evaluate, estimate
evalusa(kwo) evaluation, estimate

eventi(zwo) happen, occur, take place
Kwo eventi? – What's happened?
Kwo eventi-te a lu? – What has happened to him?
eventa(kwo) event, occurrence

eversi(zwo) evert, turn inside out
eversa(kwo) evertion

evidente(kwel) evident, obvious
evidentem(komo) evidently
evidentisi(zwo) show with obviousness, be eloquent of

eviti(zwo) avoid see also: eludi
evita(kwo) avoiding, avoidance
evitival(kwel) which is better to avoid
buevitibile(kwel) unavoidable, inevitable
buevitibilitaa(kwo) inevitability

evolusion(kwo) evolution
evolusioni(zwo) evolve

ewalaa(unisi) (coordinating conjunction introducing new, often little expected circumstances) see: e, walaa
Ta en-chi ewalaa tro mucho pepa ye. – As he began to eat, he felt that there is too much pepper added.
Me zin shop ewalaa may amiga zai kupi pan. – When I entered the shop, I saw that my friend was buying bread.
Pa un dey saja zai prei, ewalaa orla pasi, mah-lwo maus inu saja-ney handas. Saja ofni okos ewalaa ye maus in handas. – One day when the sage was praying, an eagle happened to pass by and the eagle dropped a mouse in the hands of the sage. The sage opened his eyes, and there was a mouse in his hands.

ex-(syao) "former"
ex-mursha – ex-husband
ex-molya – ex-wife
ex-presidenta – ex-president

exakte(kwel) exact, precise
exaktem(komo) exactly, precisely
exaktitaa(kwo) exactness, precision, accuracy

examen(kwo) exam, examination (test) cf. examina
fai examen – take/have an examination
exameni(zwo) examine (determine the qualifications by means of questions or exercises)
examener(kwo) examiner

examini(zwo) examine (inspect scrutinize, study, check the condition or health of)
examina(kwo) examination cf. examen

exampla(kwo) example
fo exampla – for example

exepte(konekti) except
oli exepte me – everyone except me
exepti, fai exepta(zwo) except (specify as being an exception)
exepta(kwo) exeption

exes(kwo) excess
pa exes – to excess
exes-ney(kwel) excess

exili(zwo) exile, banish
exila(kwo) exile, banishment

existi(zwo) exist
exista(kwo) existence
en-existi(zwo) arise, start to exist, spring up
en-exista(kwo) coming into existence

exklami(zwo) exclaim
exklama(kwo) exclamation
exklami-signa – exclamation mark

exklusi(zwo) exclude
exklusa(kwo) exclusion
exklusive(kwel) exclusive

exosti(zwo) exhaust ant.: restori
exosta(kwo) exhaustion

exotika(kwo) exotics, exotica
exotike(kwel) exotic

expansi(zwo) expand (to develop in volume or surface, spread, widen, also fig.) ant.: simti
Al fa-warme, aira expansi e fa-leve. – When air warms it expands and becomes lighter.
Nuy komersa kun Jungwo expansi stay. – Our trade with China is steadily expanding.
expansa(kwo) expansion
expansive(kwel) expansive

expekti(zwo) expect
me bu he expekti vidi yu – I did not expect to see you
expekta(kwo) expectation
sobre expekta – beyond expectation

experimenta(kwo) experiment
experimentale(kwel) experimental
experimenti(zwo) experiment

experta(kwo) expert
experte (experta-ney)(kwel) expert

expiri(zwo) expire (to come to an end (of time), terminate)
expira(kwo) expiration (coming to a close, termination)

expliki(zwo) explain, explicate
explika(kwo) explanation, explication

explori(zwo) explore; reconnoiter, scout
explora(kwo) exploration; reconnaissance
explorer(kwo) explorer; scout

explosi(zwo) explode, detonate
explosa(kwo) explosion
explosive(kwel) explosive
explosika(kwo) explosives

exploti(zwo) exploit (to get the value out of; to employ to the greatest possible advantage; to make use of selfishly or unethically)
explota(kwo) exploitation

exponenta(kwo) exponent (math.)

exporti(zwo) export ant.: importi
exporta(kwo) export, exportation

exposi(zwo) expose (to subject or allow to be subjected; to set in public view, introduce to, exhibit)
exposi a riska – expose to risk
exposa(kwo) exposition (act or example of exposing; a public exhibition or show, as of artistic or industrial developments)

expres(kwo) express (smth quick, e.g. a means of transport, such as a train, that travels rapidly)
expres-kursa – an express course

expresi(zwo) express (convey meaning)
expresa(kwo) expression
expresive(kwel) expressive, full of expression

extas(kwo) ecstasy, rapture

extendi(zwo) extend, spread stretch cf. stiri, tiri
lu extendi-te gambas – he stretched out his legs
extendi nayu on pan – spread bread with butter
extendi tel inter dwa stolba – stretch the wire between two posts
extenda(kwo) extension, spread

externe(kwel) external syn.: ausen-ney ant.: interne

extirpi(zwo) extirpate, uproot; destroy wholly, eradicate, weed out

extrakti(zwo) extract, draw from/out
extrakta(kwo) extract

extreme(kwel) extreme, extremal
extremem(komo) extremely


fa- – 1) (syao-gramatika) "to get, to become"
tume – dark   ⇒   fa-tume – grow/get dark, darken
rude – red   ⇒   fa-rude – redden
gran – big   ⇒   fa-gran – get bigger, enlarge
fa-nocha – the night is coming
fa-dey – it dawns
2) (syao-gramatika) optional marker of intransitivity
astoni – to astonish   ⇒   fa-astoni – to be (become) astonished

fabrika(kwo) factory, plant, works
fabriki(zwo) fabricate, manufacture

fabula(kwo) fable; fairy-tale
fabula-ney(kwel) fabulous (of the nature of a fable; unhistorical)
fabulalik(kwel) fabulous (incredible)

fadi(zwo) fade
fading(kwo) fading

fah(kwo) field of knowledge, province, speciality
samaji swa-ney fah – understand one's business
bu es suy fah – that is out of his province, that's not in his line
lu es master de suy fah – he is an artist/virtuoso
lernifah(kwo) subject (course of study)
forjifah(kwo) blacksmithing

fai(zwo) "to do, to perform action connected with" (only in combination with nouns or adverbs)
fai interes om koysa – to take an interest in smth
en-fai interes om koysa – to become interested in smth
defai interes om koysa – to lose interest in smth
fai kasam – to make (take) a vow
fai sukses – to succeed
Me bu mog fai sin dumi om to. – I couldn’t help thinking about it.

fail(kwo) file (computer)
faildan(kwo) folder (computer)

faine(kwel) fine (very small in size, weight or thickness; refined; subtle)
faine gusta – a fine taste

fakir(kwo) fakir

fakta(kwo) fact
fakte (fakta-ney)(kwel) factual, actual
faktem (fakta-nem)(komo) in fact, actually
pa fakta = faktem

faktor(kwo) factor

fali(zwo) fail, miscarry, not to succeed
fali-ney – failed, unsuccessful
fala(kwo) failure; fiasco syn.: fiasko
sin fala – without fail, surely syn.: zaruu
pistola fai fala – pistol misfired
mah-fali(zwo) derange, foil, frustrate, wreck, bring to naught
nofalibile – certain, definite to happen
falnik(kwo) unlucky fellow/person

falkon(kwo) falcon

false(kwel) false; fake
falsitaa(kwo) falseness; falsity

falsifiki(zwo) falsify, counterfeit, forge
falsifika(kwo) falsification, forgery, counterfeit

falta(kwo) lack, shortage
falti(zwo) lack
ta falti kuraja – he/she lacks courage

fama(kwo) fame, renown; repute
fama-ney(kwel) famous, renowned

familia(kwo) family
familianam(kwo) family name

fan(kwo) food
akshamfan(kwo) evening meal; supper
deyfan(kwo) midday meal; dinner
fanshop(kwo) food store, grocery
fantabla(kwo) dinner table
sabahfan(kwo) morning meal, breakfast

fanata(kwo) fan; fanatic, zealot
fanatike(kwel) fanatical
fanatisma(kwo) fanatism

fantasia(kwo) fantasy (creative imagination; imagined event, fiction)

fantastike(kwel) fantastic
fantastika(kwo) fiction

fantom(kwo) phantom (ghost, apparition; illusion)
fantom-ney tunga – phantom pain

fanus(kwo) lantern, light
el-fanus – electric torch
fanusyuan(kwo) lamplighter

fara(kwo) headlight

farad(kwo) farad, electrical capacitance (1 F = 1 A*s/V)

Farenhait(kwo) Fahrenheit, temperature scale (used in the Bahamas, Belize, the Cayman Islands, Palau, and the USA)
petshi gradus do Farenhait – 50 degrees Fahrenheit (50 °F = 10 °C)

farfari(zwo) snort, sniff

farina(kwo) flour

farka(kwo) difference
gro-farka – great or obvious difference, contrast
farke (farka-ney)(kwel) different
farkem (farka-nem)(komo) differently
farki(zwo) differ

farmak(kwo) medicine, medicament, drug, pharmaceutical preparation cf. medisina
farmakguan(kwo) pharmacy, drugstore
farmakista, farmakyuan(kwo) pharmacist

farna(kwo) fern

farwa(kwo) fur
farwaklaida(kwo) fur clothes
farwapalto(kwo) fur coat

fas(kwo) face

fasa(kwo) phase

fasada(kwo) facade, front

faseta(kwo) facet

fasia – 1) (kwo) sheaf, bundle
luma-fasia – shaft of light
ray-fasia – sheaf of rays
kula-fasia – cone of bullets
2) (kwo) fascia (connective tissue)

fasile(kwel) easy, taking little effort ant.: mushkile
bu es mushkile, es ga fasile – it is not difficult, it is quite easy
fasilem(komo) easily
fasilitaa(kwo) easiness
mah-fasile(zwo) facilitate, make easy or easier

fasol(kwo) haricot (plant or its bean)

fasta(kwo) fast (abstaining from food)
granfasta(kwo) Lent
fasti(zwo) fast

fata(kwo) fate, doom cf. kisma, lot

fatale(kwel) fatal

fatigi(zwo) get tired; make weary
fatiga(kwo) tiredness, weariness, fatigue
fatige (fatiga-ney)(kwel) weary, tired
fatigen (fatigi-ney)(kwel) tired, fatigued
fatigi-she(kwel) tiresome
sinfatige (sinfatiga-ney)(kwel) tireless, indefatigable

fatom(kwo) Fathom (naut. unit of length, 1 fm = 6 ft = 1,8288 m)

fauha(kwo) smell, odour
fauhi(zwo) smell (to have a smell; to sense a smell)
fauhing, fauhisens(kwo) sense of smell
dusfauha(kwo) fetor, stench, stink
dusfauhi(zwo) stink, reek

faula(kwo) bird
yunfaula(kwo) baby bird

faulafobika(kwo) scarecrow see: faula, fobi

favor(kwo) favour (an approving attitude, good will; an act performed out of good will, generosity, or mercy)
pregi koywan om favor – ask someone for a favour
favori(zwo) favour (treat or regard with kindness, befriend)
favori-she(kwel) favourable

favorite(kwel) favourite syn.: preferi-ney
favorita(kwo) favourite

fax(kwo) fax
faxi (fai fax)(zwo) fax

feble(kwel) weak, feeble
feblem(komo) weakly
feblisi (mah-feble)(zwo) weaken, enfeeble, make weaker
feblifi (fa-feble)(zwo) weaken, become weaker
febli(zwo) weaken (tr./intr.)
feblitaa(kwo) weakness

feble-menta-ney(kwel) weak-minded, feeble-minded

febra(kwo) fever
febra-ney(kwel) feverish, febrile

februar(kwo) February also: mes-dwa

federasion(kwo) federation
federasion-ney(kwel) federal

fek(kwo) feces, excrement syn.: kaka
fekale(kwel) fecal
feki(zwo) defecate
feking(kwo) defecation

felda(kwo) field cf. agra
felda de akting – field of action
magnetfelda(kwo) magnetic field
feldakin(kwo) glade, clearing

felise(kwel) happy
mah-felise(zwo) make happy
felisitaa(kwo) happiness

felta(kwo) felt

femina(kwo) female
femine (femina-ney)(kwel) female
feminasexu(kwo) female sex
feminum(kwo) feminine gender (gramm.)
feminisma(kwo) feminism
feminista(kwo) feminist

…fen(gramatika) forms fractions
un (de) trifen – one third
sem shifen – seven tenths
tri stofen – three hundredths
pet otfen – five eighths
charfen (de) ora – a quarter of an hour

fendi(zwo) split (lengthwise), slit, cleave

feng(kwo) wind
gro-feng – strong wind, gale
fengi(zwo) blow (about wind)
Sedey fengi gro. – There is a strong wind today.
fenging(kwo) air current, draught
befenger(kwo) fan (cooling device)

fenomen(kwo) phenomenon
fenomenale(kwel) phenomenal

fenshan(kwo) customs, manners, morals

fenshu(kwo) mark, grade (assessment)

fer(kwo) iron cf. yunda
ferka(kwo) an iron thing; piece of iron
ferdao(kwo) railway

feri(kwo) ferry, ferryboat

ferma(kwo) farm

fermenta(kwo) ferment (as yeast, leaven)
fermenti(zwo) ferment
fermenting(kwo) fermentation

ferose(kwel) fierce, ferocious syn.: brutale, kruele

festa(kwo) holiday, celebration, festivities
festi(zwo) celebrate
festike(kwel) celebratory
festing(kwo) celebration
festachia(kwo) feast

festival(kwo) festival

fet(kwo) fat; grease
fet-ney(kwel) fat; fatty; greasy
swina-fet – lard
fet-baka – fat(ty) tail (of certain breeds of sheep)
feti(zwo) fatten

feya(kwo) fairy

fiasko(kwo) fiasco, complete failure syn.: fala
fai fiasko – have a fiasco

fibra(kwo) fibre, fiber

fidele(kwel) faithful, staunch, loyal
fidelitaa(kwo) fidelity, loyalty, staunchness

fidi(zwo) trust, confide in, have faith in; rely on
fidi sol a swa selfa – rely only on oneself
fida(kwo) confidence, trust, faith
nofida(kwo) distrust
nofidem (nofida-nem)(komo) with distrust, distrustfully, mistrustfully
fidival(kwel) trustworthy, reliable, dependable
fidishil(kwel) trusting, trustful

figa(kwo) fig (bot.)
figabaum(kwo) fig-tree

figura(kwo) figure (outside form, shape of a body; appearance, representation; also geom.); chessman, chesspiece
figuri(zwo) figure (to be pertinent or involved, appear) cf. kalkuli, konti

fiktia(kwo) fiction (imaginative creation, fabrication, invention)
fiktike(kwel) fictitious; fake, sham

fila(kwo) row, line; queue, file (a line of persons or things)
fai fila – stand in line (in a queue)

filma(kwo) film (medium used to capture images; motion picture) see also: kino cf. pelikula
filmi(zwo) film, shoot (record)
filming(kwo) shooting

filosofia(kwo) philosophy
fai filosofia – philosophize
filosofike(kwel) philosophical
filosofier(kwo) philosopher

filu(kwo) thread

fin, fin… – 1) (kwo) end
al fin – at the end
pa fin – finally, in the end
til fin – up to the end
ob es fin? – is that all?
fin-ney(kwel) final; finite
fin-nem(komo) finally
nofin-ney(kwel) endless, infinite
nofintaa(kwo) infinity, endlessness
fini(zwo) end, be over; finish
olo kel fini hao es hao – all is well that ends well
fa-fini pa – end up
Nu fa-fini pa draki. – We ended up fighting.

finika(kwo) ending (gram.)
2) (syao) "to the end"
lekti – read   ⇒   finlekti – read to the end
chi – eat   ⇒   finchi – eat to the end
zwo – do   ⇒   finzwo – finish doing, complete

final(kwo) final (last contest), finale

finansa(kwo) finance, finances
finansa-ney(kwel) financial
finansi(zwo) finance
finansing(kwo) financing

findi(zwo) find
findi swa – find oneself
ta he findi swa sole – he found himself alone
finda(kwo) find

finga(kwo) finger; toe; digit
bay finga nok – by fingertips
granfinga(kwo) thumb
dikifinga(kwo) forefinger
midfinga(kwo) middle finger
halkafinga(kwo) ring-finger
syaofinga(kwo) little finger
pedafinga(kwo) toe
on pedafinga – on tiptoe
fingadan(kwo) thimble

Finland – Finland also: Suomi

firma(kwo) firm (business or company)

fish(kwo) fish
fish-sup – fish soup
fishi(zwo) fish
fisher(kwo) fisherman
fishing(kwo) fishing
fishistik(kwo) fishing rod
fishika(kwo) fishing tackle

fishgina(kwo) mermaid see: fish, gina

fisika(kwo) physics
fisike(kwel) physical
fisiker(kwo) physicist

fiti(zwo) fit, be of the right size; suit (to accord with) see also: godi
palto fiti hao – the coat fits well
mah-fiti(zwo) make fit, adjust

fitil(kwo) wick, fuse

fixi(zwo) fix, fasten
fixing(kwo) fixation
fixika(kwo) fastener
fixe (fixi-ney)(kwel) fixed, fastened
fixem (fixi-nem)(komo) fixedly, steadfastly
kan fixem – stare

flaga(kwo) flag
lifti (fai uupar) flaga – hoist/raise a flag
flagastanga(kwo) flagstaff
flagakin(kwo) small flag, pennon, pennant, bannerette

flai(zwo) fly
flaisa(kwo) flight
al flaisa – in flight, in the air, on the wing
en-flai(zwo) fly up, take off
en-flaisa(kwo) take-off

flama(kwo) flame, blaze
flama-lisan – tongues of flame
flama-ney(kwel) fiery
flami(zwo) flame, blaze
flami-she(kwel) flaming
flaming(kwo) flaming, blazing
flamisi (mah-flami)(zwo) kindle, ignite, blaze up, produce flame
flamifi (fa-flami)(zwo) ignite, catch fire, burst into flames, take fire, blaze up
flamiser(kwo) igniter

flamingo(kwo) flamingo

flani(zwo) hang around; loaf, loiter about
flaner(kwo) loafer

flanke(kwel) side, flank, lateral
flanka(kwo) flank, side
montaflanka(kwo) mountainside
a flanka – sideways
flanken(konekti-komo) at the flank or side (of)
es flanken – it's at the flank
es flanken dom – it's at the side of the house

flasha(kwo) flash (blaze)
foto-flasha – photo flash
bliza-flasha – a flash of lightning
flashi(zwo) flash, flare

flat(kwo) flat, apartment cf. habitilok

flauta(kwo) flute cf. duda

flecha(kwo) arrow
arku e flechas – bow and arrows
indikiflecha(kwo) pointer index
flechadan(kwo) quiver (container for arrows)

flesh(kwo) flesh (the soft parts of the body; the physical being)

flexi(zwo) bend, curve, flex
flexa(kwo) bending; bend; flexion
flexitura(kwo) bend, curve (result of bending)
flexibile(kwel) flexible

flirti(zwo) flirt (play at courtship)
flirta(kwo) flirting

fliti(zwo) whisk, flit, dart, slip (expresses a sudden quick movement)

flok(kwo) flock, lock; flakes
lignaflok(kwo) shavings, chips
flok de tuman – ribbons of mist


flor(kwo) flower
flori(zwo) flower, bloom, blossom
floring(kwo) flowering, florescence, blossoming, blooming
flordan(kwo) flowerpot

flora(kwo) flora

flot(kwo) fleet

floti(zwo) float (be afloat; drift)
flotika(kwo) float (something that floats)

flotilia(kwo) flotilla

flui(zwo) flow see also: aflui, deflui
fluisa(kwo) flow
hwan lif floti nich fluisa – yellow leaves floated down
flui-she(kwel) flowing, fluent
flui-shem(komo) fluently

fo – 1) (konekti) for (the object, aim, or purpose) cf. per, por, pro, pur
Es fo yu. – This is for you.
Me ve lai fo vidi ela. – I shall come to see her.
fo ke – in order to see also: dabe
2) (konekti) for (duration or a specific time)
Ob me mog pren yur kitaba fo kelke taim? – May I take your book for some time?
Nu he aranji sey mita fo klok dwa. – We have arranged this meeting for two o'clock.
fo manya – for tomorrow

fobi(zwo) fear, be afraid
foba(kwo) fear, fright
prefoba(kwo) misgiving, apprehension
fobisi(zwo) frighten, scare, intimidate
rasfobisi(zwo) scare/frighten away
fobisa(kwo) intimidation
en-fobi(zwo) take fright, get frightened
foba-ney(kwel) terrible, frightful syn.: dashat-ney, terible
fobisi-she(kwel) frightening
fobishil(kwel) timid, timorous
fobnik(kwo) coward
sinfoba-ney(kwel) fearless, intrepid
-fobista(kwo) -phobe

fogeti(zwo) forget
fogeta(kwo) oblivion
fogetishil(kwel) forgetful

fok(kwo) seal (animal) cf. sigla

fon1(konekti) from; of (from among) cf. depos
Me zai go fon teatra – I am going from the theatre.
Me he resivi se fon lu. – I have received this from him.
fon kapa til peda – from head to foot
fon sabah til aksham – from morning till evening
un fon nu – one of us

fon2(kwo) phone, telephone (abbr. of telefon)
Hu-ney fon zai baji? – Whose phone is ringing?

fonda(kwo) background (but not person's experience, training, or education)

fonetika(kwo) phonetics
fonetike(kwel) phonetic

fonologia(kwo) phonology
fonologike(kwel) phonological

fontan(kwo) fountain, jet, spout
fontani(zwo) fountain

for, for-(syao-komo) further, on (continuing an action)
fai for – continue, go on
Treba gun for! – One should work on!
Hao for-gunsa! – I wish you good luck on your further work.
Me bu yao resti hir, me sal go for. – I don't want to stay here, I am going to go on.
e tak for ("etf") – and so on
for-ney(kwel) further, following
lo for – what goes further
in lo for – in what follows

fora(kwo) furrow see also: ruga

forji(zwo) forge (metals)
forjer(kwo) forger, smith
forjidom(kwo) smithy, forge

forma(kwo) form, shape
formi(zwo) form, shape
forming(kwo) forming, formation (act or process)
formitura(kwo) formation (result)

formale(kwel) formal

format(kwo) format (of publication; of data)
formati(zwo) format
formaten (formati-ney)(kwel) formatted

formula(kwo) formula
formuli(zwo) formulate
formiling(kwo) formulation

forna(kwo) stove, furnace; kiln
el-forna – electric stove see: elektre

forsa(kwo) force
forsi(zwo) force; compel
forsi-ofni dwar – force a door open
forsen (forsi-ney)(kwel) forced
forsen smaila – strained smile

forte(kwel) strong
fortisi (mah-forte)(zwo) strengthen, make strong or stronger
fortifi (fa-forte)(zwo) grow strong or stronger
fortitaa(kwo) strength

fortesa(kwo) fortress

fortuna(kwo) good fortune, good luck
pa fortuna – fortunately, luckily
fai fortuna – have luck, be in luck
fai nofortuna – have no luck, be unlucky
Hao fortuna! – Good luck!
nofortuna(kwo) misfortune
pa nofortuna – unfortunately, unluckily
fortune (fortuna-ney)(kwel) fortunate, lucky
fortunnik(kwo) lucky one
nofortunnik(kwo) unlucky one, luckless

foto(kwo) photo
foti (fai foto)(zwo) photograph, take a photo
foting(kwo) photographing
fotoaparat, fotika(kwo) photo camera
fotoguan(kwo) photographer's (studio)

foxa(kwo) fox
yunfoxa(kwo) fox cub

fragile(kwel) fragile, frail

fragmenta(kwo) fragment

frai(zwo) fry
fraier(kwo) fryer; frying pan

frak(kwo) (evening) dress coat, swallow-tailed coat

frama(kwo) frame (framework as of a machine, as of a picture; context)
in frama de koysa – within the framework of smth
windaframa(kwo) window-frame

franja(kwo) fringe (decorative border)

franke(kwel) frank (open in expression, straightforward; manifest)

franko(kwo) franc (unit of currency)

Frans(kwo) France
Frans-jen – inhabitant/citizen of France

franse – 1) (kwel) French (relating to ethnicity, language or country)
2) (kwo) French (person of French ethnicity)
3) (kwo) French language

frasa(kwo) phrase; clause, sentence (gramm.) cf. sentensia

fraula(kwo) strawberry

fregata(kwo) frigate (naval vessel)

frekwensa(kwo) frequency
banda de frekwensa – frequency band

frenta(kwo) forehead cf. avana, fronta
frentahar(kwo) fringe (part of the hair that hangs down over the forehead)

freshe(kwel) fresh
freshenesa(kwo) freshness
rifreshisi (rimah-freshe)(zwo) refresh, freshen up

freska(kwo) fresco
freski(zwo) paint using fresco

frikasee(kwo) fricassee

frikti(zwo) undergo friction cf. froti
frikta(kwo) friction

frima(kwo) hoar-frost, rime

frisa(kwo) hairdo
frisi(zwo) dress the hair
friser(kwo) hairdresser, barber, coiffeur
frisiguan(kwo) hairdressing saloon, barber's (shop), hairdresser's

frivole(kwel) frivolous, light-headed

fronta(kwo) front (battlefront; field of activity; group or movement) cf. avana, frenta

frosta(kwo) frost (intensely cold weather)
Opa Frosta(kwo) Grandfather Christmas
froste (frosta-ney)(kwel) frosty (cold, chilly)
frosti(zwo) freeze
sedey frosti – it is freezing today
frosten (frosti-ney)(kwel) frozen
Me sta frosten. – I am freezing.
defrosti(zwo) defrost, unfreeze
froster(kwo) freezer

froti(zwo) rub cf. frikti
froti okos – rub one's eyes
froti handas – rub one's hands
froting(kwo) rubbing, rub

fruni(zwo) frown (wrinkle the brow, as in thought or displeasure); wrinkle (the brow) ant.: smaili
ta zai fruni – he is frowning
fruni brovas – to knit one's brows

fruta(kwo) fruit
fruti(zwo) fruit, bear fruit
fruting(kwo) fructification (process of producing fruit)
fruti-she(kwel) fruit-bearing, fructiferous; fruitful
frutishil(kwel) fecund

fugi(zwo) flee, run away see also: trafugi
fuga(kwo) flight, escape
fuger(kwo) fugitive, runaway

fujur(kwo) depravity
fai fujur – indulge in debauch(ery), lead a depraved/loose/dissolute life

fuki(zwo) blow (produce an air current)
fuka(kwo) waft, whiff, puff, breath
fukiflor(kwo) dandelion

fule(kwel) full
fulitaa(kwo) fullness, plenitude
fulem(komo) fully
fulifi (fa-fule)(zwo) become filled
fulisi (mah-fule)(zwo) fill
fuli(zwo) fill (tr./intr.)

fulfil(zwo) fulfill (carry out, bring to completion, satisfy), come true
Hay may yaosa fulfil! – May my wish come true!
fulfilsa(kwo) fulfillment

fum(kwo) smoke
fumi(zwo) smoke
fuming(kwo) smoking
fumilok(kwo) smoking-room
fumtuba(kwo) chimney

fundamenta(kwo) foundation (that on which anything rests; groundwork, underpinnings; (fig.) basis, ground)
fundamentale(kwel) fundamental

fundi(zwo) found (establish base) syn.: establi
funda, funding(kwo) foundation, establishing cf. fundamenta

fundu(kwo) fund, foundation

funduk(kwo) hazelnut

funga(kwo) mushroom

funksion(kwo) function
funksioni(zwo) function
funksioning(kwo) functioning

fupi(kwo) bran

furaja(kwo) forage, fodder

furgon(kwo) van, wagon

furia(kwo) fury, rage, frenzy
sta pa furia – be furious
furia-ney(kwel) furious, frantic, frenetic
furisi(zwo) infuriate, enrage

furka(kwo) fork see also: chitul
senufurka(kwo) pitchfork
daofurka(kwo) road fork

furmi(kwo) ant
furmidom(kwo) anthill

furni(zwo) furnish, supply
furna, furning(kwo) supply, furnishing

fusi(zwo) melt, fuse, smelt
fusi-nayu – melted butter
fusa, fusing(kwo) melting, fusion
fusika(kwo) fuse (electric safety device)

fut(kwo) foot (unit of measure)

futbol(kwo) football
futbolista, futbol pleier(kwo) football-player

futur(kwo) future
in futur – in future
futur-ney(kwel) future

fuy(exklami, syao) fie (disgust, repugnance)
fuy-ney – nasty
fuy-jen, fuynik – a nasty person
fuyka – ugly thing


ga(komo) quite, entirely, completely syn.: direktem, rek
ga hao – quite good
ga fogeti – quite forget
Yu es ga gande! – You are completely dirty!

gadari(zwo) betray, give away
gadara(kwo) betrayal, treason
gadarnik(kwo) betrayer, traitor
gadare (gadara-ney), gadaralik(kwel) treacherous, perfidious, traitorous

gadle(kwel) turbid, muddy (not bright or pure, not clear, cloudy; lacking luster, dull)
gadle akwa – turbid water
fa-gadle(zwo) grow turbid/dull

gaf(kwo) gaffe, lapse
fai gaf – to make a gaffe

gai(sta) (one) should, (one) ought, supposed to; befit, become see also: mus, nidi, treba
Gai bi honeste. – One should be honest.
Yu bu gai lanfai. – You should not be lazy.
Sempre gai zwo olo tak kom gai. – One should always do everything as needed.
Gai sempre tayari leson bifoo skola. – One should always prepare one's lesson before the classes.
gai-ke(kwel) proper, due, appropriate
bu gai-ke – improper, inappropriate
nogaitaa(kwo) outrage, disgraceful goings-on
Es nogaitaa! – It's simply a disgrace / a scandal!

gaiva(kwo) seagull
Portuguese, Latgalian

gal(kwo) gall, bile (med.)
gal-pao – gall bladder
gal-suantaa – bile acid

galga(kwo) gallows, gibbet syn.: pendi-kilika

galopi(zwo) gallop
galopa(kwo) gallop

galsa(kwo) neck
galsahar(kwo) mane
galsatasma(kwo) collar (band around an animal’s neck) cf. kolar

galta(kwo) error, mistake
galti(zwo) err, be wrong, make a mistake
galte (galta-ney)(kwel) erroneous, mistaken

gamande(kwel) haughty, supercilious; conceited
gamanditaa(kwo) haughtiness, superciliousness; conceit

gamba(kwo) leg
stula gamba – chair's leg

gambeta(kwo) shrimp

gambir(kwel) serious syn.: seriose

gami(zwo) marry (intr./tr.) ant.: degami
gamifi(zwo) marry (intr.)
gamer, gamifer(kwo) fiance/fiancee also: dulho, dulhina
gaming(kwo) marriage (wedding)
gamifesta(kwo) wedding
gamisi(zwo) marry (tr.)
gami-ney(kwel) married
gama, gamitura(kwo) wedlock, marriage (the state of being married)
gamijen(kwo) spouse, wife/husband
gamiman(kwo) male spouse, husband also: ko-man, mursha
gamigina(kwo) female spouse, wife also: ko-gina, molya
bugamnik(kwo) bachelor
ausengama-ney(kwel) extramarital
gamiburoo(kwo) dating agency

gamusa(kwo) chamois, suede, shammy

gana(kwo) song
statagana – national anthem
gani(zwo) sing
gani-ki(zwo) hum; sing quietly
ganer(kwo) singer

gande(kwel) dirty, impure; indecent, nasty
gandisi (mah-gande)(zwo) dirty, soil; pollute
gandifi (fa-gande)(zwo) get/become dirty
gandi(zwo) make/become dirty
ganditaa(kwo) impurity, filth, dirt
gandenik(kwo) slovenly/untidy person

gansa(kwo) goose cf. hansa
gin-gansa (gansina)(kwo) female goose
man-gansa (ganso)(kwo) gander, male goose
yungansa(kwo) gosling
gansamasu(kwo) goose meat

ganta(kwo) glove
piga ganta – leather gloves
dwa para ganta – two pairs of gloves

gao(kwel, komo) high
mah-gao(zwo) make high, raise higher, elevate
fa-gao(zwo) become higher, heighten
gaotaa(kwo) height
gaoley(kwel) higher (advanced in complexity or elaboration; of education beyond the secondary level)
gaoley talim – higher education

gap(kwo) gap
gapi(zwo) gape (open wide) cf. guapi

garabel(kwo) sparrow
Sambahsa, Albanian

garaja(kwo) garage (place to store a car)

garantia(kwo) guarantee (anything that assures a certain outcome; a written declaration)
pet-yar-ney garantia – a 5-year guarantee
garanti(zwo) guarantee
garanter(kwo) guarantor

garbar(kwo) turmoil, bustle, fuss

garden(kwo) garden
kindagarden(kwo) kindergarten
legumgarden(kwo) kitchen garden
zoo-garden(kwo) zoological garden also: zoo

gardi(zwo) guard, safeguard
garda(kwo) guarding, safeguarding
gardiyuan(kwo) guard (a person who guards)
gardika(kwo) guard (smth that gives protection or prevents damage)

gargari(zwo) gargle

gari(kwo) carriage, cart, wagon, chariot
bebi gari – baby carriage
garijen(kwo) coachman
garikin(kwo) barrow

garibe(kwel) alien, extraneous, foreign
gariba(kwo) alien, stranger cf. auslandajen

garja(kwo) thunderstorm

garma(kwo) heat
garme (garma-ney)(kwel) hot
es garme – it is hot
me sta garme – I am hot
garmitaa(kwo) hotness
garmi(zwo) heat up (intr./tr.)
garmifi (fa-garme)(zwo) become hot
garmisi (mah-garme)(zwo) heat up
garming(kwo) heating
garmiser(kwo) heater (device)

garoba(kwo) carob
garoba-baum – carob tree

garson(kwo) waiter

garwe(kwel) proud
garwi, garwefai(zwo) be proud, take pride
garwi por koysa – be proud of smth
garwitaa(kwo) pride

gas(kwo) gas
gas-ney(kwel) gas
gasisi(zwo) gasify; aerate
gasisa(kwo) gasification; aeration
gasyuan(kwo) gasman
gaspiwat, gaska(kwo) fizzy drink

gasela(kwo) gazelle

gaseta(kwo) newspaper

gason(kwo) lawn, grassplot

gasta(kwo) guest
gasti(zwo) be a guest, be on a visit, stay
gasti she amiga – stay at a friend's
gastaguan(kwo) hotel, guesthouse
gastashamba(kwo) drawing room, sitting room, living room

gata(kwo) street
fai gata – be outdoors; stroll
gata-ki(kwo) bystreet

gaurawe(kwel) considerable, substantial; influential, imposing syn.: solide

gavahi(zwo) witness, testify
gavaha(kwo) testimony, witness
gavaher(kwo) witness, eyewitness
oko-gavaher – eyewitness

gayar(kwo) lad, guy, fellow, chap, bloke
gayarina(kwo) wench, broad, bird

gaza(kwo) gauze (thin fabric)

ge – 1) (kwo) piece (single item) cf. pes
pet dolar per ge – five dollars apiece
2) the name of the letter G

-ge(gramatika) optional marker of the singular
auto-ge – one car
jen-ge – one person

geda(kwo) pike (fish)

gei(gramatika) marks "passive of becoming"
gunsa gei zwo – the work is being done
kitaba gei lekti – this book is being read

geim(kwo) game (a kind of game; a stage of game) cf. pleisa
video-geim – video game
worda-geim – word game
hima/saif geimes – winter/summer games

geit(kwo) gate

gela(kwo) girl see also: yungina ant.: boy

gemi(zwo) groan, moan
gema(kwo) groan, moan

gen(kwo) gene

general(kwo) general (commander)

generale(kwel) general (not particular) cf. sarwe
generalem(komo) in general
generalisi(zwo) generalize
generalisa(kwo) generalization

generasion(kwo) generation (people of same period)

generati(zwo) generate (bring into existence; engender, procreate; produce)
generati elektritaa – to generate electricity
generative(kwel) generative
generata(kwo) generation (act or process of generating; origination, production, or procreation)

genetika(kwo) genetics
genetike(kwel) genetical

genia(kwo) genius
geniale(kwel) of genius, ingenious, genial
genialem(komo) ingeniously, genially
genialitaa(kwo) ingeniousness, ingenuity
genialnik(kwo) genius (about a person)

genosida(kwo) genocide
genosodi(zwo) perform genocide

genra(kwo) genus, genre

genta(kwo) clan, ethnic group, family, kin stock

genu(kwo) knee
genu jor – knee joint
genukapak(kwo) kneecap, patella
genui(kwo) kneel
lwo-genui – fall to one's knees

genuflexa(kwo) genuflexion see: genu, flexa

geografia(kwo) geography
geografier(kwo) geographer

geologia(kwo) geology

geometria(kwo) geometry

gerania(kwo) geranium

gerba(kwo) coat of arms

gerbila(kwo) gerbil

germanike(kwel) Germanic
germanike lingwas – Germanic languages

gesi(zwo) guess
gesa(kwo) guess
gesing(kwo) guessing

geti(zwo) get (to somewhere, into smth); fall (into a situation)
geti a dom – get home
geti inu kaptika – fall into a trap
geti aus koylok – get out of somewhere

gey(kwo) gay (homosexual)

gida(kwo) guide (person or thing)
gidi(zwo) guide (serve as a guide; exert control or influence over)
gei gidi bay koysa – to be guided by smth

gidiwanda(kwo) excursion, outing, tour see: gidi, wanda

giganta(kwo) giant
gigante (giganta-ney)(kwel) giant

gimnastika(kwo) gymnastics
gimnastike(kwel) gymnastic

gin-(syao) "feminine" ant.: man-2
gin-studenta – female student
gin-dogа – bitch

gina(kwo) woman also: ginjen
ginalik(kwel) womanly
ginaliknesa(kwo) womanliness
ko-gina(kwo) female companion; wife see also: gamigina, molya
ginnik(kwo) womanizer

ginea(kwo) guinea (coin)

ginestra(kwo) broom (shrub)

gipsa(kwo) gypsum; plaster of Paris

girlanda(kwo) garland

gitara(kwo) guitar

gladi(zwo) stroke (move the hand over the surface of smth in one direction)

glan(zwo) be glossy, shine
glan-she(kwel) glossy, shiny, sleek ant.: matove
glansa(kwo) gloss, shine, lustre
mah-glan(zwo) gloss, give a gloss or sheen to

glanda(kwo) gland

glas(kwo) glass (substance)
glas-ney(kwel) glass, of glass
glas bartan – glass utensil
glaslik(kwel) glassy
glaska(kwo) smth made of glass; jar
jemglaska(kwo) jam-jar

glasa(kwo) glass (vessel)
glasakin(kwo) small drinking glass

glate(kwel) smooth (not rough) ant.: karke
glatifi (fa-glate)(zwo) become smooth
glatisi (mah-glate)(zwo) smooth

glidi(zwo) slide, glide
gliding(kwo) sliding, slip
glide(kwel) slippery, sliding

glimi(zwo) glimmer (emit or reflect a dim, intermittent light)
stara glimi – stars glimmer

glina(kwo) argil; clay

globa(kwo) globe cf. globus
globale(kwel) global

globus(kwo) globe (a spherical model of Earth or any planet) cf. globa

glodi(zwo) gnaw

glok(kwo) bell
gloki(zwo) ring a bell, toll

gloria(kwo) glory
gloria-ney(kwel) glorious
glorisi(zwo) glorify
glorisa(kwo) glorification

gloti(zwo) swallow
glota(kwo) a swallow
gloting(kwo) swallowing
misgloti(zwo) choke (with)

glu(kwo) glue see also: klingi, lipi
glui(zwo) glue
gluing(kwo) gluing

glube(kwel) deep, profound ant.: chyen
glubitaa(kwo) depth
glubifi (fa-glube)(zwo) become deeper
glubisi (mah-glube)(zwo) deepen, make deep or deeper
glubefai in akwa – to be deep in water, to draw much water

gluhe(kwel) deaf; dull, muffled, toneless
gluhitaa(kwo) deafness
gluhe-mute(kwel) deaf-mute
gluhisi-she(kwel) deafening

glume(kwel) gloomy, sulky, sullen, morose

gnom(kwo) dwarf, gnome

go(zwo) go (move; leave; proceed)
go a leker – go to the doctor
dela go hao – the thing goes good
go-she(kwel) current also: zai-ney
go-she wik – the current week
go-she dela – the current affairs
going(kwo) going; course (onward movement, progress)
going de eventas – the course of events

godi(zwo) serve (to be convenient or favourable), suit (answer a purpose, be of use) see also: fiti
It godi fo kwo? – What does it serve for?
godi-she(kwel) suitable, good
godinesa(kwo) suitability, aptitude

gol(kwo) goal (point scored)
golgeit(kwo) goal (zone)
golgeiter(kwo) goalkeeper

gola(kwo) aim, goal, end, purpose, target
goli(zwo) aim
goli banduk an koysa – to aim the gun at smth
fai gola an koysa – take aim at smth

golda(kwo) gold
golda-ney(kwel) gold, golden
goldika(kwo) smth gold
goldisi(zwo) gild

golfa(kwo) golf

gonga(kwo) gong

goni(zwo) drive (cause to move; chase) see also: persekwi
goni gurta a pilok – drive a herd to the watering place
goni afte koywan – pursue / chase smb
gona(kwo) drive, chase, pursuit

gorba(kwo) hump, hunch (deformity of the back in humans; the fleshy structure on the back of a camel)
gorbe (gorba-ney)(kwel) hunchbacked
gorbe jen(kwo) hunchback
gorbi(zwo) hump, hunch, stoop
gorbi-ney(kwel) stooping, stooped

gorila(kwo) gorilla (ape)

gorla(kwo) throat
gorla de botela – throat (neck) of the bottle

gosip(kwo) gossip, scuttlebutt, tittle-tattle
fai gosip, gosipi(zwo) gossip, tittle-tattle, tell tales
gosiper(kwo) talebearer, gossiper

gova(kwo) cow/bull
gin-gova (govina)(kwo) cow
man-gova (govo)(kwo) bull
yungova(kwo) heifer/calf
govamasu(kwo) beef
yungovamasu(kwo) veal

grada(kwo) degree, extent cf. gradus
in sertene grada – to a certain extent
gaograd(komo) in a high degree
koygrad(komo) to some degree see: koy
kwelgrad(komo) to what extent
nulgrad(komo) not at all, to no extent see: nul
syaograd(komo) to a small extent
talgrad ke – to such an extent that

gradina(kwo) a single stair, step, footstep; rung (step of a ladder)

graduale(kwel) gradual
gradualem(komo) gradually

gradus(kwo) degree (a unit of measurement) cf. grada
pet gradus sobre nol – five degrees above zero
dwashi gradus de frosta (garmitaa) – 20 degrees of frost (heat)

graf(kwo) graph

grafika(kwo) graphic
grafike(kwel) graphic

gram(kwo) gram
sto gram – one hundred grams

gramatika(kwo) grammar

gran(kwel) big, large, great ant.: syao
gro-gran – huge, enormous
granfinga(kwo) thumb
grantaa(kwo) size, magnitude
stara do un-ney grantaa – star of the first magnitude
granifi (fa-gran)(zwo) increase, become bigger/larger
granisi (mah-gran)(zwo) increase, make bigger/larger, magnify
granisa, granifa(kwo) increase

grandiose(kwel) grandiose

granit(kwo) granite

grapa(kwo) cluster, bunch, a number of fruits or flowers growing along a common stalk
vingrapa(kwo) cluster/bunch of grapes

grasile(kwel) gracile

graspi(zwo) grasp (to take hold of or seize firmly; comprehend), grip syn.: samaji
fa-graspi pa koysa – snatch at smth
graspika(kwo) handle (haft, knob, bail, etc.)
dwar graspika – door-handle, door-knob

grata(kwo) grating, grate, lattice

gratis(komo) gratis, free of charge

gratuli(zwo) congratulate
gratula(kwo) congratulation

grauli(zwo) growl, snarl
graula(kwo) growl, snarl

grave(kwel) heavy, ponderous; (fig.) weighty, momentous, grave
gravitaa(kwo) heaviness, gravity
gravika(kwo) weight (object used to make something heavier), ballast

gravela(kwo) gravel

gravide(kwel) pregnant, with child
gravida(kwo) a pregnant woman

graviti(zwo) (phys. and fig.) gravitate, be attracted, tend to a center
gravita(kwo) gravitation
kanun de gravita – the law of gravitation

greipa(kwo) grapefruit

gren(kwo) grain (seeds of crops; crops)
greninka(kwo) a single seed of grain
grendom(kwo) granary, barn

grey(kwel) gray
grey-har-ney – grey-haired

grif(kwo) vulture

grifon(kwo) griffin (mythical beast)

grimasa(kwo) grimace
grimasi, fai grimasa(kwo) grimace, make a grimace, contort the face, make a wry face

grin(kwel) green
grinka(kwo) greenery, verdure

grip(kwo) flu, grippe, influenza
faula-grip – bird flu

grivi(zwo) grieve (feel sorrow or distress); mourn (om koysa – for smth) ant.: joi
grivi-plaki – lament, deplore
griva(kwo) grief, woe, sorrow
grive (griva-ney)(kwel) sorrowful, mournful, sad syn.: triste
mah-grivi(zwo) grieve (make unhappy)

gro, gro-(syao, komo, kwel) "very much, strongly" (augmentative/intensifying particle)
kitaba – a book   ⇒   gro-kitaba – a big volume, tome, folio
hao – good, well   ⇒   gro-hao – great, excellent
interes-ney – interesting   ⇒   gro-interes-ney – gripping, exciting
pri – to like   ⇒   gro-pri – to adore, to like greatly
Me lubi yu gro. – I love you deeply.
Suy luba bu es gro. – His love is not very deep.
Lu en-mediti gro. – He became lost in thoughts.

grog(kwo) grog

grose(kwel) thick ant.: dine
grositaa(kwo) thickness

grugru, fai grugru(zwo) grunt, utter a grunt

grumbli(zwo) grumble

grunta(kwo) soil, ground

grupa(kwo) group
grupi(zwo) group

gual(kwo) coal
gual-muver – poker
gualifi(zwo) charr (tr.)
gualisi(zwo) charr (intr.)

Scottish Gaelic

guan(kwo) institution, establishment
fanguan(kwo) dining rooms
frisiguan(kwo) hairdresser's
kitabaguan(kwo) library
printiguan(kwo) printing house

guapi(zwo) yawn cf. gapi
guapa(kwo) yawn

guardia(kwo) guard (squad)
guardier(kwo) guardsman (member of Guard)

gubra(kwo) dung, manure, muck
gubrajuk(kwo) dung-beetle

gudi(zwo) honk, hoot, toot see also: zumbi

guha(kwo) cavern, cave

gukan(kwo) chaff

gul(kwo) ghoul

gulam(kwo) slave
gulamtaa(kwo) slavery

gulao(kwel) ancient, antique

guma(kwo) gum; rubber; eraser
chabiguma(kwo) chewing gum
gumabanda(kwo) elastic (band), rubber band

gun(zwo) work
gunjen(kwo) worker
gunsa(kwo) work, labour
treba go a gunsa – one must go to work
guntura(kwo) work (product of working)
gundey(kwo) working day, workday
gunpaga(kwo) salary, wage
gunshamba(kwo) study (room)
guntaim(kwo) working time
gunguan(kwo) work-place, work-room, workshop see: guan

gunah(kwo) sin
gunahi, fai gunah(zwo) sin

guran(kwo) crane (bird)

gurka(kwo) cucumber

gurta(kwo) herd, flock, drove see also: trupa
gurti(zwo) herd, flock

guru(kwo) spiritual teacher cf. talimer

guruhi(zwo) thunder
shuta ek-guruhi – a shot burst out
guruha(kwo) thunder

gusli(kwo) gusli (musical instrument)
baji gusli – play gusli
guslier(kwo) guslar, gusli player

gusta(kwo) taste
gusti(zwo) taste (have a taste; sample the flavour of smth orally)
gustike(kwel) gustatory
hao-gusta-ney(kwel) tasty

guta(kwo) drop (of liquid)
guti(zwo) drip, fall in drops
guting(kwo) dripping

guverna(kwo) government
guverni(zwo) govern (exercise authority over)
guverner(kwo) governor

guy(kwel) expensive, costly ant.: chipe cf. kare see also: verguy
guytaa(kwo) expensiveness, costliness

gwansi(zwo) concern (have to do with, relate to, be of importance to)
sey dela bu gwansi me – it is no concern of me
gwansi-yen(konekti) concerning, regarding
gwansa(kwo) relation, connection, anything to do (with)
hev/fai nul gwansa a koysa – have no connection with smth, bear no relation to smth
bugwanse (bugwansa-ney)(kwel) irrelevant, out of place, having nothing to do with
bugwansem (bugwansa-nem)(komo) malapropos, not to the point

gwer(kwo) war
gwership(kwo) warship
gwer akta – military action
gwer e salam – war and peace
gwer-stopa, gwer-pausa – armistice, truce
gweri, fai gwer(zwo) make/wage war
gwerjen(kwo) warrior
gwerlik(kwel) warlike

gwin(zwo) gain, earn, win syn.: akwiri
gwin anubav – gain in experience
gwinsa(kwo) gain; income, earnings

gwo(gramatika) "some time ago, at one time, earlier in life"
me gwo bi in Moskva – I have been to Moscow
Me gwo dansi hao wen me bin syao gela. – I danced well when I was a little girl.
Lu gwo zun sporta. – He used to go in for sports.
gwo-ney(kwel) former, has-been

gwo-yusen(kwel) secondhand


hathe name of the letter H

habar(kwo) (piece of) news

habiti(zwo) inhabit; dwell, live
nu habiti in toy gata – we live in that street
habita(kwo) habitation
shanji habita (a koylok) – move (to some place), change residence
habitilok(kwo) habitation (place) cf. flat
habitibile(kwel) habitable
buhabiten (buhabiti-ney)(kwel) uninhabited

haf(kwo, syao) half
pa haf – by half, in half
haf-dey – half a day
haf-ora – half an hour
haf-luma – twilight
mah-haf(zwo) halve

ha-ha(exklami, kwo) "ha-ha" a sound made in imitation of laughter see also: hi-hi, ridi
fai ha-ha – laugh

haifen(kwo) hyphen

haili(zwo) heal, cure

haishi(taim-komo) still, as yet, so far cf. iven, toshi, yoshi
Me haishi bu he zwo se. – I have not done this yet.
Lu haishi safari. – He still travels.
Me es haishi ausen urba. – I am still out of town.

haki(zwo) hew, hack, chop, cut
haki ligna – chop wood
haki bay zian – cut with a sword
hakimarka(kwo) notch

hakmi(zwo) try (examine by judicial process)
hakma(kwo) (court) trial
hakmiwan(kwo) defendant, the accused, prisoner at the bar

halat(kwo) circumstance; circumstances
al tal halat – under such circumstances

halich(kwo) gulf (geogr.)

halka(kwo) ring (a circumscribing object)
aurhalka(kwo) earring
harhalka(kwo) lock, curl, ringlet
halka-ney(kwel) annular, ring-shaped
halkafinga(kwo) ring finger (finger between middle finger and little finger)
halka-dansa – round danse
fai halka-dansa – to sing and dance in a ring
brachahalka(kwo) bracelet, armlet
gambahalka(kwo) bracelet (for the ankle)


haloo (halo)(exklami) hallo (used also over the telephone)

halusina(kwo) hallucination
halusini(zwo) hallucinate

halwa(kwo) halva

ham(kwo) ham (food)

hamak(kwo) hammock

hamir(kwo) yeast

hampi(komo) almost
Me jan hampi olo om to. – I know almost everything about it.
Li es hir, hampi oli. – They are here, almost everyone.

hamra(kwo) hammer
hamri(zwo) hammer

hamsi(zwo) whisper cf. murmuri
hamsa(kwo) whisper

hamsta(kwo) hamster

han – 1) (kwel) Chinese (relating to ethnicity, language or country) see also: Jungwo
2) (kwo) Chinese (person of Chinese ethnicity) better: hanjen
3) (kwo) Chinese language better: hanlingwa syn.: putunhua
4) (kwo) khan

handa(kwo) hand
handagunsa – handwork
handi(zwo) hand (to give or pass with the hands)

handak(kwo) ditch, trench

Hanguk(kwo) South Korea

hansa(kwo) swan cf. gansa

hanzi(kwo) Chinese characters, Hanzi see also: hieroglif

hao(kwel, komo) good; well
Me sta hao. – I am OK.
Hao! – Good, OK!
Es hao. – That's good.
haotaa(kwo) good
fo haotaa de jenley – for the welfare of mankind
lucha de haotaa e baditaa – struggle of the good and the evil
Bi hao! – 1) You are welcome! (a reply to thanking); 2) Bless you! (after smb's sneezing); 3) Good luck! (when parting)
Hao aksham! – Good evening!
Hao dey! – Good day!
Hao fortuna! – Good luck!
Hao nocha! – Good night!
Hao sabah! – Good morning!
Hao safara! – Have a good trip!

haohunten(kwel) coherent see: hao, hunti

har(kwo) hair, hairs (chevelure) cf. mao
harinka(kwo) a single hair
harhalka(kwo) lock, curl, ringlet
frentahar(kwo) fringe (part of the hair that hangs down over the forehead)
galsahar(kwo) mane

harem(kwo) harem

harhari(zwo) expectorate

harmonia(kwo) harmony
harmoni(zwo) harmonize (be in agreement, be harmonious)
harmonike(kwel) harmonious
harmonisi(zwo) harmonize (tr.)

harpartika(kwo) hair parting see: har, parti

hashish(kwo) hashish

hasima(kwo) defeat, loss
fai hasima – to be defeated

hasti(zwo) be in a hurry
hasti-muvi – bustle, move hastily
hasta(kwo) hurry, haste
pa hasta – hastily, in haste, hurriedly
haste (hasta-ney)(kwel) hasty, hurried

hata(kwo) peasant house (esp. in Ukraine and Russia)

hay!1(exklami) hi!

hay2(gramatika) let, may (wish; leave) cf. ba
Hay Forsa bi kun yu! – May the force be with you!
Hay oni shwo to ke oni yao. – Let them say what they like.

he(gramatika) past tense marker (completed action) see also: -te cf. ve
Me he yo lekti sey kitaba. – I have already read this book.
Yu bu he audi ku? – Haven't you heard?

hek(kwo) pick, hack

hektar(kwo) hectare (1 ha = 10 000 m²)

helikopta(kwo) helicopter

helma(kwo) helmet
helma-faska – visor (part of helmet) see: fas

helpi(zwo) help
helpa(kwo) help
helpi koywan – to help smb
kun helpa de – with the help of
voki helpa – call for help
helpike(kwel) auxiliary
helpalingwa(kwo) auxiliary language

hema(kwo) blood
hema-vasa – blood vessel
hema-sosis – blood sausage, blood pudding
hema-pyasa-ney – blood-thirsty
hema-ney, hemaful(kwel) bloody
hemi(zwo) bleed
heming(kwo) bleeding, haemorrhage

heni(zwo) hate
hena(kwo) hatred
henival(kwel) odious

henri(kwo) henry
sto milihenri – one hundred millihenries

hepata(kwo) liver (organ)

herba(kwo) grass; herb
lekiherba(kwo) medicinal herb(s)
herbinka(kwo) a blade of grass

heredi(zwo) inherit, be the heir to; succeed (to)
heredi koysa fon koywan – inherit smth from smb
hereda(kwo) heritage; inheritance
hereder(kwo) heir

hermete(kwel) hermetic, sealed, airtight
hermetem(komo) hermetically
hermetisi(zwo) make hermetic
dehermeta(kwo) depressurization

hero(kwo) hero
herolik(kwel) heroic
heroisma(kwo) heroism

hesiti(zwo) hesitate, falter
hesita(kwo) hesitation

hev(sta) have see also: onhev
Me hev dwa kitaba. – I have two books.
en-hev(zwo) come to possess
hevsa(kwo) possession; property, belongings

hey!(exklami) hey! (used to attract attention)

hi(gramatika) "exactly, it's … that" (emphasizes the previous word)
nau hi – right now
Den se hi me yao shwo. – This exactly I want to say.
Me hi zwo-te se. – It's me who did it.
Sey rasma bu es jamile. - Es jamile hi! – This drawing is not beautiful. - Yes it is!
Non hi! – No, no way!
Ya hi. – Yes, to be sure. Certainly.
Es toy hi jen. – It's that very person.
Me bu jan wen ta lai e ob ta lai hi. – I don’t know when he comes and if he comes at all.
Bu hi go! – Mind you, don't go!

hidropsia(kwo) dropsy

hiena(kwo) hyena

hieroglif(kwo) hieroglyph see also: hanzi
hieroglifike(kwo) hieroglyphic
hieroglifike skriba – hieroglyphic writing

higiena(kwo) hygiene

hi-hi, hi-hi-hi(exklami, kwo) tee-hee see also: ha-ha, ridi
fai hi-hi(zwo) chuckle, giggle, titter, snigger

hiki(zwo) hiccup
hiking(kwo) hiccup

hili(zwo) stagger, be unsteady, sway, reel
dushman en-hili – the enemy wavered

hima(kwo) winter see: vesna, saif, oton
hima geimes – the winter games

himna(kwo) hymn

hina(kwo) henna

hindi – 1) (kwel) Indian (relating to Indians [of India], their language and country) see also: Bharat, India
2) (kwo) Indian (person of Indian ethnicity)
3) (kwo) Hindi (language)

hipopo(kwo) hippopotamus

hipotesa(kwo) hypothesis

hir(loko-komo) here ant.: dar see also: ahir
Lu es hir. – He is here.
Hir es hao. – It's good here.
Lai hir. – Come here.
Figaro hir, Figaro dar. – Figaro's here, Figaro's there.
hir-ney(kwel) of this place, local

hiran(kwo) deer
yunhiran(kwo) young deer, fawn
gin-hiran(kwo) doe, female deer
man-hiran(kwo) buck, male deer
hiranmasu(kwo) venison

hisi(zwo) hiss
hisa, hising(kwo) hissing

histeria(kwo) hysteria
histerike(kwel) hysterical

histo(kwo) tissue (anat. biol.) cf. texitura

historia(kwo) history (the aggregate of past events; science; record or narrative description)
historike(kwel) historic
historier(kwo) historian

hm(exklami) hm, ahem

hobi(kwo) hobby (activity that one enjoys doing in one's spare time)

hok(kwo) hawk (predatory bird)

hokey(kwo) hockey
hokeista, hokey pleier(kwo) hockey player

hole(kwel) hollow (having an empty space or cavity inside)
holika(kwo) hollow
holisi(zwo) hollow (out)
holifi(zwo) become hollow
wangas holifi – the cheeks became hollow

holera(kwo) cholera

hom(kwo) home (habitual abode, birthplace, native land, asylum) syn.: dom

honeste(kwel) honest (fair and straightforward in conduct, thought, etc., free from deceit or fraud, upright)

honor(kwo) honour
pa honor de – in honour of
fai honor a koywan – give/pay honour to smb
honor-ney(kwel) honorary (guard, etc.)
nohonor(kwo) dishonour syn.: shmah

hopak(kwo) hopak (Ukrainian folk dance)

hor(kwo) choir, chorus

horal(kwo) choral

horisonta(kwo) horizon
horisontale(kwel) horizontal
horisontala(kwo) horizontal (line)

hormon(kwo) hormone

hospital(kwo) hospital

hosta(kwo) host
hostina(kwo) hostess
hosti(zwo) host

hostel(kwo) hostel (lodging house)

hotel(kwo) hotel, inn

hovi(zwo) hover (float in the air)

hu(kwesti) who
Hu lai? – Who comes?
Hu zwo-te se? – Who did it?
hu-ney – whose

huanmi(kwo) millet

huf(kwo) hoof

huk(kwo) hook
huki(zwo) hook (catch, suspend, or connect with a hook) see also: ahuki

huligan(kwo) hooligan
huligani(zwo) behave like a hooligan, engage in hooliganism
huliganing(kwo) hooliganism

humane(kwel) humane
humanitaa(kwo) humaneness, humanity (the quality of being humane, benevolence) cf. jenley

humanisma(kwo) humanism (system of thought)
humanista(kwo) humanist
humanistike(kwel) humanistic, humanist

humel(kwo) hop (plant)

humide(kwel) humid, damp, moist syn.: mokre
humiditaa(kwo) humidity, dampness

hunga(kwo) hunger
fai hunga – be hungry
defai hunga – satisfy/appease one's hunger
hunge (hunga-ney)(kwel) hungry
hungem (hunga-nem)(komo) hungrily
hungi(zwo) hunger, starve
al haf-hungi – half-starving

hunti(zwo) join; come together; pool see also: haohunten
suti-hunti – sew together
hunti a koywan – to join smb
hunta(kwo) joining, junction
ferdao hunta – railway junction
hunte (hunta-ney)(kwel) joint, combined
huntem (hunta-nem), pa hunta(komo) together, jointly

huraa(exklami) hurrah, hurray syn.: jay-jay

husar(kwo) hussar

huta(kwo) hut (crude or makeshift dwelling or shelter; a shack)

hwan(kwel) yellow
fa-hwan(zwo) grow/turn yellow
mah-hwan(zwo) make yellow
hwanka(kwo) yolk

hwei(zwo) repent, rue
hweisa(kwo) repentance, penitence


i – 1) (unisi) i … i … – both … and … ant.: ni see also: e
i lu i ela – both he and she
i sey-las i toy-las – these as well as those
2) (komo) too, also (relates to the following word)
I me koni lu. – I too know him.
Me jan i ela. – I know also her.
3) the name of the letter I

idea(kwo) idea
idea-ney(kwel) of idea, conceptual

ideal(kwo) ideal
ideal-ney(kwel) ideal

idente(kwel) identical
identitaa(kwo) identity, sameness
identisi(zwo) identify (tr.)
identifi(zwo) identify (intr.)

ideologia(kwo) ideology
ideologike(kwel) ideological

idioma(kwo) idiom (idiomatic expression)

idiota(kwo) idiot

idola(kwo) idol (also fig.)


idyen(komo) a little, a bit
idyen pyu hao – a bit better
Dai a me idyen akwa, plis. – Give me a little water, please.

igla(kwo) needle
igla-oko – needle eye

ignori(zwo) ignore, disregard

igo(kwo) yoke (also fig.)

iguana(kwo) iguana

ikra(kwo) calf (of leg)

iksthe name of the letter X

il(kwo) silt

ilusion(kwo) illusion, delusion
fai ilusion om koysa – cherish/harbor an illusion about smth
defai ilusion (desilusioni)(zwo) become disillusioned/disappointed
desilusiona(kwo) disillusionment, disenchantment, disappointment

ilustri(zwo) illustrate
ilustra(kwo) illustration

imaja(kwo) image

imajini(zwo) imagine (to form a mental image of something; to envision or create something in one's mind; to use one's imagination) cf. konsipi, konsepti
imajina(kwo) imagination

imbati(zwo) strike (against), run (against), run into, bump into, stumble upon
imbati kontra chyenlok – run aground

imbimbi(zwo) impregnate, steep
imbimba(kwo) impregnation, steep

imiti(zwo) imitate
imita(kwo) imitation

impedi(zwo) impede, hinder
impedi-korda – hobble, fetter
impeda(kwo) hindrance, impediment

imperia(kwo) empire
imperator(kwo) emperor

importi(zwo) import ant.: exporti
importa(kwo) import, importation

impresi(zwo) impress (produce impression, affect strongly)
impresa(kwo) impression

impulsa(kwo) impulse

imune(kwel) immune (med.)
imunitaa(kwo) immunity
imunisi(zwo) immunize

in – 1) (konekti) in, at (refers to location) see also: interne
Me jivi in Rusia. – I live in Russia.
In sey shulin funga yok. – There are no mushrooms in this forest.
2) (konekti) in, on (refers to time)
in petdi – on Friday
in same taim – at the same time see also: samtaim-nem
in lai-she yar – in the next year
3) (konekti) in (other meanings)
Lu es in nove palto. – He wears a new overcoat.
kreda in boh – belief in god
in tal kasu – in such case
inen(konekti-komo) inside, within
Inen dom es warme. – It's warm inside the house.
Me es inen, zin ba! – I am inside, come in!
inenklaida(kwo) underclothes, underwear
inenlanda(kwo) inland
inen-taraf – the inside

incha(kwo) inch (unit of length)

indexa(kwo) index (number, ratio)

India(kwo) India also: Bharat see also: hindi

indigni(zwo) be indignant
indigna(kwo) indignation
indignem (indigna-nem)(komo) indignantly

indiki(zwo) indicate, point
indika(kwo) indication (act of pointing out; sign, token)

individu(kwo) individual (single person or animal)
individuale(kwel) individual
individualisma(kwo) individualism

indulgi(zwo) be indulgent, make allowance for, forbear to inflict
indulga(kwo) lenience, indulgence
indulgishil(kwel) indulgent, lenient

industria(kwo) industry (sector of economy)

infanta(kwo) infant

infarkta(kwo) infarction

infekti(zwo) infect
infekta(kwo) infection
desinfekti(zwo) disinfect

inferna(kwo) hell, inferno
inferna-ney, infernalik(kwel) infernal, hellish

inflama(kwo) inflammation (morbid condition)
inflami(zwo) inflame

inflasion(kwo) inflation (econ.) cf. infla

infli(zwo) inflate
infli balon/tara – inflate a baloon/tire
infla(kwo) inflation cf. inflasion

influsi(zwo) influence, affect
influsa(kwo) influence

informi(zwo) inform
informa(kwo) information also: info

infrarude(kwel) infrared

infuli(zwo) stuff, pack fill, cram see: in, fuli

Ingland(kwo) England
Ingland-jen – inhabitant/citizen of England

inglish – 1) (kwel) English (relating to ethnicity, language or country)
2) (kwo) English (person of English ethnicity)
3) (kwo) English language
Ob yu shwo inglish? – Do you speak English?

ingoma(kwo) a kind of African drum

ingravi(zwo) carve, engrave
ingrava(kwo) carving, engraving

inisi(zwo) initiate (to set going by taking the first step; to introduce into a society, club, etc. by formal rites) syn.: begin, starti
inisa(kwo) initiation

inisiativa(kwo) initiative

injenior(kwo) engineer

inkarni(zwo) incarnate
inkarna(kwo) incarnation

inklina(kwo) slant, slope; physical tilt or bend; inclination (act; mental tendency)
flanka-inklina(kwo) list, heel, careen, bank
inklini(zwo) incline (bend; slope; tend)

inklusi(zwo) include
inklusi-yen(konekti) including
inklusa(kwo) inclusion

inkombri(zwo) encomber, obstruct, block, hinder in passing

inkweri(zwo) inquire, make inquiries

-inloo(gramatika) marks relatives by marriage cf. dal-
mata-inloo(kwo) mother-in-law
brata-inloo(kwo) brother-in-law
son-inloo(kwo) son-in-law

inlubi(zwo) fall in love (with)
Lu es inluben om/in ela. – He is in love with her.
inluba(kwo) the state of having fallen in love

inmurisi(zwo) immure, mure, wall up, brick up see: in, mur

inosente(kwel) innocent, guileless, artless
inosensia(kwo) innocence

inpiki(zwo) stick (into), stab see: in, piki

inplas(konekti) instead (of), in place (of)
Dai a me sey kalam inplas toy-la. – Give me this pencil instead of that one.
Go dar inplas me! – Go there instead of me!
Gai zwo inplas shwo. – One should act, not speak.
Lu plei inplas gun. – He plays instead of working.
inplasi(zwo) be instead of, fill in, act as a substitute

insekta(kwo) insect

inserti(zwo) insert, put in, set in
inserta(kwo) insertion

insidenta(kwo) incident, occurrence

insisti(zwo) insist

inskeni(zwo) stage (produce on a stage)
inskena(kwo) staging

inspiri(zwo) inspire (by divine instruction, poetic spirit, ideas)
inspira(kwo) inspiration

instali(zwo) install
instali swa – install oneself
Afte instali swa in may favorite stula, me bu pri en-stan. – Once I've installed myself in my favourite chair, I don't like to get up.
instala(kwo) installation

instinkta(kwo) instinct
instinkta-ney(kwel) instinctive

institut(kwo) institute

instrukta(kwo) instruction (directions on procedure, a direction to be obeyed) cf. talim
instrukti(zwo) instruct, brief, give instructions
instrukting(kwo) briefing, instruction

insulti(zwo) insult, affront
insulta(kwo) insult, affront

integre(kwel) integral, entire, complete, whole, all parts properly united and present
integritaa(kwo) integrity, entirety
teritoriale integritaa – territorial integrity
integri(zwo) integrate (intr./tr.)
integrisi(zwo) integrate, render entire
integrifi(zwo) integrate (intr.)
integrisa, integrifa(kwo) integration

intele(kwel) clever cf. saje
nointele(kwel) silly, stupid

intelekta(kwo) intellect
intelekta-ney(kwel) intellectual

intense(kwel) intense, intensive
intensisi(zwo) intensify (tr.)
intensifi(zwo) intensify (intr.)

intenti(zwo) intend, purpose, have in mind
intenta(kwo) intention, purpose
hao intenta – good intentions
pa intenta – on purpose, intentionally
sin intenta – unintentionally
intente (intenta-ney)(kwel) intentional, deliberate, premeditated
intentem (intenta-nem)(komo) intentionally, on purpose

inter(konekti) between
inter skay e arda – between the sky and the earth
mutuale samaja inter jenmin – mutual understanding between the peoples
interen(komo) between (them), in between; in the meantime

interes(kwo) interest (attention, concern)
interes-ney(kwel) interesting
interesi(zwo) interest
se interesi me gro – it interests me greatly
fai interes om koysa – take an interest in smth
defai interes om koysa – lose interest in smth

interfai(zwo) intervene, interfere
interfai inter gambas – get under smb's feet

intermiti(zwo) intermit

internasion-ney(kwel) international syn.: interjenmin-ney

interne(kwel) internal syn.: inen-ney ant.: externe

internet(kwo) Internet cf. web

interplexi(zwo) interlace, intertwine see: inter, plexi

interrupti(zwo) interrupt, break off

intershanji(zwo) exchange; interchange
intershanja(kwo) exchange; interchange

interspas(kwo) interspace see: inter, spas

intertaim(kwo) a period between see: inter, taim
pa intertaim(komo) in the meanwhile, meantime
Ta ve lai sun. Pi ba kahwa pa intertaim. – He'll be back soon. Meantime, have a cup of coffee.

interval(kwo) interval

intervyu(kwo) interview
intervyui(zwo) interview

intime(kwel) intimate

intoni(zwo) intone, intonate
intona(kwo) intonation

intrigi(zwo) intrigue
intriga(kwo) intrigue

introdukti(zwo) introduce (begin, preface; put inside or into; bring into use; provide smb with a beginning knowledge) cf. prisenti
introdukta(kwo) introduction

intrusi(zwo) intrude
intrusa(kwo) intrusion

intuision(kwo) intuition
intuision-ney(kwel) intuitive

inu(loko-komo) into
Ela lopi-te inu shamba. – She ran into the room.
Kan inu! – Look inside!
Nulwan mog transformi fer inu golda. – Nobody can change iron into gold.

inundi(zwo) inundate, flood
inunda(kwo) flood, inundation

inuspiri(zwo) inhale, breathe in see: spiri ant.: ausspiri
inuspira(kwo) inhalation

invadi(zwo) invade
invada(kwo) invasion

invalida(kwo) invalid (one who is sickly or disabled)

inventi(zwo) invent
inventa(kwo) invention

inverse(kwel) inverse, inverted
inversem(komo) vice versa
inversa(kwo) the contrary, the reverse, opposite

investigi(zwo) investigate, research, inquire into
investiga(kwo) investigation, research

inviti(zwo) invite
invita(kwo) invitation

inyekti(zwo) inject
inyekta(kwo) injection

iradi(zwo) find fault, carp, cavil, nag

iri(zwo) be angry (om koysa/koywan – at/with smth/smb)
ira(kwo) anger, ire, wrath
gro-ira – great anger, rage
ira-ney(kwel) angry, cross
ira-nem(komo) angrily, crossly
irisi(zwo) anger, enrage
irisi-ney(kwel) incensed, infuriated, enraged
irishil(kwel) short-tempered

ironia(kwo) irony
ironike(kwel) ironical

isla(kwo) island
islajen(kwo) islander

islam(kwo) Islam
islamjen(kwo) Islamite

isoli(zwo) isolate; insulate
isola(kwo) isolation; insulation

it(inplas-kwo) it (inanimate) see also: me, yu, lu, ela, ta, nu, li
Es may tabla. – This is my table.
Me pri it. – I like it.
Me pon kitaba on it. – I put a book on it.
it-ney(inplas-kwel) its see also: suy

Italia(kwo) Italy
Italia-jen(kwo) inhabitant/citizen of Italy

italiano – 1) (kwel) Italian (relating to ethnicity, language or country)
2) (kwo) Italian (person of Italian ethnicity)
3) (kwo) Italian language

iva(kwo) willow

iven(komo) even cf. haishi, toshi, yoshi
ta bu jan iven to – he doesn't know even that
ta gun iven al morbi – even when he is sick, he works

ivri – 1) (kwel) Jew (relating to ethnicity)
2) (kwo) Jew (Person) see also: yehudi
wandi-she ivri – the wandering Jew
buivri – 1) (kwel) Gentile (not Jewish); 2) (kwo) Gentile (no Jew)



jathe name of the letter J

jabra(kwo) jaw

jadu(kwo) sorcery syn.: magia cf. charma, talisman
fai jadu – do/practice sorcery, conjure
mah-jadu(zwo) bewitch, enchant
jadujen(kwo) sorcerer/sorceress
jaduman(kwo) sorcerer
jadugina(kwo) sorceress; witch
jaduleker(kwo) witch-doctor, quack doctor
jadu-shwosa – spell, exorcism

jagi(zwo) be awake; vigil
jaging, jaga(kwo) wakefulness, vigil
en-jagi, jagifi(zwo) wake up (intr.)
jagisi(zwo) wake up (tr.)
jagiser – alarm clock

jaka(kwo) jacket (a short coat)

jaketa(kwo) jacket (a piece of a person’s suit)

jal(zwo) be on fire, burn
ek-jal(zwo) burn, cauterize
ek-jal finga – burn one's fingers
jalsa(kwo) burning
jal-she(kwel) ablaze, burning
jalka(kwo) fuel
mah-jal(zwo) burn (to cause to be consumed by fire)
finjal(zwo) burn down
jaltura(kwo) snuff (of candle)
jalwunda(kwo) burn (injury)


jalusa(kwo) jealousy
jalusi(zwo) be jealous (of)
jalusnik(kwo) jealous man

jami(zwo) gather syn.: asembli cf. kolekti, rekoli
jami amigas – gather friends
jami asembla – gather a meeting
jami fruta – gather fruits
jamitura(kwo) that which has been gathered

jamile(kwel) beautiful, handsome, pretty
ela es jamile gina – she is a pretty woman
jamilitaa(kwo) beauty (property)
jamilina(kwo) beauty (beautiful woman)
jamilo(kwo) handsome man

jan(zwo) know cf. koni
Me jan to. – I know that.
Ta bu jan nixa. – He doesn't know anything.
lo bujan-ney – the unknown
en-jan(zwo) get to know, learn cf. lerni
jansa(kwo) knowledge
jan-sha, jannik(kwo) connoisseur

jangla(kwo) jungle

janmi(zwo) be born; give birth to
ta janmi in yar 1975 – he/shi was born in 1975
janma(kwo) birth
janmadey(kwo) birthday
janmalanda(kwo) native land, homeland, motherland
janmalok(kwo) native place, home
janmalingwa(kwo) native language
janmamarka(kwo) birthmark, mole
janming(kwo) childbirth, delivery
janmer(kwo) parent
janmiguan(kwo) maternity hospital see: guan

janmog(zwo) know how to, can see: jan, mog
Me janmog gani, yu janmog rasmi, bat nu ambi bu janmog swimi. – I can sing, you can draw, but we both cannot swim.
janmogsa(kwo) ability, skill, know-how

januar(kwo) January also: mes-un

jaopay(kwo) signboard

japat(kwo) fit (seizure; outburst of emotion); gust
feng japat – a gust of wind
japat-ney feng – gusty wind

japunga(kwo) dragonfly

jatile(kwel) intricate, sophisticated

jawabi(zwo) answer
jawaba(kwo) answer
jawaba-ney(kwel) reply, return
jawaba-ney leta – reply (letter), return mail

jay-jay(exklami) hip, hip, hooray! syn.: huraa
jay-jaysa(kwo) cheers, hurrahing
jay-jayka(kwo) cheer (a shout of congratulation)

jel(kwo) gel

jelatin(kwo) gelatin

jelee(kwo) jelly

jem(kwo) jam (sweet mixture of fruit boiled with sugar)

jen(kwo) man (human, any man or woman)
jenley(kwo) mankind cf. humanitaa
jen-ney(kwel) human
jenlik(kwel) human, humane (characteristic of human)
jenful(kwel) crowded
auslandajen(kwo) foreigner
lubijen(kwo) loved one, lover
samlandajen(kwo) compatriot
samtaimjen(kwo) contemporary (coexistent in time)
sendijen(kwo) envoy

jengun-ney(kwel) man-made, artificial cf. artifisiale
jengun-silka – artificial silk

jenmin(kwo) people (nation)
jenmin-ney(kwel) people's
interjenmin-ney(kwel) international syn.: internasion-ney

jenta(kwo) folk, (a particular group of) people
islajenta es hao jenta – islanders are good folk
urbajenta sempre hasti – townspeople always hurry
gunjenta(kwo) workpeople
yunge jenta – youth, young people

jesti(zwo) gesture, gesticulate
jesta(kwo) gesture (motion of the limbs or body)
jestalingwa(kwo) the gesture language, pantomime
jesting(kwo) gesticulation

jet-ney(kwel) jet, jet-propelled
jet-avion – jet, a jet-propelled aircraft

jigyas(kwo) curiosity, inquisitiveness
jigyas-ney(kwel) curious (eager to learn) cf. kuriose

jila(kwo) vein (blood vessel; nervure; lode; a long strip of a different colour) cf. arteria, vena

jilet(kwo) waistcoat

jinja(kwo) ginger

jinsa(kwo) jeans, denim

jip(kwo) jeep

jirafa(kwo) giraffe

jirak(kwo) cricket (insect)

jita(kwo) victory
jiti(zwo) win

jiva(kwo) life
jive (jiva-ney)(kwel) living, alive
bu pyu jive – late, deceased
jivaful(kwel) lively, animated
jivika(kwo) living thing/being/creature
jivi(zwo) live see also: trajivi
jivishil(kwel) viable, tenacious of life
rijivi(zwo) resuscitate, revive see also: ausjivi
Krista rijivi! – Christ has arisen!
rijivifi(zwo) return to life
rijivisi(zwo) bring back to life

joi(zwo) be glad, be happy, rejoice ant.: grivi cf. jui
me joi al vidi yu – I am glad to see you
joisa(kwo) joy
joisaful(kwel) joyful
joisi(zwo) gladden, make happy

jokey(kwo) jockey (one who rides racehorses)

joki(zwo) joke
joka(kwo) joke

jor(kwo) joint, articulation

joshi(zwo) effervesce (also fig.)
josha(kwo) effervescence


jota(kwo) harness
joti(zwo) harness
jotastanga(kwo) shaft (in harness)

judi(zwo) judge
judike(kwel) judicial
juda(kwo) judgement
judura(kwo) judgement of court
judiguan(kwo) law-court; tribunal syn.: tribunal
judidela(kwo) court trial, case
judista(kwo) judge
prejuda(kwo) prejudice

jui(zwo) enjoy (feel with pleasure, revel in) cf. joi
prejui(zwo) look forward to, foretaste
juisa(kwo) delight, enjoyment syn.: kaif

juk(kwo) beetle, bug
meyjuk(kwo) cockchafer, may-bug
gubrajuk(kwo) dung-beetle
lumijuk(kwo) firefly, glowworm
saltijuk(kwo) grasshopper
preijuk(kwo) mantis

juli(zwo) defraud, cheat, swindle syn.: trompi
jula(kwo) fraud (act)
julnik(kwo) fraud (person)

jumla(kwo) clause, sentence (gram.)

Jungwo(kwo) China see also: han
Jungwo-jen(kwo) inhabitant/citizen of China

jupa(kwo) skirt

Jupiter(kwo) Jupiter (planet) see also: Merkuri, Venus, Arda, Marsa, Saturna, Uran, Neptun, Pluton

jupidi(kwo) Thursday also: chardi see also: lunadi, marsadi, merkudi, venudi, saturdi, suryadi

jura(kwo) law (legal system) cf. kanun
internasion-ney jura – international law
jura-ney(kwel) juridical, law, legal
jurista(kwo) lawyer, jurist

jurap(kwo) stockings
jurap-tasma(kwo) garter

juri(kwo) jury
juriyuan(kwo) juror
jurilok(kwo) jury box


jurnal(kwo) magazine (periodical), journal
jurnalista(kwo) journalist, newsman

jus(kwo) juice; sap
frutajus(kwo) fruit juice
jus-ney(kwel) juicy
jusnesa(kwo) succulence

juste(kwel) just (equitable, fair) see also: korekte, prave, vere
justitaa(kwo) justice, fairness
nojuste(kwel) unjust, unfair
nojustitaa(kwo) injustice, unfairness

justifiki(zwo) justify
gola justifiki medias – the end justifies the means
justifika(kwo) justification

justis(kwo) justice (the civil power dealing with law)


kathe name of the letter K

kabel(kwo) cable (assembly of wires for electricity or a communications system)

kabestan(kwo) capstan

kabina(kwo) cab, cockpit, cabin (compartment for driver, pilot, or user)

kabluk(kwo) heel (part of shoe) cf. topuk

kabra(kwo) grave, sepulchre, tomb
kabralok(kwo) cemetery, graveyard

kabu(kwo) cape, promontory

kada, kada…(inplas-kwel) every
kada dey – every day
kadalok(inplas-komo) everywhere see: lok
kadawan(inplas-kwo) everyone see: wan
kadawan jan, ke … – everyone knows that …
Me inviti yu oli. Kadawan mog lai. – I invite all of you. Everyone may come.

kadena(kwo) chain
kadena de montas – chain of mountains

kafee(kwo) coffee house/bar/shop, café, cafeteria
kafeeyuan(kwo) café worker

kafkaf(kwo) cough
kafkafi(zwo) cough
ek-kafkafi(kwo) cough once, give a cough
kaf!(exklami) ahem! (coughing interjection)

kafsa(kwo) cage (an enclosure made of bars)

kahwa(kwo) coffee
kahwa bona – coffee beans
kahwadan(kwo) coffee-pot
kahwabaum(kwo) coffee tree
kahwameler(kwo) coffee-mill

kaif(kwo) delight, rapture, ecstasy syn.: juisa

kaila(kwo) wedge

kajal(kwo) soot

kakao(kwo) cacao

kaki(zwo) do caca syn.: feki
kaka(kwo) caca

kaktus(kwo) cactus

kalabi(zwo) tumble, somersault
kalaba(kwo) tumble, somersault

kalafati(zwo) caulk

kalam(kwo) a writing tool; pencil
bolkalam(kwo) ballpoint pen
kalamdan(kwo) pencil-box
sikin do kalam(kwo) penknife
kolorkalam(kwo) colour pencil

kalamar(kwo) squid

kalcha(kwo) hip (body part)

kalenda(kwo) calendar

kalibra(kwo) calibre, bore, gauge
kalibri(zwo) calibrate, gauge
kalibring(kwo) calibration

kalina(kwo) viburnum, guelder-rose

kalka(kwo) tracing paper; tracing paper copy; calque
kalki(zwo) trace (copy)

kalkuli(zwo) calculate, compute cf. figuri, konti
kalkula(kwo) calculation

kalkun(kwo) turkey
man-kalkun (kalkuno)(kwo) turkey cock
gin-kalkun (kalkunina)(kwo) turkey hen
yunkalkun(kwo) turkey-poult

kalme(kwel) calm cf. kyete, silense, trankwile
kalmitaa(kwo) calm
kalmi(zwo) calm (intr./tr.)
kalmifi (fa-kalme)(zwo) become calm, calm down
kalmisi (mah-kalme)(zwo) make calm, calm
kalmiser(kwo) sedative
kalming(kwo) calming

kalson(kwo) long johns, long underwear, drawers

kalsyum(kwo) calcium

kalu(kwo) corn, callosity, callus

kalve(kwel) bald, having but little hair
kalvika(kwo) bald spot/patch

kalyum(kwo) potassium

kama(kwo) bed (for sleeping) cf. kyar
fai kama – go to bed
kamatuh(kwo) bedsheet

kamar(kwo) girdle
pa kamar, in kamar – in one's belt
kamari(zwo) girdle

kamarada(kwo) comrade, mate

kamel(kwo) camel

kameleon(kwo) chameleon

kamera(kwo) camera (photo, video)

kamfer(kwo) camphor

kamila(kwo) camomile

kamin(kwo) fireplace

kamina(kwo) road
hao kamina – good road

kamion(kwo) lorry, truck (motor vehicle)

kamisa(kwo) shirt
T-kamisa (te-kamisa) – T-shirt

kamon(exklami) come on (an expression of encouragement, hurrying up, or disbelief)
kamon, shwo! – come on, speak!
kamon, go kway! – come on, go quickly!

kampa(kwo) camp (outdoor place; group of people)
kampi(zwo) camp

kampania(kwo) campaign

kan(zwo) look (try to see; to face or present a view), watch (view)
kan TV – watch TV
winda kan gata – windows face the street
kan sirkum – to look around
kan bak – look behind, glance back
ek-kan(zwo) glance quickly
kansa(kwo) look (action of looking; expression of eyes), glance
al un-ney kansa – at first sight

kana(kwo) cane, reed (bot.)
sukra-kana – sugar-cane

kanal(kwo) canal; channel

kanalya(kwo) rascal, scoundrel

kanapa(kwo) hemp
kanapafibra(kwo) hemp fiber

kanari(kwo) canary

kandela(kwo) candle
kandeladan(kwo) candlestick

kandidat(kwo) candidate

kanela(kwo) cinnamon

kanga(kwo) comb (a toothed implement)
kangi(zwo) comb
kangi swa – comb one's hair
trakangi(zwo) comb (search thoroughly; look through)
kanging(kwo) combing

kanguruu(kwo) kangaroo

kanon(kwo) cannon (artillery piece)

kanseli(zwo) cancel (annul, invalidate; also comp.)
kansela(kwo) cancellation, cancel

English, Spanish

kanser(kwo) cancer (disease)

kantalupa(kwo) cantaloupe

kanula(kwo) cannula

kanun(kwo) law cf. jura
kanun-ney(kwel) legal
nokanun-ney(kwel) illegal

kanva(kwo) canvas

kao(kwo) shackles, irons; handcuffs, manacles
handa-kao – handcuffs, manacles
kaovati(zwo) handcuff

kaosa(kwo) chaos

kapa(kwo) head; prow see also: dekapisi
spilakapa(kwo) pinhead
kol-kapa – head of cabbage

kapable(kwel) capable, able
kapablitaa(kwo) ability, faculty, capability

kapak(kwo) lid (cover)
genukapak(kwo) kneecap, patella
winda-kapak – shutter

kapal(kwo) skull

kapase(kwel) capacious, able to hold
kapasitaa(kwo) capacity

kapasima(kwo) crown of head see: kapa, sima

kapital(kwo) capital (wealth, resources)

kapitan(kwo) captain (milit., naval) see also: subkapitan

kaporal(kwo) corporal (officer)

kapra(kwo) cloth (woven fabric, material, stuff); linen
kotonkapra(kwo) cotton fabric
kamakapras(kwo) bed-clothes
linkapra(kwo) linen cloth
mortakapra(kwo) shroud, cerement
subkapra(kwo) lining see also: subkapra

kaprifolia(kwo) honeysuckle

kaprisa(kwo) whim, caprice
kaprisi(zwo) be capricious
kaprisnik(kwo) capricious/self-willed person

kapsel(kwo) cap (explosive device)

kapti(zwo) catch, capture, seize
kapta, kapting(kwo) capture (act of capturing), catching
kaptiwat(kwo) capture (smth captured), prey
kapter, kaptika(kwo) snare, trap
kapter, kapti-sha(kwo) catcher (smb that catches)

kapushon(kwo) hood (covering); cap (protective cover) cf. shapa
kalam kapushon – pen cap

kaput(komo) kaput, broken
Ta darbi kloka kaput. – He/She smashes the clock/watch.
kaput…(syao) kaput
kaputdarbi(zwo) smash
Ta kaputdarbi kloka. – He/She smashes the clock/watch.
Ta kaputraki-te swa-ney auto. – He/She wrecked his/her car.

karabe(kwel) corrupt, tainted, spoilt; depraved
karabisi(zwo) corrupt (taint, spoil; deprave, demoralize)

karada(kwo) lathe
karadi(zwo) lathe, operate a lathe
karader(kwo) turner, lathe operator

karaf(kwo) carafe, decanter

karakter(kwo) character (distinctive quality of a person or thing)
karakter-ney(kwel) characteristic
karakterisi(zwo) characterize

karamel(kwo) caramel
karamelisi(zwo) caramelize

karan(kwo) currant (bush, fruit)
rudkaran(kwo) red currant
swatkaran(kwo) black currant


karanfil(kwo) carnation, clove pink

karat(kwo) carat

karavan(kwo) caravan

karbon(kwo) carbon (chem.)
karbonisi(zwo) carbonize
karbonisa(kwo) carbonization

kardamom(kwo) cardamom

kare(kwel) dear (loved) cf. guy
Kare amigas! – Dear friends!

karesi(zwo) caress, fondle with affection
karesa(kwo) caress

karga(kwo) freight, cargo, lading
kargi(zwo) freight

kariera(kwo) career (occupation; the general course or progression of one's working life or one's professional achievements)

karikatura(kwo) caricature
karikaturi(zwo) caricature caricaturist
karikaturista(kwo) caricaturist

karim(kwel) kind (kindhearted)
bi karim – will you be so kind as, please
karimtaa(kwo) kindness

karisma(kwo) charisma

karitaa(kwo) charity, spiritual benevolence

karkasa(kwo) framework, skeleton see also: skelet

karke(kwel) rough, coarse, rude, harsh, rugged ant.: glate
karkem(kwel) roughly, coarsely, rudely

karmin(kwo) carmine
karmin-ney(kwel) carmine

karota(kwo) carrot

karpa(kwo) carp (fish)

karpenti(zwo) carpenter
karpenter(kwo) carpenter
karpentifah(kwo) carpentering

karpus(kwo) watermelon

karta(kwo) card
meil-karta – post card
nam-karta – visiting card
armee-karta – military ID
yuan-karta – membership card

karton(kwo) cardboard, pasteboard

kartun(kwo) cartoon (animated film)

kartush(kwo) cartridge (ammunition)
kartushdan(kwo) bandoleer, ammunition belt

karwe(kwel) bitter
karwitaa(kwo) bitterness

kasa(kwo) cash-box, till; cashier’s stand; fund
kaser(kwo) cashier

kasak(kwo) Cossack

kasam(kwo) oath, vow
fai kasam – to make (take) a vow, swear
defai kasam – take one’s vow/oath back
tori kasam – break one's oath

kaseta(kwo) cassette

kasha(kwo) porridge, gruel, mush; squash; slush, mess, jumble
snega-kasha – slush, mire

kashu(kwo) cashew

kaskasa(kwo) scales (platelike dermal or epidermal structures) cf. pondika, skala, vaka
kaskasinka(kwo) a single scale

kasna(kwo) treasury

kasrat(kwo) morning exercises

kastana(kwo) chestnut

kastela(kwo) castle

kasu(kwo) case (instance, event)
in sey kasu – in this case
in tal kasu – in such case
in eni kasu (enikas) – in any case
in maiste kasu – in most cases
kasuale(kwel) casual
kasualem(komo) casually syn.: ouran

kataloga(kwo) catalogue

katamaran(kwo) catamaran (twin-hulled ship or boat)

katapila(kwo) caterpillar

katapulta(kwo) catapult (weapon)

katastrofa(kwo) catastrophe

katedral(kwo) cathedral

kategoria(kwo) category
kategorike(kwel) categorical

kati(zwo) cut, clip, shear, mow, hew see also: auskati
kati herba – mow the grass
kata(kwo) cut
kating(kwo) cutting
harkata(kwo) haircut
katiwunda (katura)(kwo) cut, incised wound
kati-kili(zwo) slaughter

katlet(kwo) cutlet

katolike(kwel) (Roman) Catholic, Catholical
katolika(kwo) (Roman) Catholic (person)
katolikisma(kwo) (Roman) Catholicism

katorga(kwo) penal servitude

katran(kwo) tar, pitch

katri(zwo) cut out (form or shape by severing or incising, e.g. making a dress)
katring(kwo) cutting out

kauboy(kwo) cowboy

kauda(kwo) tail see also: akauda
in kauda de tren – at the tail of the train

Kaukas(kwo) the Caucasus

kaulu(zwo) consider, ponder, take into account
kaulu-yen – considering, taking into account
kaulusa(kwo) consideration, taking into account

kaunta(kwo) counter (flat surface on which money is counted, business is transacted, or food is prepared or served)

kausa(kwo) cause (source, reason) cf. rasum
bu sin kausa – not without reason; not for nothing
kausale(kwel) causal, causative
kausi(zwo) cause

kaval(kwo) horse
man-kaval (kavalo)(kwo) male horse, stallion
gin-kaval (kavalina)(kwo) female horse, mare
yunkaval(kwo) foal
shma-kaval – jade, nag
kavaldom(kwo) stable, stabling
kavaler, kavaljen(kwo) horseman, rider, equestrian
kavalyuan(kwo) groom, stableman see: yuan

kavaleria(kwo) cavalry

kavalier(kwo) cavalier (a well mannered man; gentleman)

kavi(zwo) dig, grub see also: auskavi
kavi arda – dig the earth
kaving(kwo) digging

kaviar(kwo) caviar

kazan(kwo) boiler
kazan-ki(kwo) cauldron
vaporkazan(kwo) steam boiler

ke – 1) (gramatika) that (introduces subordinate clause)
Me jan ke yu lubi me. – I know that you love me.
Me dai a yu may kitaba fo ke yu mog lekti it. – I give to you my book so that you can read it.
Es kitaba ke me he lekti. – It's the book that I have read.
2) (gramatika) begins a modifying group after a noun, without prepositions
kitaba ke yu he lekti – the book that you have read
dom ke nu jivi – the house in which we live
jen ke me shwo – the man I am talking about
dao ke yu go – the way you are going

keb(kwo) cab, cabriolet

kek(kwo) cake (a sweet baked food)

kel(gramatika) which, who, that (introduces subordinate clause, replaces subject)
Es gela kel pri gani. – This is a girl that likes to sing.

kela(kwo) cellar

kelke(inplas-kwanto) some (amount)
kelke kitaba – some books
kelke taim – some time
fo kelke taim – for some time
kelkes – several people; some people

kem(gramatika) than
Toy gaseta es meno interes-ney kem sey-la. – That newspaper is less interesting than this one.
Yu lopi pyu kway kem lu. – You run quicker than him.
Me pri sey gaseta pyu kem toy-la. – I like this newspaper more than that one.
kem … tem – the … the
kem pyu, tem pyu hao – the more the better

kemia(kwo) chemistry
organike kemia – organic chemistry
kemier(kwo) chemist (person working in chemistry)
kemike(kwel) chemical

ken(kwo) can (vessel); tin can also: tin ken
pintaken – can of paint

kentaur(kwo) centaur

kepa(kwo) cap with a peak

kerna(kwo) kernel

kerosin(kwo) kerosene

kes(kwo) cheese

ketla(kwo) kettle (vessel for boiling water for tea)

-ki(syao) "little, a little" (diminutive particle)
dom – house   ⇒   dom-ki – a little house
Jon – John   ⇒   Jon-ki – Johnny
somni – to sleep   ⇒   somni-ki – to take a nap

kiba(kwo) fang

kibrit(kwo) matches
un kibrit – a match
kibritdan(kwo) matchbox

kicha(kwo) mud
kicha-ney(kwel) muddy, miry

kida(kwo) kidskin, kid leather

kif(kwo) funnel (utensil)

kiki(zwo) kick
kiki-boxing – kick-boxing
kika(kwo) kick

kikiriki(exklami, zwo) cock-a-doodle-doo; to crow (utter the shrill cry characteristic of a cock or rooster)

kili(zwo) kill
kila(kwo) killing, murder
kiler(kwo) killer
kilibestia(kwo) predatory animal
kilifaula(kwo) predatory bird

kilogram (kilo)(kwo) kilogram

kilometra(kwo) kilometer see: metra
dwashi kilometra per ora – twenty kilometers per hour

kilya(kwo) keel

kimbimba(kwo) creeps, goose bumps
fai kimbimba – to feel creeps

kinah(kwo) louse

kinda(kwo) child
kinda-ney(kwel) child's, children's
kindalik(kwel) childish
kinda-yash(kwo) childhood
kinda-dom(kwo) children's home

kinin(kwo) quinine

kinjal(kwo) dagger, poniard

kinkinda(kwo) grandchild
kindocha(kwo) granddaughter
kinson(kwo) grandson

kino(kwo) cinema (film; art of making films; movie industry) see also: filma
kinoguan(kwo) cinema (movie theatre)

kinotruker(kwo) stuntman

kioska(kwo) kiosk, stand, stall, booth

kiparis(kwo) cypress

kipi – keep (maintain possession or condition of) syn.: reteni
kipi mani in banka – keep money in bank
kipi sekret – keep a secret
kipi nada – keep a hope

kirka(kwo) church (house; organization)
kirkayuan(kwo) churchman, clergyman

kirsa(kwo) cherry
kirsabaum(kwo) cherry tree
dolchekirsa(kwo) sweet cherry

kisan(kwo) peasant syn.: agrajen

kisi(zwo) kiss
kisa(kwo) kiss

kisma(kwo) destiny, lot cf. fata, lot

kitaba(kwo) book
kitaba-tana – bookshelf
kitaba-lemar – bookcase
kitabakin(kwo) booklet, brochure
kitabaguan(kwo) library
kitabashop(kwo) bookshop
kitabnik(kwo) book lover, bookworm
info-kitaba – reference book, guide

kiwi(kwo) 1) kiwi (bird); 2) kiwi fruit
kiwi-faula – kiwi bird
kiwi-fruta – kiwi fruit

klaida(kwo) clothes, clothing, garments
klaidi(zwo) dress, clothe
klaidi swa – dress oneself
klaiding(kwo) dressing (the activity of getting dressed)
klaidilok(kwo) changing room, locker room
deklaidi(zwo) undress
deklaidi swa(zwo) undress oneself
klaidawahta(kwo) checkroom, cloakroom
klaidatot(kwo) wardrobe (garments as a group)
ahfi-klaida – disguise
ahfi-klaidi – disguise

klan(kwo) clan

klapi(zwo) clap see also: slapi
klapi handas – clap one's hands
klosi-klapi dwar – slam the door
klap!(exklami) pop!, bang!
klapika(kwo) popgun; fly-swatter; flapper

klare(kwel) clear (also: fig.); light, light-coloured ant.: obskure, tume cf. yarke
klare har – fair hair
klare dey – bright day
selfa-klare – self-evident
klarem(komo) clearly
klarifi (fa-klare)(zwo) grow light(er), grow/become clear, clear up
klarisi (mah-klare)(zwo) clarify, make clear
klaritaa(kwo) clearness, clarity; lucidity
klare- – light-   ⇒   klare-blu – light-blue

klas(kwo) class (in var. meanings)
klas-shamba – classroom

klasika(kwo) classic, classics
klasike(kwel) classical
klasiker(kwo) classic (person)

klaspa(kwo) clasp, buckle
klaspi(zwo) clasp, buckle

klaun(kwo) clown

klava(kwo) key (of a keyboard)
klavatot(kwo) keyboard

klavikorda(kwo) clavichord

klaxon(kwo) klaxon
klaxoni(zwo) honk

klef(kwo) key (an object designed to open and close a lock)
klef e kufla – the key and the lock
klefi(zwo) lock (fasten with a lock)
beklefi koywan – lock smb up

klemi(zwo) press closely together, squeeze, tighten, clench
klemika(kwo) clamp, clip; pincer of a crustacean, claw

klen(kwo) maple

kleva(kwo) clover

klienta(kwo) client, customer

kliki(zwo) click, clack
klika(kwo) click, clack

klima(kwo) climate

klimatul(kwo) air conditioner

klimbi(zwo) climb
klimbi monta, klimbi pa monta – climb mountains
klimbi uupar koysa – climb up smth
klimbi nich – climb down

klin(kwel) clean (not dirty; unmarked; tidy) cf. pure
klintaa(kwo) cleanness, cleanliness, neatness
klinisi(zwo) clean
treba klinisi shamba – one should clean the room
klinisa(kwo) cleaning

klingi(zwo) cling, hold fast or adhere to smth, as by grasping, sticking, embracing, or entwining see also: glu, lipi
klingi a koysa – cling to smth

klinika(kwo) clinic (med.)
klinike(kwel) clinical

klok(gramatika) introduces time indication in hours
klok dwa – (at) two o'clock
kwel klok es? – what time is it?
klok ot e haf – half past eight
klok tri sin dwashi – twenty minutes to three

kloka(kwo) clock; watch
murkloka(kwo) wall clock
handakloka(kwo) wrist watch
kloker(kwo) watchmaker

klon(kwo) clone
kloni(zwo) clone
kloning(kwo) cloning

klor(kwo) chlorine

klosi(zwo) close, shut
klosa(kwo) closing, closure
klosen (klosi-ney)(kwel) closed, shut
beklosi koywan – shut smb in, close smb (somewhere)

klota(kwo) clot
kloti(zwo) clot syn.: koaguli

kluba(kwo) club (organized group)

kluki(zwo) cluck, cackle

knopa(kwo) drawing pin, thumbtack
knopi(zwo) pin/fix with a drawing pin/thumbtack

knuta(kwo) knout

koaguli(zwo) coagulate syn.: kloti
koagula(kwo) coagulation

koala(kwo) koala

koalision(kwo) coalition (union of persons, parties or states)

kobra(kwo) cobra

koda – 1) (kwo) code (a system of signals or symbols) cf. kodexa
2) (kwo) coda

kodexa(kwo) code (a systematic collection of laws or regulations) cf. koda

kogniti(zwo) cognize, come to know
kognita(kwo) cognition
kognitive(kwel) cognitive

koinsidi(zwo) coincide
koinsida(kwo) coincidence

koiti(zwo) perform the sexual act
koita(kwo) coitus, coition

kojansa(kwo) conscience

ko-jen(kwo) associate, helpmate see: jen
yu e yur ko-jen – you and your gang/mates

kok(kwo) chicken, hen / cock
gin-kok (kokina)(kwo) hen
man-kok (koko)(kwo) cock
yunkok(kwo) chick
kokmasu(kwo) chicken (meat)

koka(kwo) coca

kokain(kwo) cocaine
kokainisma(kwo) cocainism, cocaine addiction
kokainista(kwo) cocaine addict

kokete(kwel) coquettish
koketa(kwo) coquette
koketi(zwo) coquet, flirt

kokori(zwo) squat

kokosa(kwo) coconut (palm or fruit)
kokosa-palma – coconut palm
kokosa-nuta – coconut (fruit)

koktel(kwo) cocktail

kol(kwo) cabbage
bruselkol(kwo) Brussels sprouts
florkol(kwo) cauliflower see: flor

kolar(kwo) collar (of shirt or garment) cf. galsatasma

kolej(kwo) college (institution of education)

kolekti(zwo) collect (mostly in the sense "to accumulate similar items") cf. jami, rekoli
kolekti kitabas – collect books
kolekta(kwo) collection
kolekting(kwo) collecting
kolektura(kwo) collection (smth collected)

kolektiva(kwo) collective (group, body)
kolektiva-ney(kwel) collective, joint
kolektiva-nem(komo) collectively

kolina(kwo) hill
nichen kolina – at the foot of the hill
go nich kolina – go down the hill

kolona(kwo) column

kolonel(kwo) colonel
subkolonel(kwo) lieutenant colonel

kolonia(kwo) colony

kolor(kwo) colour
kolor-ney(kwel) coloured, colour
kolorkalam – colour pencil
kolori(zwo) colour cf. pikti, pinti
kolora(kwo) coloration
koloranta(kwo) colorant
dekolori(zwo) discolour

kom – 1) (gramatika) as (in comparisons, references)
Lu mog gani sam hao kom ela. – He can sing as good as her.
Gran kom elefanta. – Big as an elefant.
Kom me yo shwo-te – as I've already said.
ga kom yu – just like you
kom regula – as a rule
2) (gramatika) as, in the capacity of
Ela gun kom leker. – She works as a doctor.
shwo kom skusa – say for an excuse

koma – 1) (kwo) comma
dwa koma pet (de shifen) – 2,5
puntakoma(kwo) semicolon
2) (kwo) coma (med.)

komandi(zwo) be in command; command, order
komanda(kwo) command (order; the right to order) cf. orda, orden, ordina
sub komanda de koywan – under command of
komander(kwo) commander

kombini(zwo) combine
kombina(kwo) combination

komedia(kwo) comedy

komenti(zwo) comment
komenta(kwo) comment

komersi(zwo) trade, deal
komersa(kwo) commerce, trade
komersa-relatas – commercial relations
komersanta(kwo) merchant, businessman, trader

kometa(kwo) comet

komike(kwel) comic, ludicrous, funny, laughable

komiksa(kwo) comics, comic book, comic strip

komision(kwo) commission (group of people)

komitee(kwo) committee, board

komo, …komo(gramatika) how
Komo yu sta? – How are you?
Komo yu nami? – What is your name?
Komo gao es toy baum? – How high is that tree?

komoda(kwo) chest of drawers

kompa(kwo) computer also: kompyuter
porti-kompa – portable computer: notebook, laptop see: porti

kompakte(kwel) compact

kompania(kwo) company (business firm; one’s companions, companionship)

kompanion(kwo) companion (mate, one who keeps company with another person, one associated with another in an employment)

kompari(zwo) compare (kun koysa – with smth)
bukomparibile(kwel) incomparable; matchless, nonpareil
kompara(kwo) comparison
komparike(kwel) comparative

kompas(kwo) compass (navigational)

kompatible(kwel) compatible syn.: huntibile, konkordi-she, kombinibile
kompatiblitaa(kwo) compatibility

kompensi(zwo) compensate (to counterbalance, to make amends for, to make up for)
kompensa(kwo) compensation

kompetente(kwo) competent
kompetensia(kwo) competence

kompeti(zwo) vie, rival, compete cf. konkuri
kompeta(kwo) competition, rivalry
lopi-kompeta, raki-kompeta – race (contest)
kaval-kompeta – horse race

kompeter(kwo) rival

kompili(zwo) compile
kompila(kwo) compilation

komplementa(kwo) complement (that which is necessary to add to make a thing complete)
komplemente (komplementa-ney)(kwel) complementary
komplementi(zwo) complement
li komplementi mutu – they complement each other

komplete(kwel) complete
kompletem(komo) completely
kompletisi(zwo) complete; replenish
kompleta(kwo) (complete) set syn.: seta

komplexa(kwo) complex (a whole)
komplexe (komplexa-ney)(kwel) complex (of a complex)

komplike(kwel) complicated, complex (not simple) cf. komponi-ney
komplikisi(zwo) complicate
se komplikisi dela – this complicates the matter
komplikifa(kwo) complication

komplot(kwo) conspiracy, plot

komponenta(kwo) component, ingredient

komponi(zwo) compound, compose; consist (aus koysa – of smth)
komponen (komponi-ney)(kwel) composite, compound, complex (made up of multiple parts) cf. komplike
kompona(kwo) composition (general makeup; a mixture or compound)

komposi(zwo) compose (construct by mental labour)
komposi musika – compose music
komposer(kwo) composer
komposa(kwo) composition (act; a work of music, literature or art)

kompot(kwo) compote, stewed fruit syn.: fruta-chiwat, fruta-piwat

kompromis(kwo) compromise

kompyuter(kwo) computer also: kompa
kompyuterisi(zwo) computerize

komta(kwo) earl, count
komtalanda(kwo) county

komune(kwel) common (shared), communal

komuniki(zwo) communicate
komunika(kwo) communication

kondamni(zwo) condemn, sentence, doom cf. blami, damni, shatami
kondamni koywan a morta – condemn smb to death
kondamna(kwo) sentence; condemnation

kondesendi(zwo) condescend, deign
kondesenda(kwo) condescension

kondision(kwo) condition (requirement, term or requisite cf. stasa
kondision-ney(kwel) conditional

kondoli(zwo) condole with (express or feel sympathetic sorrow)
kondola(kwo) condolence

kondom(kwo) condom

kondukti(zwo) conduct (transmit, as heat, light, electricity) cf. dukti
kondukter(kwo) conductor (as of heat, electricity, etc.)
kondukta(kwo) conduction, conductivity

konekti(zwo) connect
konekta(kwo) connection
konektihisto(kwo) connective tissue

konferensa(kwo) conference

konfesi(zwo) confess
konfesa(kwo) confession

konfidi(zwo) confide (to), entrust

konfirmi(zwo) affirm, confirm, corroborate ant.: negi
konfirma(kwo) confirmation, corroboration

konforme(kwel) conforming, conformable, complying, compliant
konformitaa(kwo) conformity
konformisi(zwo) conform (tr.)
konformifi(zwo) conform (intr.)

konfusi(zwo) confuse
konfusa(kwo) confusion

kongres(kwo) congress (gathering)

koni(zwo) be acquainted, know cf. jan
Me bu koni toy jen. – I don't know that person.
Li bu koni mutu. – They are not acquainted with each other.
en-koni(zwo) become acquainted
koni-ney(kwel) familiar, known
koninesa(kwo) acquaintance (state of being acquainted)
mah-koni(zwo) acquaint
koniwan(kwo) acquaintance (person)
bukoniwan(kwo) stranger

konkesti(zwo) conquer, subdue, subjugate
konkesta(kwo) conquest, subjugation, subdual

konklusi(zwo) conclude (arrive at a logical conclusion; bring/come to an end)
konklusa(kwo) conclusion
pa konklusa – in conclusion, to conclude, to sum up

konkordi(zwo) agree, concord, accord
Se bu konkordi kun to ke yu shwo-te yeri. – It doesn't accord with what you said yesterday.
konkorda(kwo) agreement, harmony
konkordisi(zwo) bring into accord / agreement

konkrete(kwel) concrete (specific) ant.: abstrakte

konkuri(zwo) compete (esp. in business) cf. kompeti
konkuri-she(kwel) competitive, rival
konkura(kwo) competition

konsenti(zwo) consent, agree
Konsenten! – Agreed!
konsenta(kwo) consent, agreement

konsentri(zwo) concentrate
konsentra(kwo) concentration

konsepti(zwo) conceive (an idea), apprehend cf. imajini, konsipi
konsepta(kwo) conception, concept

konserta(kwo) concert (musical performance)

konservatorio(kwo) conservatoire

konservi(zwo) conserve (keep in a safe and sound state); preserve (of fruits, etc.)
konserva(kwo) conservation, preservation
konservika(kwo) thing conserved, preserve

konsi(zwo) be conscious
konsa(kwo) consciousness
konse (konsa-ney)(kwel) conscious
konsem (konsa-nem)(komo) consciously
dekonsi(zwo) lose consciousness
dekonsa(kwo) loss of consciousness, swoon, faint
rikonsi, rifai konsa(zwo) revive, regain consciousness; come to one's senses
sinkonsitaa(kwo) unconsciousness

konsili(zwo) advise
konsila(kwo) advice
konsiler(kwo) adviser
dekonsili(zwo) dissuade

konsilum(kwo) council
fai konsilum(zwo) take counsel

konsipi(zwo) conceive (become pregnant) cf. imajini, konsepti
konsipi kinda – to conceive a child
konsipa(kwo) conception (formation of a zygote)

konsoli(zwo) console (allay the sorrow or grief of), comfort, solace
konsola(kwo) consolation

konsonanta(kwo) consonant (sound, letter) ant.: vokala

konstante(kwel) constant
konstanta(kwo) constant
konstansia(kwo) constancy

konstati(zwo) state, establish, ascertain, certify
konstati fakta – to state the fact
konstata(kwo) statement, establishing

konstelasion(kwo) constellation syn.: stara-figura

konstitusion(kwo) constitution (the fundamental law)

konstrukti(zwo) construct syn.: bildi
konstrukter(kwo) constructor

konsula(kwo) consul
konsulaguan(kwo) consulate

konsulti(zwo) consult
konsulta(kwo) consultation
konsultanta(kwo) consultant

konsumi(zwo) consume, use up
konsuma(kwo) consumption

kontakti(zwo) contact
kontakta(kwo) contact

kontempli(zwo) contemplate (to look at attentively and thoughtfully)
kontempla(kwo) contemplation

konteni(zwo) contain, hold
kontena, konteniwat(kwo) content(s)
kontener(kwo) container

kontexta(kwo) context

konti(zwo) count (determine the number or enumerate the digits) cf. figuri, kalkuli
konta(kwo) count, reckoning
kontiyuan(kwo) accountant, bookkeeper

kontinenta(kwo) continent

kontinu(zwo) continue
kontinusa(kwo) continuation

kontinue(kwel) continuous
kontinuitaa(kwo) continuity

kontra, kontra… – 1) (konekti-komo) against, contrary to
kontra may vola – against my will
pa kontra a koywan – in defiance of, athwart, to spite smb
2) (konekti-komo) opposite, in front of (in space)
Dom es kontra kirka. – The house is opposite the church.
3) (konekti-komo) against (contact from an opposite direction; against the background)
apogi kontra mur – lean against the wall
4) (syao) "against"
kontrakosa(kwo) opposite, antipode
kontratoxin(kwo) antidote
kontrajen(kwo) opponent, adversary
kontra-ney(kwel) opposite
pa kontra-ney sahil – on the opposite side of the river
in kontra-ney kasu – in the opposite case
kontrem (kontra-nem)(komo) the other way round, on (to) the contrary syn.: doh
Tak, bu kontra-nem. – So, not otherwise.

kontrabanda(kwo) contraband smuggling
kontrabandi(zwo) smuggle

kontradikti(zwo) contradict
kontradikta(kwo) contradiction
kontradikta-ney(kwel) contradictory

kontralto(kwo) contralto

kontrasta(kwo) contrast
kontrasti(zwo) contrast

kontribu(zwo) contribute
kontribusa(kwo) contribution

kontroli(zwo) control
kontroli swa – control oneself, to be self-controlled
kontrola(kwo) control
kontroler(kwo) controller

konus(kwo) cone (figure)
konus-ney(kwel) conical

konversi(zwo) convert
konversa(kwo) conversion

konvinsi(zwo) convince
me es konvinsi-ney ke ta lugi – I am convinced that he is lying
konvinsa(kwo) persuasion, conviction (act of convincing; a firmly held belief, opinion)
konvinsinesa(kwo) conviction (the state of being convinced)
konvinsive(kwel) convincing

konvoki(zwo) convoke
konvoka(kwo) convocation

konyak(kwo) cognac

ko-operati(zwo) cooperate syn.: ko-gun
ko-operative(kwel) cooperative
ko-operata(kwo) cooperation

kopa(kwo) bowl (hemispherical vessel; a bowl-shaped object); goblet; calyx; flower cup

kopeyka(kwo) copeck

kopia(kwo) copy
kopi(zwo) copy
kopibile(kwel) copyable
koping(kwo) copying

kopilefta(kwo) copyleft

kopiraita(kwo) copyright see: kopi, raita
kopiraiti(zwo) copyright
kopiraiten kitaba – a copyrighted book

kopra1(kwo) dried coconut kernel


koral(kwo) coral

korda(kwo) rope, cord cf. syen
saltikorda(kwo) skipping-rope

kordia – 1) (kwo) heart (organ)
kordiale(kwel) cordial, hearty
kordialem(komo) cordially, heartily
2) (kwo) heart (suit of playing cards) see also: pleikarta

korekti(zwo) correct
korekta(kwo) correction
korekte (korekta-ney)(kwel) correct see also: juste, prave, vere

korespondi(zwo) correspond (answer in character or function, be adequate)
koresponda(kwo) correspondence
korespondi-she(kwel) corresponding

koridor(kwo) corridor, passage-way

korka(kwo) cork (bark; stopper) see also: tapa
korkatirika(kwo) corkscrew

korna(kwo) horn (of animals, as material or as used in wind instrument)

kornanos(kwo) rhinoceros see: korna, nos

kornea(kwo) cornea

korpa(kwo) body (but not a group of persons or collection of particulars)

korpabildi(zwo) practice bodybuilding
korpabilder(kwo) bodybuilder
korpabilding(kwo) bodybuilding

korporasion(kwo) corporation

korpus(kwo) corps
diplomatike korpus – diplomatic corps

korta(kwo) court, yard, courtyard; court (all the surroundings of a sovereign)
kortayuan(kwo) courtier (a person in attendance at a royal court)

korva(kwo) raven

kosa(kwo) thing

ko-senti(zwo) sympathize (with), feel (for)

kosinus(kwo) cosine (math.)

kosmo(kwo) cosmos
kosmike(kwel) cosmic
kosmokostum(kwo) space suit

kosmonauta(kwo) astronaut

kosti(zwo) cost
Kwanto kosti? – How much does it cost?
kosta(kwo) cost

kostum(kwo) suit (set of clothes)
swimi-kostum – swimsuit

kota(kwo) cat (feline)
man-kota (koto)(kwo) male cat
gin-kota (kotina)(kwo) female cat
yunkota(kwo) kitten

koton(kwo) cotton

kovi(zwo) brood, incubate, hatch (cause to hatch)
kovilot(kwo) brood

kovra(kwo) cover, covering
sub kovra de nocha – under cover of night
tablakovra(kwo) table-cloth
kovri(zwo) cover
dekovri(zwo) uncover
bukovri-ney(kwel) not covered; undisguised

koy, koy…(inplas-kwel) some
Dar ye koy jen, me bu koni lu. – There is some man there, I don't know him.
koygrad(inplas-komo) to some degree, to a certain extent see: grad
Yu es prave. Bat sol koygrad. – You are right. But only to a certain extent.
koykomo(inplas-komo) somehow, in some way or other see: komo
Me mus zwo se koykomo. – Somehow I must do it.
koylok(inplas-komo) somewhere see: lok
May planeta es koylok dar. – My planet is somewhere there.
Pon ya yur bao a koylok. – Do put your bag somewhere.
koysa(inplas-kwo) something
Me bu jan kwo es inen. Bat me nadi ke dar ye koysa kel es muy jamile. – I don't know what is inside. But I hope that there is something very beautiful.
koytaim, koywen(inplas-komo) somewhen, sometime, some time see: taim, wen
Lai ba koytaim manya. – Come tomorrow some time.
Ela gwo dansi hao koytaim. – She used to dance well formerly.
Koywen me ve hev un gran dom. – Some day I'll have a big house.
koyves(inplas-komo) sometimes see: ves
May oma jivi ausen urba. Me visiti ela koyves. – My grandmother lives out of town. I visit her sometimes.
koywan(inplas-kwo) somebody see: wan
Me audi koy vos. Dar ye koywan, baken dwar. – I hear some voice. There is somebody behind the door.

kraba(kwo) crab (crustacean)

krai(zwo) cry (shout) cf. plaki
kraisa(kwo) cry (shout)
kraishil(kwel) vociferous
kraiyuan(kwo) town/public crier

kraki(zwo) crackle, crack, crunch
kraking(kwo) crackling, crack, crunch
krak!(exklami) crack!

kran(kwo) faucet, stopcock, tap, spigot
ofni kran – turn on a faucet

krapi(zwo) snore
krapa, kraping(kwo) snore, snoring

krashi(zwo) crush, squeeze

kreati(zwo) create
kreative(kwel) creative
kreata, kreating(kwo) creation
kreatura(kwo) creature

kreba(kwo) crawfish, crayfish

kredi(zwo) believe
kredi (a) koywan – believe smb
kredi in boh – believe in god
kreda(kwo) belief, faith
duskreda(kwo) superstition
krednik(kwo) true believer, the faithful
kredibile(kwel) credible, verisimilar, believable
nokredibile(kwel) incredible, unbelievable
kredival(kwel) plausible, credible, convincing

kredita(kwo) credit (business, finances)
krediti(zwo) credit

krek(kwo) crack, crevice, fissure, cleft, split
kreki(zwo) crack, cleave
nuta-kreker – nutcracker
kreking(kwo) cracking

krem(kwo) cream
aiskrem(kwo) ice-cream
shu-krem – shoe polish

kren(kwo) horseradish

kresi(zwo) grow (but not "become")
kresa(kwo) growth
dekresi(zwo) decrease
bekresi(zwo) overgrow
livada bekresen bay flor – a meadow overgrown with flowers

kreson(kwo) cress

kresta(kwo) crest, ridge, top

kreta(kwo) chalk

Krim(kwo) Crimea

krimen(kwo) crime (act)
krimenale(kwel) criminal
krimenalitaa(kwo) criminality; crime (practice)
krimenjen(kwo) criminal

kripi(zwo) creep, crawl

krisa(kwo) crisis

Krista(kwo) Christ
kristajanma(kwo) Christmas syn.: yul
kristakreda(kwo) Christianity
kristajen(kwo) Christian
kristisi(zwo) christen, baptize

kristal(kwo) crystal

kriteri(kwo) criterion

kritike(kwel) critical (1. involving criticism; 2. crucial, pivotal, decisive)

kritiki(zwo) criticize
kritika(kwo) criticism
kritika-ney(kwel) critical, of criticism
kritiker(kwo) critic

kroket(kwo) croquet (game)

krokodil(kwo) crocodile

krome, krome… – 1) (konekti-komo) besides, in addition to
krome to – besides that, moreover
Me es gro-fatigi-ney. Krome, taim yok. – I'm very tired. Besides there is no more time.
In sey kitaba ye pikturas krome texta. – In this book there are also pictures in addition to the text.
Krome lekti it, yu mog yoshi kan pikturas. – Besides reading you can also look at the pictures.
2) (syao)
kromegun – work additionally, make some money on the side
kromepaga – extra payment

krona(kwo) crown (also: fig. as of teeth); former British coin worth 5 shillings
kroni(zwo) crown
kroning(kwo) crowning, coronation
dekroni(zwo) uncrown

kronika(kwo) chronicle
kroniki(zwo) chronicle

kronike(kwel) chronic

kros – 1) (kwo) cross
krosi(zwo) cross, intersect
krosa(kwo) intersection, crossing
daokrosa – crossroads
2) (kwo) clubs (suit of playing cards) see also: pleikarta

krosta(kwo) crust, incrustation; scab (incrustation)
pan-krosta – a crust of bread

kru(kwel) raw, crude
kru masu – raw meat

kruele(kwel) cruel syn.: brutale, ferose

kruga(kwo) jar, jug, pitcher

kruma(kwo) crumb
krumi(zwo) crumb, crumble

krushi(zwo) crash, collapse
krusha(kwo) crash, collapse, wreck
krushisi(zwo) smash, defeat, beat, shatter
krushisa(kwo) rout, crushing defeat

krute(kwel) steep syn.: abrupte
nokrute(kwel) slightly/gently sloping

ku(gramatika) interrogative particle see also: ob
Me darfi zin ku? – May I come in?
Yu pri sey kitaba ku? – Do you like this book?
Yu lai ku? – Are you coming?
Yu ku lai? – Is it you who will come?

Kuba(kwo) Cuba
Kuba-jen(kwo) inhabitant/citizen of Cuba

kuba(kwo) cube
kubike(kwel) cubic

kuda(kwo) elbow (also: a length of pipe with a sharp bend in it)

kufla(kwo) lock (device for fastening)
pendikufla(kwo) padlock

kukaracha(kwo) cockroach

kuki(zwo) cook
kuking(kwo) cooking
kuker(kwo) cook
kukishamba, kukilok(kwo) kitchen

kukla(kwo) doll

kuku(kwo) cuckoo
kuku fai ku-ku – a cuckoo cries "cuckoo"

kul(komo) cool, super
kul-ney(kwel) cool, excellent, first-rate

kula(kwo) bullet (projectile)
kuladan(kwo) case (receptacle for bullet)
kulakin(kwo) (small) shot
kulagron(kwo) shell (projectile for cannon)

kulak(kwo) fist
kulak-batala(kwo) fistfight

kulmini(zwo) culminate, reach the highest point
kulmina(kwo) culmination

kulpa(kwo) guilt
es may kulpa – it's my guilt
kulpe (kulpa-ney)(kwel) guilty
kulpe om koysa – guilty of smth
kulpe versu koywan – guilty towards smb
sinkulpe (sinkulpa-ney)(kwel) guiltless, innocent
kulpanesa(kwo) guiltiness

kultivi(zwo) cultivate
kultiva(kwo) cultivation

kultura(kwo) culture
kulture (kultura-ney)(kwel) cultural
kulturisi(zwo) culturize

kum…(syao) god- (related through christening)
kumpatra(kwo) godfather
kummata(kwo) godmother
kumson(kwo) godson
kumman(kwo) godfather of one's child; father of one's godchild
kumisma(kwo) nepotism

kumin(kwo) caraway

kun(konekti) with, along with
Me yao go adar kun yu. – I want to go there with you.
Me pri pi chay kun milka. – I like to drink tea with milk.
Gina kun bavul. – Woman with a suitcase.
kunem(komo) with oneself
Pren me kunem! – Take me with you!
Mani bu es kunem. – I don't have money on me (with me).

kunda(kwo) butt (of gun)
Hindi, Pashtoo

kundal(kwo) earring

kungo(zwo) go together, go along with see: kun, go

kunila(kwo) rabbit

kunpren(zwo) take with one see: kun, pren

kunshwo(zwo) converse, talk syn.: toki
kunshwosa(kwo) conversation, talk
kunshwoer(kwo) interlocutor

kupala(kwo) Midsummer Day

kupi(zwo) buy see also: auskupi
kupa(kwo) purchase (act of purchasing or smth purchased)
kuping(kwo) shopping
kuper(kwo) buyer, purchaser

kuprum(kwo) copper

kupula(kwo) cupola, dome

kuraja(kwo) courage, boldness
kuraje (kuraja-ney)(kwel) courageous, bold, daring, audacious
kuraji(zwo) dare, be bold, venture
kurajisi(zwo) encourage, hearten
kurajnik(kwo) man of courage
nokuraja(kwo) cowardice

Kuran(kwo) Quran

kurban(kwo) sacrifice
kurbani(zwo) sacrifice


kurd – 1) (kwo) Kurd
2) (kwel) Kurdish

kuri(zwo) court (someone of the opposite sex) woo

kuriose(kwel) curious (odd arousing interest because of novelty or strangeness) cf. jigyas-ney

kurkuma(kwo) turmeric

kurla(kwo) curls
kurlinka(kwo) curl
kurli(zwo) curl (intr.)
kurlisi(zwo) curl (tr.), twist into ringlets or coils
kurlisa(kwo) curling, (hair-)wave
kurle (kurla-ney), kurlahar-ney(kwel) curly, curly-haired

kursa(kwo) course (of lessons, of lectures of study, etc.); (fin.) rate (of exchange); course (direction)

kurte(kwel) short
kurti(zwo) shorten (tr./intr.)
kurtisi (mah-kurte)(zwo) shorten (make shorter)
kurtifi (fa-kurte)(zwo) shorten (become shorter)
kurtem(komo) shortly, in short

kurtena(kwo) curtain syn.: parda
kurteni(zwo) curtain
dekurteni(zwo) uncurtain

kurupe(kwel) ugly, unsightly
kurupa(kwo) ugly creature, ugly person

kurve(kwel) curved, crooked, bent
kurva(kwo) curve
kurvitaa(kwo) curvature
kurvi(zwo) curve, bend (tr./intr.)
kurvifi(zwo) curve, bend (become curved), wind
kurvisi(zwo) curve, bend (cause smth to change its shape into a curve)

kushale(kwel) skilful, deft, dexterous, clever
nokushale(kwel) awkward, clumsy

kushen(kwo) pillow, cushion
kushenkuta(kwo) pillow case

kusi(zwo) bite
kusa(kwo) bite
kusishil(kwel) biting (tending to bite)

kuta(kwo) tegument, coating, envelope (wrapping)
baumkuta(kwo) tree bark
letakuta(kwo) envelope (wrapper for a letter)
kuti(zwo) envelop, wrap, cover, coat
dekuti(zwo) uncoat, unwrap; peel

kuydi(zwo) care, take care; be concerned, worry ant.: neglekti
kuydi kinda – care for children
kuydi flor – look after flowers
bu kuydi om to – don't worry about that
kuyda(kwo) care, concern, worry
kun kuyda – with care
kuyde (kuyda-ney)(kwel) careful, thorough
kuydem (kuyda-nem)(komo) carefully, thoroughly
kuydishil(kwel) careful, considerate, conscientious
sinkuyde (sinkuyda-ney)(kwel) careless; carefree
sinkuydem (sinkuyda-nem)(kwel) carelessly; light-heartedly, with complete unconcern
kuydaful(kwel) preoccupied

kwadra – 1) (kwo) square (polygon); check (square)
kwadri(zwo) square (raise to the second power)
kwadre (kwadra-ney)(kwel) square (but not "honest, fair")
kwadra-riza – square root
kwadras-ney, do kwadras(kwel) checkered (divided into squares)
2) (kwo) diamonds (suit of playing cards) see also: pleikarta

kwadranta(kwo) quadrant (device)

kwadrila(kwo) quadrille (dance)

kwaizi(kwo) chopsticks syn.: chi-stik see also: chitul
chi bay kwaizi – eat with chopsticks
un para kwaizi – a pair of chopsticks
un ge kwaizi – a chopstick

kwaki(zwo) croak (of a frog, to make its cry)
bakak kwaki – frog croaks

kwalifi(zwo) qualify (characterize; certify)
kwalifa(kwo) qualification

kwalitaa(kwo) quality ant.: kwantitaa
kwalitaa-ney(kwel) qualitative

kwalma(kwo) fumes, charcoal fumes

kwan(kwo) well

kwanshi(kwo) ore
fer kwanshi – iron ore
kwanshilok(kwo) mine (place where ores and minerals are extracted) cf. mina

kwantitaa(kwo) quantity ant.: kwalitaa
kwantitaa-ney(kwel) quantitative

kwanto(kwesti) how much, how many
Kwanto yar yu hev? – How old are you?
Kwanto it kosti? – How much does it cost?
Me bu ve pagi tanto kwanto lu yao. – I will not pay as much as he wants.

kwantum(kwo) quantum (physics)

kwarza(kwo) quartz

kwas(kwo) kvass

kwasi(konekti-komo) quasi, as if, as it were, as though
Ta shwo kwasi me bu audi hao. – He speaks as if I don't hear him well.

kway(kwel, komo) quick, rapid, fast; quickly, rapidly, promptly cf. akseleri
kway tren – fast train
kway kom bliza – as quick as lightning
kwaytaa(kwo) quickness, rapidity; speed, velocity

kwaylok(kwo) rapids

kwel(kwesti) which, what (which one) cf. kwo
Kwel es lu? – What is he like?
Kwel de li? – Which (one) from them?
Kwel kitaba yu zai lekti? – What book are you reading?
Suy okos es do kwel kolor? – What color are her eyes?
Kwel bus go adar? – What bus goes there?
Kwelgrad? – To what extent?

kwereli(zwo) quarrel (engage in a quarrel; dispute angrily)
kwerela(kwo) quarrel, altercation, variance, brawl

kwerka(kwo) oak

kwesti(zwo) ask
kwesta(kwo) question
kweste (kwesta-ney)(kwel) interrogative
kwestem (kwesta-nem)(komo) interrogatively
kwesti-signa(kwo) question-mark
bekwesti(zwo) interrogate
bekwesta(kwo) interrogation, questioning

kwiti(zwo) abandon, forsake, quit
Bu kwiti me! – Don't abandon me!
kwiti kama – get out of bed
kwiti molya, gunsa – quit the wife, the work
kwiti fumi – give up smoking

kwo(kwesti) what ("what" as an adjective (before a noun) is kwel)
Kwo yu maini? – What do you mean?
Kwo es se? – What is this?

kwota(kwo) quota

kyar(kwo) bed (a small plot of cultivated or planted land) cf. kama
florkyar – flower-bed

kyete(kwel) quiet; still cf. kalme, silense, trankwile
kyetem(komo) quietly
kyetitaa(kwo) quiet; still

Kyete Osean(kwo) the Pacific


la, -la(gramatika) substantivator, substitute word, singular see also: las, -las
Me hev dwa rosa. Sey-la es rude e toy-la es blan. – I have two roses. This one is red and that one is white.
Bat me pri hwan-la zuy. – But I like the yellow one most.
Ye yoshi kelke kriteri: la de kurtitaa, la de hao-suonitaa … – Moreover there are a few criteria: that of shortness, that of good sound …

laba(kwo) lip

label(kwo) label
labeli(zwo) label

laboratoria(kwo) laboratory

ladi(zwo) go right, go well; put right, put in order, fix up, settle, make smth OK
ladi dela – to settle an affair
olo ladi – everything goes good
ladi kun koywan – get on with smb, be on good terms with smb
lada(kwo) OK-condition, harmony
deladi(zwo) upset, disconcert
riladi(zwo) refix, restore to normal

lagan(kwo) zeal; diligence, assiduity, painstakingness
lagan-ney(kwel) zealous; diligent, assiduous

lagi(zwo) lie (be in horizontal position; be situated)
lagilok(kwo) den, lair

laguna(kwo) lagoon

lai(zwo) come
me lai klok dwa – I'll come at 2 o'clock
laisa(kwo) coming
lai-she(kwel) coming; next
lai-she yar – the coming year
pa lai-ves – next time
lai-sha(kwo) comer
ek-lai(zwo) to suddenly arrive or appear

laik(gramatika) marker of improvised image-bearing words including onomatopoeic

lak(kwo) lake

laka(kwo) varnish, lacquer
laki(zwo) varnish, lacquer
laking(kwo) varnishing, lacquering

lakey(kwo) lackey (footman; servile follower) syn.: subnik

lakme(kwel) dainty, tasty, delicious
lakme lokma – tasty morsel
lakma(kwo) dainty, delicacy

lali(zwo) cherish (treat with affection and tenderness)

lama(kwo) 1) lama; 2) llama

lampa(kwo) lamp

lan(kwel) lazy, idle
lanfai(zwo) be lazy, idle one's time away
lantaa(kwo) laziness
lannik(kwo) lazy fellow, idler, sluggard, loafer

landa(kwo) land see also: auslanda
landi(zwo) land

Landan(kwo) London

langusta(kwo) spiny lobster, rock lobster

lanset(kwo) lancet

lansi(zwo) throw, cast; hurl; launch
fa-lansi a/inu – throw oneself to/into, dash/rush to
raslansi(zwo) to throw around, scatter
lansa(kwo) throw; launch
lansika(kwo) sling (instrument for throwing); slingshot, (boy's) catapult
korda-lansika – sling
Y-lansika (ye-lansika) – slingshot

lanza(kwo) spear, pike, lance

lao(kwel) old
laotaa(kwo) oldness
lao yash(kwo) old age
laojen(kwo) old person
laoman(kwo) old man
laogina(kwo) old woman
laoyuan(kwo) elder, senior
fa-lao(zwo) grow old, age
mah-lao(zwo) make old, age

lapa(kwo) flap, tail, skirt

lapu(kwo) burdock
lapuspika, lapuka(kwo) bur, prickly husk of burdock
lapulif(kwo) burdock leaf

laringa(kwo) larynx

larma(kwo) tear (drop(s) of liquid from the eyes)

las, -las(gramatika) substantivator, substitute word, plural see also: la, -la
Me hev mucho rosa. Me pri blan-las zuy. – I have many roses. I like the white ones most.

laser(kwo) laser

lash(kwo) cadaver, dead body

lasi(sta) let (allow) see also: auslasi, weklasi
lasi me go, lasi me wek – let me go
lasi lwo – let fall, drop
lasi koywan zin, lasi koywan inu – let smb in
lasi me dumi idyen – let me think a little bit
Bye lasi me fali! – Don't let me down!

laska(kwo) weasel

laste(kwel) last (final or latest)
go pa laste – to go last
prelaste(kwel) last but one, next to last, penultimate; one from the bottom

lata(kwo) patch (piece of material used to mend or cover a hole)
lati(zwo) patch

latif(kwel) affable, polite, courteous

latina – 1) (kwel) Latin
2) (kwo) Latin (person)
3) (kwo) Latin (language)

latino(kwo) Latino, of Latin American descent

latituda(kwo) latitude also: geografike chauritaa see also: longituda

laudi(zwo) praise
laudi-worda – compliment, commendation
laudi-bashan – laudatory speech, eulogy
laudike(kwel) laudatory
laudival(kwel) laudable, commendable, praiseworthy
lauda(kwo) praise

laura(kwo) laurel
lauras – laurels

laureat(kwo) laureate

laute(kwel) loud
lautem(komo) loud, aloud, loudly
bulautem(komo) in a low voice, in an undertone
lautvos-ney(kwel) vociferous, loud-voiced

lavanda(kwo) lavender

lavina(kwo) avalanche

laxe(kwel) lax, loose, relaxed, slack
laxi(zwo) relax, loosen (tr./intr.)
laxi muskula – relax muscles
laxi noda – loosen the knot
laxifi (fa-laxe)(zwo) relax, loosen (become loose or less tense)
laxifa(kwo) relaxation
laxisi (mah-laxe)(zwo) relax, loosen (make smth loose or less tense)
laxisi arda – loosen soil
laxisika(kwo) laxative, purge, purgative

laza(kwo) rubbish, waste, trash, garbage, litter
laza monton – scrapheap
lazadan(kwo) dustbin, garbage can, trash can
lazalok, lazika(kwo) dump

lefte(kwel) left ant.: desne
lefta(kwo) left, left side
a lefta(loko-komo) (to the) left
Kan a lefta! – Look left!
Hir treba turni a lefta. – Here one should turn left.
leften(konekti-komo) at the left (of)
Leften ye garden. – There is a garden at the left.
Garden es leften dom. – The garden is to the left of the house.

legenda(kwo) legend
legenda-ney, legendare(kwel) legendary

legum(kwo) vegetable
legumgarden(kwo) vegetable garden

leki(zwo) cure, heal, treat (care for medicinally)
leking(kwo) cure, healing, (medical) treatment
lekika(kwo) medicine, drug, cure
lekiguan(kwo) clinic, medical facility
leker(kwo) physician, doctor see also: doktor

lekipiwat(kwo) potion (medicinal liquid) see: leki, piwat

lekti(zwo) read
lekting(kwo) reading (act)
lektiwat(kwo) reading (material to read)
lekter, lekti-sha(kwo) reader (person)
lektibile(kwel) readable, legible
lekter, lektika(kwo) reader (device)

lektia(kwo) lecture

leleka(kwo) stork

lemar(kwo) cupboard, closet, press, bookcase, wardrobe
lemarkin(kwo) nightstand, bedside table

lenga(kwo) cold (condition of low temperature)
lenge (lenga-ney)(kwel) cold
lenge akwa – cold water
es lenge hir – it's cold here
me sta lenge – I am cold, I feel cold
lengem (lenga-nem)(komo) coldly
jawabi lengem – answer chilly / stiffly
lengitaa(kwo) coldness
lengi(zwo) cool (intr./tr.)
lengifi (fa-lenge)(zwo) cool (get colder, lose heat)
lengisi (mah-lenge)(zwo) cool (make cooler)
lengiser(kwo) cooler
lengitura(kwo) cold (illness)
pai/fai lengitura – catch a cold

lente(kwel) slow
lentem(komo) slowly

lentila(kwo) lentil

leon(kwo) lion
gin-leon(kwo) lioness
man-leon(kwo) male lion

leoparda(kwo) leopard

lepi(zwo) mould, model, to make a model (in clay, wax) cf. modeli
leping(kwo) moulding, modelling
lepitura(kwo) smth moulded, modelled

lepra(kwo) leprosy

lerni(zwo) learn (but not "get to know, find out") cf. en-jan
lerner(kwo) learner
lernikitaba(kwo) textbook, manual
lerna, lerning(kwo) learning
lerni-ney(kwel) learned, erudite
lerninesa(kwo) learnedness, erudition
delerni(zwo) unlearn

leson(kwo) lesson
dai leson – give a lesson
dukti leson – conduct a lesson

lesti(zwo) flatter, adulate
lesta(kwo) flattery, adulation
lestinik(kwo) flatterer, adulator

leta(kwo) letter (written message)
letakuta(kwo) envelope
letayuan(kwo) mailman, postman
fai leta(zwo) correspond (exchange messages)

letnan(kwo) lieutenant

letra(kwo) letter (a symbol in an alphabet)
letravati(zwo) spell (letters)

leuga(kwo) league (unit)

leukemia(kwo) leukemia, leukosis

leve(kwel) light (not heavy; gentle); slight
leve musika – light music
levifi (fa-leve)(zwo) lighten (become light or lighter in weight or seriousness)
levisi (mah-leve)(zwo) lighten (make lighter; alleviate)
levifa/levisa(kwo) alleviation; relief

lexika(kwo) vocabulary (words of a language collectively)
lexike(kwel) lexical

lexikon(kwo) dictionary, vocabulary

ley1(inplas-kwel) their short form of li-ney

ley…2(syao) "kind, sort, type"
jen – man   ⇒   jenley – mankind
gaoley talim – higher education

li(inplas-kwo) they; them see also: me, yu, lu, ela, it, ta, nu
Li gani hao. – They sing well.
Me shwo danke a li. – I thank them.
ley (li-ney)(inplas-kwel) their
Es li-ney kinda, bu nu-ney. – This is their child, not ours.

liana(kwo) liana

libre(kwel) free
libritaa(kwo) liberty, freedom
librifi (fa-libre)(zwo) become/get free
librisi (mah-libre)(zwo) set free, liberate
librifa/librisa(kwo) liberation

lider(kwo) leader (head of; best or dominant person/thing)
lideri(zwo) take first place, be in the lead
lidertaa(kwo) leadership

lif(kwo) leaf; sheet (piece of paper; flat layer of solid material)
liftot(kwo) foliage
lifi(zwo) browse, leaf through
liflwosa(kwo) leaf fall

lifti(zwo) raise, lift, elevate
ek-lifti plechas – shrug one's shoulders
fa-lifti on pedafinga – rise on tiptoe
pren-lifti – pick up
lifta(kwo) rise, elevation
lifti swa – rise (to one's feets), get up
lifter(kwo) lift, elevator

ligi(zwo) tie, tie up, fasten, bind, link see also: aligi
ligi doga – tie up a dog
ligi bay wada – bind by promise
liga(kwo) tie, bond; league
Jenmin Liga – The League of Nations
deligi(zwo) untie, unfasten, unbind
fa-deligi(zwo) come untied

ligna(kwo) timber; wood; firewood
lignatabla(kwo) wooden table
lignapuda(kwo) sawdust
ligna-pila – stack of firewood, pile of logs
haki ligna – chop wood
ligne (ligna-ney)(kwel) wooden, ligneous

lihua(kwo) ploughshare syn.: pluga-sikin

liki(zwo) leak
lika(kwo) leak, leakage

likwe(kwel) liquid, fluid
likwa(kwo) liquid, fluid
likwi(zwo) melt (tr./intr.)
likwifi (fa-likwe)(zwo) melt, thaw
likwisi (mah-likwe)(zwo) melt (make liquid)

lilak(kwo) lilac

lima(kwo) lime (citrus fruit)

limita(kwo) limit
limiti(zwo) limit, confine
limiti swa(zwo) limit/restrict oneself
limiting(kwo) limitation
limita-ney(kwel) limit, maximum, top

limon(kwo) lemon

limonada(kwo) lemonade

limpa(kwo) spleen (organ) cf. splin

lin(kwo) flax
linkapra(kwo) linen cloth

linda(kwo) linden

lingota(kwo) ingot, bar

lingwa(kwo) language

lingwistika(kwo) linguistics
lingwistike(kwel) linguistic

linia(kwo) line (writing printing, telegraphic, genealogical, military) cf. reka
gas-linia(kwo) gas pipeline
linisi(zwo) line, rule (paper, etc.)
liniser(kwo) ruler (measuring or drawing device)

linka(kwo) hyperlink, link

linolyum(kwo) linoleum

linsa(kwo) lens

linxa(kwo) lynx

lipi(zwo) adhere (stick fast by or as if by glue) (intr.) see also: glu, klingi
lipisi(zwo) adhere, stick (fasten or attach with an adhesive material)
lipi-she(kwel) adhesive, sticky, glutinous

lipilabel(kwo) sticker (an adhesive label or decal) see: lipi, label

lisan(kwo) tongue (organ in the mouth)

lisensa(kwo) license (permission)
lisensi(zwo) license

lisi(zwo) lick see also: lisipedi
lisi-pi(zwo) lap (take in a liquid with the tongue)
Kota he lisi-pi milka. – The cat lapped up the milk.

lisipedi(zwo) cringe, grovel, fawn, toady see: lisi, peda
lisipednik(kwo) toady, lickspittle, bootlicker, sycophant

lista(kwo) list

literati(zwo) engage in literature
literater(kwo) man of letters

literatura(kwo) literature
literature (literatura-ney)(kwo) literary

liti(zwo) pour (about a liquid) see also: sipi
misliti(zwo) spill

litra(kwo) litre

liturgia(kwo) liturgy

liva(kwo) lever

livada(kwo) meadow

lizarda(kwo) lizard

lo(gramatika) imparts the meaning of general notion
Es lo zuy muhim. – It's the most important thing.
Lo tal mus bu repeti. – Such a thing must not repeat.
lo sirkum – milieu, surroundings, environment
lo longtaim-bak – days of yore

loda(kwo) load, burden
lodi(zwo) load see also: sobrelodi
loding(kwo) loading
nichlodi(zwo) download
uuparlodi(zwo) upload

lof(kwo) loaf (a block of baked bread)
Scottish Gaelic

logaritma(kwo) logarithm

logika(kwo) logic
logike(kwel) logical

logotip(kwo) logotype

loja(kwo) lodge (a local chapter of certain fraternal organizations); box (theater)

…lok(syao) "place"
ahfilok(kwo) hiding-place
habitilok(kwo) living place, habitation
twolilok(kwo) threshing-floor
enilok(inplas-komo) anywhere see: eni
a enilok – to any place
kadalok(inplas-komo) everywhere see: kada
koylok(inplas-komo) somewhere see: koy
a koylok – to some place
nullok(inplas-komo) nowhere see: nul
a nullok – to nowhere, nowhither
otrelok(inplas-komo) elsewhere see: otre
a otrelok – elsewhither
plurilok(inplas-komo) in several places see: pluri
samlok(inplas-komo) at the same place, ibidem see: sam

loki(zwo) be situated/located
en-loki(zwo) find oneself, come to be
lokisi(zwo) place, station, situate, deploy

lokma(kwo) morsel, a piece (of food)

loko(kwo) place (location) spot, site; locality cf. plasa
lokale(kwel) lokal
lokalisi(zwo) lokalize

lokomotiva(kwo) locomotive

lokwa(kwo) puddle

lon(kwo) loan (smth lent, esp. money)
loni(kwo) loan, lend; borrow
lon-nem(komo) on loan
pren lon-nem – borrow
dai lon-nem – lend
londaier(kwo) lender, creditor
lonprener(kwo) borrower

longe(kwel) lengthy; long
longem(komo) at length; for a long time
longitaa(kwo) length
long- – long- : longhar-ney(kwel) longhair

longituda(kwo) longitude also: geografike longitaa see also: latituda

longtaim(taim-komo) (during) long time
lu jivi hir yo longtaim – he lives here for a long time
se eventi longtaim bak – this happened long ago
longtaim bifoo – long before
longtaim-ney(kwel) long-term, prolonged cf. dave

lopata(kwo) spade (digging tool)

lopi(zwo) run
flai-lopi – scud, rush along
lopa, loping(kwo) run, running
loper(kwo) runner

lorda(kwo) lord

los(kwel, syao) loose, untied, free, off
Doga es los. – The dog is untied.
Buton fa-los. – The button came off.
loskusi – bite off
haki los – chop off
lasi los, loslasi – let loose, let go
los-ney(kwel) separate, detachable, removable
los-ney lif – a separate sheet
los-ney dentas – artificial teeth
los-ney kapak – a detachable cap/cover

lot(kwo) lot (articles sold as one unit; a number of associated people or things) cf. kisma, fata

loyale(kwel) loyal

loza(kwo) mule (the hybrid offspring of a male donkey and a female horse)

lu(inplas-kwo) he; him see also: me, yu, ela, it, ta, nu, li
Lu shwo hao. – He speaks well.
Me kredi a lu. – I believe him.
Me shwo danke a lu. – I thank him.
luy (lu-ney)(inplas-kwel) his see also: suy, ta-ney
Es lu-ney kitaba, bu yu-ney. – It's his book, not yours.

lubi(zwo) love
luba(kwo) love
lubaful(kwel) loving, affectionate
en-lubi(zwo) fall in love
lubijen(kwo) lover, loved one
lubijenta(kwo) lovers
lubianimal(kwo) pet (animal)
lubikota(kwo) pet cat
swa-luba(kwo) self-love

lubriki(zwo) lubricate
lubrikanta(kwo) lubricant

luchi(zwo) struggle; wrestle
lucha(kwo) struggle
luching(kwo) wrestling (sport)
lucher(kwo) wrestler, struggler, fighter

lugi(zwo) lie (tell lies)
luga(kwo) lie, lies
luger(kwo) liar
lugishil(kwel) tending to lie

luk(kwo) onion

luku(kwo) hatchway, hatch

luli(zwo) lull to sleep, to soothe, compose, quiet

luma(kwo) light
mah-on luma – turn on the light
lumi(zwo) give light, shine
lumisi(zwo) light, illuminate
lumisa(kwo) illumination
luma-ney(kwel) light (having light)
lumaful(kwel) luminous, full of light

luna(kwo) moon
luna-dilim(kwo) crescent

lunadi(kwo) Monday also: undi see also: marsadi, merkudi, jupidi, venudi, saturdi, suryadi

lung(kwo) Chinese dragon cf. dragon

lup(kwo) loop

luserna(kwo) lucerne, alfalfa

lushuy(kwo) dew

lusi(zwo) lose (also: fail to win)
lusi taim – lose time
lusi dao – lose one's way, get lost
lusa(kwo) loss

luta(kwo) lute

luxa(kwo) luxury
luxa-auto – a luxury car
luxe (luxa-ney)(kwel) luxurious
luxika(kwo) something luxurious

luy(inplas-kwel) his short form of lu-ney

lwaba(kwo) salivary foam or sweat froth
lwabi(zwo) lather, froth
kaval lwabi – horse lathered up
doga lwabi – dog frothed at the mouth

lwo – 1) (zwo) fall, drop, come down
lasi lwo – let fall
lwosa(kwo) fall, drop
mah-lwo(zwo) throw down, drop
2) (zwo) conveys the depth of transition into another state/condition:
lwo in plaki – burst into tears
lwo in ridi – burst out laughing; start roaring with laughter
lwo in pyani – take to hard drinking
lwo in lekti nove kitaba – to become thoroughly engrossed in reading a new book

lyan(zwo) be attached (а koywan/koysa – to smb/smth), be affectionate (towards)
li lyan a mutu – they are attached to each other
lyan-ney(kwel) in mental bonding, attached, devoted
lyansa(kwo) attachment, affection, mental/emotional bonding

lyu(zwo) leave (but not "depart") see also: auslyu
lyu kinda in dom – leave children at home
lyu trasa – leave traces
lyu pan a amiga – leave bread to a friend
lyu me sole – leave me alone
lyu dwar ofni-ney – leave the door open


mach(kwo) match (sporting event)

madam(kwo) madam, lady (a polite form of addressing or naming a woman) see also: mis1, sinior

madu(kwo) honey

madyar – 1) (kwel) Hungarian
2) (kwo) Hungarian (person)
3) (kwo) the Hungarian language

maestro(kwo) maestro (musical master)

maga(kwo) mug (large cup)

magari(gramatika, exklami) I wish, if only
Magari lu lai! – If only he would come!
Magari bi tak! – I wish it were so!
Magari nu hev-te sey mani dan! – I wish we had that money then!
nomagari – I wish not, I don't hope
Nomagari tren tardi. – I hope the train isn't late.
Nomagari! – God forbid!

magia(kwo) magic syn.: jadu
magike(kwel) magical
magier(kwo) magician

magnet(kwo) magnet
magnet-felda – magnetic field
magnetisi(zwo) magnetize (make magnetic)
magnetifi(zwo) magnetize (grow magnetic)
magnetisa/magnetifa(kwo) magnetization

magnifike(kwel) magnificent, splendid, grand syn.: briliante, gro-hao

magre(kwel) meagre, lean

mah, mah-(syao-gramatika) "make" (causative particle)
gran – big  ⇒  mah-gran – to make bigger, increase
hao – good  ⇒  mah-hao – to make better, improve
blan – white  ⇒  mah-blan – to whiten
jal – to burn, be burning  ⇒  mah-jal – to burn (smth)
chi – to eat  ⇒  mah-chi – to feed
lwo – to fall  ⇒  mah-lwo – to drop (smth)
mah kaval lopi – make the horse run
Me mah swa zwo se. – I make myself do it.
Se ve mah yu triste. – This will make you sad.

mahan(kwel) majestic, grand, stately, sublime
mahantaa(kwo) 1) majesty, grandeur, greatness; 2) a universal honorific title for addressing a high-ranking person: Highness, Excellency, Eminence, Reverend, Honor
Luy Mahantaa – His Majesty

mahanatmitaa(kwo) magnanimity see: mahan, atma

mahta(kwo) might, power, authority cf. autoritaa, potensia
mahtaful(kwel) mighty, powerful
sinmahta-ney(kwel) powerless, impotent, helpless
pa sinmahta-ney furia – in impotent rage

maidan(kwo) square (open place in town); ground, area
futbol maidan – futball field

maimun(kwo) monkey

maini(zwo) mean (have in mind; signify) syn.: signifi
Kwo yu maini bay to? – What do you mean by that?

mais(kwo) maize

maiste(gramatika) most (superlative form from mucho)
lu hev maiste mani – he has most money
in maiste kasu – in most cases
maiste parta – the most part
maiste taim – the most time, most of the time
maiste jen – most people
maistegrad(komo) to the greatest extent
maistem(komo) mostly, by and large
maista, maistitaa(kwo) majority

majbur(sta) be compelled to, have to, there is no other way but
En-pluvi, nu majbur go a dom. – It begins to rain, we have to go home.
Meteo es bade, majbur deri avion-ney departa. – The weather is bad, the plane’s departure has to be delayed.
Si me bu findi kitaba, me majbur kupi nove-la. – If I don’t find the book, I’ll have to buy a new one.
majburi(zwo) compel, constrain, force, oblige
majburen (majburi-ney)(kwel) forced, compulsory
majburem (majburi-nem)(komo) forcedly, perforce, willy-nilly

majena(kwo) measles

major(kwo) major (mus.) ant.: minor

mak(kwo) poppy

makala(kwo) article (a story, report in a newspaper, journal, etc.) cf. artikla

makaron(kwo) pasta, macaroni

maketa(kwo) layout drawing, layout, (printing) dummy, maquette, mockup, model
maketi(zwo) lay out, breadboard

makiaja(kwo) make-up (cosmetics applied especially to the face)

makni(zwo) dip, dunk

mala(kwo) beads
malinka(kwo) bead
yuwel-mala – necklace
Hindi, Pashtoo

malgree(konekti) in spite of, despite

malina(kwo) raspberry

malta(kwo) mortar (mixture)

mama(kwo) mammy, mom, mommy syn.: mata see also: papa

mamila(kwo) breast (of woman); udder (of animal)
mamili(zwo) suckle
mamili-animal, mamiler(kwo) mammal
mamila-kinda(kwo) infant, nurseling

man1(kwo) man, male human also: manjen
manjen klaida – men’s clothes
manlik(kwel) manly
manliktaa(kwo) manliness
ko-man(kwo) male companion; husband see also: gamiman, mursha

man-2(syao) "male" ant.: gin-
man-leker – male physician
man-dogа – male dog

mandarina(kwo) tangerine, mandarin

mandat(kwo) mandate, warrant, credentials

mandir(kwo) temple (building for worship)

manera(kwo) manner

mangi(zwo) be busy (with) see also: okupi, zun
me mangi, foni poy – I am busy, call later
me mangi reporta – I am busy with the report
me mangi lekti un kitaba – I am busy with reading a book
manga(kwo) being busy, pressure of work
mange (manga-ney)(kwel) busy, occupied

mango(kwo) mango

mangusta(kwo) mongoose

mani(kwo) money
pi-mani – tip, gratuity
handa-mani – ready cash, money in hand
manidan(kwo) purse

mania(kwo) mania
mania de persekwa – mania of persecution

manifesti(zwo) manifest, make to appear, show plainly
manifesta(kwo) manifestation

manifestu(kwo) manifesto

manikur(kwo) manicure

manili(zwo) entice, allure, beckon, decoy, inveigle
manilika(kwo) bait, lure

manipulati(zwo) manipulate
manipulata(kwo) manipulation

manovra(kwo) manoeuvre, maneuver
manovri(zwo) manoeuvre

mansha(kwo) sleeve
fai manshas uupar – roll up one's sleeves

manta(kwo) blanket

mantela(kwo) mantle, cloak

manteni(zwo) maintain (keep up, keep in the same state, sustain (in a state of stability))
manteni familia – maintain a family
manteni-gunsa – maintenance work
mantena(kwo) maintenance, upkeep

manuskripta(kwo) manuscript

manya(taim-komo) tomorrow
aftemanya(kwo) the day after tomorrow

mao(kwo) hair coat; wool; fleece cf. har
mao-ney(kwel) woolen; hairy
longmao-ney(kwel) shaggy
maoshapa(kwo) woolen cap

maori – 1) (kwel) Maori
2) (kwo) Maori (person)
3) (kwo) Maori (language)

mapa(kwo) map

mar(kwo) sea see also: osean
mar-ney(kwel) marine
marjen(kwo) seaman, sailor
maryuan(kwo) sailor (one who serves in a navy or works on a ship)
mar-morba – sea sickness, naupathia

mar-bata – surf

margen(kwo) margin (of book, of paper); (fig.) border, edge (of anything)
nota pa margen – notes in the margins

marinada(kwo) marinade
marinadi(zwo) marinade
marinaden gurka – pickled cucumber

marka(kwo) mark (sign, token; label; trace)
marki(zwo) mark, denote
marking(kwo) marking

markitan(kwo) sutler

marmar(kwo) marble

marmelada(kwo) marmalade

marmota(kwo) marmot

Marsa(kwo) Mars (planet) see also: Merkuri, Venus, Arda, Jupiter, Saturna, Uran, Neptun, Pluton

marsadi(kwo) Tuesday also: dwadi see also: lunadi, merkudi, jupidi, venudi, saturdi, suryadi

marshal(kwo) marshal

marshi(zwo) march (to walk steadily; to participate in an organized walk)
marsha(kwo) march (also: music)

marstara(kwo) starfish see: mar, stara

marswin(kwo) guinea pig

martanga(kwo) strait, channel see: mar, tanga

marto(kwo) March also: mes-tri

masa(kwo) mass (quantity of matter; a body of matter with no specific shape; the body of common people) cf. menga, mesa
masa-media – mass medium, mass media

masala(kwo) spice; seasoning
masali(zwo) spice, season
masale (masala-ney)(kwel) spicy, savoury, piquant

masbute(kwel) firm; sound, robust, sturdy, solid
masbutifi (fa-masbute)(zwo) grow strong, firm
masbutisi (mah-masbute)(zwo) make stronger, reinforce
masbutitaa(kwo) durability, strength; soundness, solidity

mashina(kwo) machine

masive(kwel) massive

masjid(kwo) mosque

maska(kwo) mask
maski(zwo) mask
demaski(zwo) unmask, unveil

maskul(kwo) male
maskul-ney(kwel) male
maskulum(kwo) gram. masculine gender

Masra(kwo) Egypt

masri – 1) (kwel) Egyptian (of, from, or pertaining to Egypt)
2) (kwo) Egyptian (a person from Egypt or of Egyptian descent)
3) (kwo) Egyptian (dialect of Arabic)

masta(kwo) master (owner, boss)
gin-masta – mistress
dom-masta – master/mistress of the house

master(kwo) master (expert; skilled artist)

mastula(kwo) mast (nautical)

masu(kwo) meat
govamasu(kwo) beef
swinamasu(kwo) pork
yanmasu(kwo) mutton
masumeler(kwo) mincing machine, meat grinder
masuyuan(kwo) butcher

mat(kwo) checkmate, mate

mata(kwo) mother syn.: mama see also: patra
mata-patra(kwo) parents

matematika(kwo) mathematics
matematike(kwel) mathematical
matematiker(kwo) mathematician

materia(kwo) matter, substance
materiale(kwel) material (relating to matter; bodily, physical)
materiale munda – material world

material(kwo) stuff, material
bildi-material – building materials
hao material fo filma – good material for a film

matove(kwel) matte (not reflecting light, not glossy, dull) ant.: glan-she

matras(kwo) mattress
pruja-matras – spring mattress

matris(kwo) matrix (in math, computer science, printing)

mature(kwel) ripe, mature
mature yabla – ripe apple
maturifi (fa-mature)(zwo) ripen
maturitaa(kwo) ripeness, maturity
premature(kwel) premature

maus(kwo) mouse
mauskapter(kwo) mouse trap
yunmaus(kwo) baby mouse

mavi(zwo) wave (one’s hand); wag
mava(kwo) wave (of hand)

maxima(kwo) maxim

maximale(kwel) maximal, maximum, highest possible
maximalem(komo) maximally

maximum(kwo) maximum

may(inplas-kwel) my, mine short form of me-ney

mayor(kwo) major (military rank)

mazuta(kwo) mazut

me(inplas-kwo) I; me see also: yu, lu, ela, it, ta, nu, li
a me – to me
Me shwo a yu. – I speak to you.
Audi ba me! – Listen to me!
Jawabi koysa a me! – Answer me something!
may (me-ney)(inplas-kwel) my, mine
Walaa may kalam. – Here is my pen.
Sey kalam es me-ney, bu yu-ney. – This pen is mine, not yours.

mebel(kwo) furniture (movable articles that equip a room, house, etc.)
mebelka(kwo) a piece of furniture

medalia(kwo) medal

medalion(kwo) locket, medaillon

media(kwo) means, medium
bay media de – by means of, through the medium of
lekimedia(kwo) medicinal agent, remedy
masa-media – mass medium, mass media

medike(kwel) medical
medika(kwo) medic, medical man, medical worker

medisina(kwo) medicine (science, practice) cf. farmak

Mediteran(kwel) Mediterranean
Mediteran mar(kwo) Mediterranean sea

mediti(zwo) meditate, think over, ponder cf. reflekti
medita(kwo) meditation

medula(kwo) spinal cord
osta-medula – bone marrow

medusa(kwo) medusa

meil(kwo) mail, post cf. posta
meilguan(kwo) post office
e-meil(kwo) e-mail (abbr. for elektronike meil)

meja(kwo) measure (also: "step, action")
meji(zwo) measure
mejibile(kwel) measurable

mekanika(kwo) mechanics
mekanike(kwel) mechanical
mekaniker(kwo) mechanic

mekanisma(kwo) mechanism

melankolia(kwo) melancholy syn.: splin
melankolike(kwel) melancholic, melancholy

melasa(kwo) treacle

meli(zwo) grind, mill
meli wit inu farina – grind wheat into flour
melidom(kwo) mill
meliyuan(kwo) miller
kahwameler(kwo) coffee grinder/mill

melodia(kwo) melody

melon(kwo) melon

memba(kwo) member (a part of a human or animal body; a part of a plant) cf. yuan

memoria(kwo) memory
pa memoria – from memory
memorisi(zwo) memorize cf. mah-remembi

menestrel(kwo) minstrel

menga, menga… – 1) (kwo) a lot, multitude, large body (of smth) cf. masa
menga de kwesta – a lot of questions
2) (syao) "a lot, gathering of"
moskamenga(kwo) swarm of flies
jenmenga(kwo) crowd
mengi(zwo) be in multitude, crowd, throng, swarm, mob

menjer(kwo) manager (business)

meno(gramatika) less, fewer
meno kem shi – less than ten
Lu lopi meno kway kem yu. – He runs less quick than you.
Sey gaseta es meno interes-ney kem toy-la. – This newspaper is less interesting than that one.
Nu nadi ke in futur ye meno gwer in munda. – We hope that in future there will be fewer wars in the world.

mensioni(zwo) mention, make mention of
mensiona(kwo) mention, mentioning

menta(kwo) mind, mentality
mentale(kwel) mental
mentastasa(kwo) state of mind

mentaliga(kwo) association (mental connection) see: menta, liga
mentaligi(zwo) associate (connect in the mind)

menu(kwo) menu

mer(kwo) mayor

meridian(kwo) meridian

merita(kwo) merit, desert cf. dasin ant.: nomerita, dosh
meriti(zwo) merit, deserve
meriten artista – Honoured Art Worker

merki(zwo) notice, note, take notice of, mark cf. noti
merki pa un-ney kansa – notice at the first sight
merki to ke ta shwo – mark what he says
merkival(kwel) notable, noteworthy, remarkable
merkibile(kwel) noticeable
bumerki-nem(komo) unnoticedly

merkudi(kwo) Wednesday also: tridi see also: lunadi, marsadi, jupidi, venudi, saturdi, suryadi

Merkuri(kwo) Mercury (planet) see also: Venus, Arda, Marsa, Jupiter, Saturna, Uran, Neptun, Pluton

merlan(kwo) whiting (fish)

mes(kwo) month
mes-ney, kadames-ney(kwel) monthly
mes-un(kwo) January also: januar
mes-dwa(kwo) February also: februar
mes-tri(kwo) March also: marto
mes-char(kwo) April also: april
mes-pet(kwo) May also: mey
mes-sit(kwo) June also: yuni
mes-sem(kwo) July also: yuli
mes-ot(kwo) August also: augusto
mes-nin(kwo) September also: septemba
mes-shi(kwo) October also: oktoba
mes-shi-un(kwo) November also: novemba
mes-shi-dwa(kwo) December also: desemba

mesa(kwo) (church) mass cf. masa

mesaja(kwo) message

met(kwo) mat (flat piece of material); doormat
mausmet(kwo) mouse mat/pad

metal(kwo) metal
metal-ney(kwel) metallic
metalka(kwo) a metallic thing, piece of metal

meteo(kwo) weather
badal-ney meteo – cloudy weather

metoda(kwo) method (special or definite system of procedure)
metodike(kwo) methodical

metra(kwo) meter see also: milimetra, santimetra, kilometra
pet metra – five meters

metro(kwo) subway, the underground

mey(kwo) May also: mes-pet

meyglok(kwo) lily of the valley see: mey, glok

mid…(syao) "mid-"
midnocha(kwo) midnight
middey(kwo) midday, noon
midyash-ney(kwel) middle-aged

middeyfan(kwo) lunch

mide(kwel) middle, mean; average
midem(komo) on average
midika(kwo) average
mida(kwo) middle, mean
yus in mida de – right in the middle of

miden(konekti) amid, in the middle (of), in the midst (of), among
miden shamba – in the middle of the room
miden amigas – among friends
miden nocha – in the middle of the night
Miden li ye diverse jen. – There are various people among them.

midia(kwo) mussel

mif(kwo) myth
mifike(kwel) mythic(al)

mifen(kwo) bee
mifendom(kwo) hive

mifologia(kwo) mythology
mifologike(kwel) mythological
mifologisi(zwo) mythologize

migi(zwo) blink; wink
miga(kwo) blink; wink
in miga-taim – in the blink of an eye

migri(zwo) migrate
migri-faulas – migrating birds
migra(kwo) migration

mikas(kwo) scissors; shears

mikroskop(kwo) microscope

mil(kwanto) thousand (1000) see also: nol, un, dwa, tri, char, pet, sit, sem, ot, nin, shi, sto
mil yar – one thousand years
tri mil sitsto-shi-sem – 3617
un milfen – one-thousandth

miliarda(kwanto) billion, 1000 millions, 1 000 000 000 = 109
miliarder(kwo) billionaire

milimetra(kwo) millimeter see: metra

milion(kwanto) million, 1 000 000 = 106
dwa milion – two millions
dwa milion petsto mil – 2 500 000
milioner(kwo) millionaire

milka(kwo) milk
dai milka – give milk
milka-ney(kwel) milk, milky; dairy
Milkadao(kwo) Milky Way
milki(zwo) milk
milking(kwo) milking
milker(kwo) milker (person or machine)
milki-sha(kwo) milker (person)

milyoo(kwo) milieu
sirkum-milyoo – (natural) environment

mina(kwo) mine (explosive device) cf. kwanshilok
stavi mina – lay/plant mines
minisi(zwo) mine (lay mines)

mindal(kwo) almond

mineral(kwo) mineral
mineral-ney(kwel) mineral
mineral-ney akwa – mineral water
mineralisi(zwo) mineralize

minim(gramatika) least
minim kway – least quick(ly)
minimgrad(komo) least of all
minimtaa(kwo) minority

minimale(kwel) minimal, minimum
minimalem(komo) minimally

minimum(kwo) minimum

minista(kwo) minister (high officer of state)
ministaguan(kwo) ministry

minor(kwo) minor (mus.) ant.: major

minta(kwo) mint (plant or flavouring)
minta-bonbon – mint (candy)

minus(konekti, kwo) minus
tri minus dwa es un – three minus two is one
minus-ney(kwel) minus, negative
minusvati(zwo) subtract

minuta(kwo) minute see also: sekunda, ora

mira(kwo) mirror, looking glass

mirakla(kwo) miracle
mirakle (mirakla-ney), miraklalik(kwel) miraculous

mirta(kwo) myrtle

mis1(kwo) miss (a title of respect for a young unmarried woman; an unmarried woman) see also: madam, sinior

mis…2(syao) mis- (in a wrong way)
misyusi(zwo) misuse
miskalkuli(zwo) miscalculate
misstepi(zwo) stumble
misaudi(zwo) mishear
misluma(kwo) uncertain light

mision(kwo) mission
misioner(kwo) missionary

miska(kwo) musk
miska-rata – muskrat

misteria(kwo) mystery
misteriaful(kwel) mysterious

miti(zwo) meet; encounter
me joi al miti yu – I am glad to meet you
mita(kwo) meeting; encounter
go pa mita – approach in the opposite direction, come to meet

mixi(zwo) mix; blend, mingle
mixing(kwo) mixing
mixa(kwo) mix
mixitura(kwo) mixture
mixer(kwo) mixer
muvi-miksi(zwo) stir up
bati-mixi(zwo) churn

mlan(kwel) sluggish, lackadaisical, listless, languid, slack, inert, nerveless

mobile(kwel) mobile
mobila(kwo) mobile phone

moda(kwo) fashion, vogue, mode
moda-ney(kwel) fashionable

model(kwo) model
modeli(zwo) model cf. lepi

moden(kwel) modern
modenisi(zwo) modernize

moderi(zwo) moderate, keep within bonds; mitigate
moderi-ney(kwel) moderate, temperate
moderinesa(kwo) moderateness, moderation, temperance

modifiki(zwo) modify, make partial changes in
modifika(kwo) modification

modus(kwo) mode (way, manner, or status); (gram.) mood

mog(sta) can, may cf. janmog
me bu mog zwo to – I can't do it
se mog bi – it may be
kadawan mog lai – everyone may come
Yu mog zwo se kom yu yao. – You may do it as you like.
mogbi(komo) maybe
mogisi(zwo) enable also: mah-posible
mogsa(kwo) might, power
pa ol mogsa – with all might
me zwo olo ke es inen may mogsa – I'll do everything within my power
bu mog – one can't, it is impossible
Bu mog jivi sin chi. – One can't live without eating.
bu-mog-bi-ke – incredible, impossible

moha(kwo) moss (plants)

moher(kwo) mohair

moki(zwo) mock, deride, ridicule
moka(kwo) mock, derision, sneer, ridicule

mokre(kwel) wet syn.: humide
mokrifi (fa-mokre)(zwo) get wet/drenched
mokrisi (mah-mokre)(zwo) wet (cover or impregnate with liquid)

mole(kwel) soft
mole kushen – soft cushion
molenesa(kwo) softness
moli(zwo) soften (tr./intr.)
molifi (fa-mole)(zwo) soften, become soft
molisi (mah-mole)(zwo) soften, make soft or softer
molika(kwo) pulp (soft mass or matter)

molekula(kwo) molecule

moluska(kwo) mollusc

molya(kwo) wife also: gamigina, ko-gina

momenta(kwo) moment, instant
momente (momenta-ney)(kwel) momentary
momentem (momenta-nem)(komo) instantly, in a moment

momentum(kwo) momentum

monah(kwo) monk, nun
monaho(kwo) monk
monahina(kwo) nun

monarka(kwo) monarch
monarkia(kwo) monarchy

monastir(kwo) cloister, monastery, nunnery, convent

moneta(kwo) coin

monitor(kwo) monitor (device or program)
monitori(zwo) monitor
monitoring(kwo) monitoring

monograma(kwo) monogram

monologa(kwo) monologue, soliloquy

monopolia(kwo) monopoly
monopolisi(zwo) monopolize

monotone(kwel) monotonous
monotonitaa(kwo) monotony

monson(kwo) monsoon

monsta(kwo) monster
monstalik, monsta-ney(kwel) monstrous

monta(kwo) mountain
monta-ney(kwel) mountain, mountainous
montaflanka(kwo) mountain flank
montalok(kwo) mountains, mountainous place
monta-kadena – mountain-ridge, range, chain of mountains

monta-gap(kwo) gorge, ravine, canyon

monta-klimber(kwo) mountaineer

montiri(zwo) mount, set up; montage
montira(kwo) mounting, installation; montage; editing

monton(kwo) heap, pile
monton de ramla – heap of sand
montoni(zwo) heap, pile

monumenta(kwo) monument

moral(kwo) morals, morality
moral-ney(kwel) moral

morba(kwo) sickness, illness; disease
morbe (morba-ney)(kwel) sick, ill
morbi(zwo) to be sick/ill
en-morbi(zwo) fall sick/ill

morsa(kwo) walrus

morta(kwo) death
morte (morta-ney)(kwel) dead
om mortes treba shwo sol hao – of the dead speak only good
morti(zwo) die see also: ausmorti
mortijen(kwo) deadman
mortifa(kwo) mortification
mortalok(kwo) the next/other world
mortika(kwo) carrion
morta-puni – execute, put to death
morta-puna – execution

mosaika(kwo) mosaic

moska(kwo) fly (insect)
moskamenga(kwo) swarm of flies

moskita(kwo) mosquito

moti(zwo) reel, wind, coil
moti koysa sirkum koysa – wind smth round smth
motimashina(kwo) reeling machine, winder
motika(kwo) hank, coil, skein
demoti(zwo) unwind, uncoil

motiva(kwo) motive; motif
motivi(zwo) motivate
motiving, motivasion(kwo) motivation

motor(kwo) motor, engine

motosikla(kwo) motorcycle

mu(exklami) moo
fai mu – moo, low

muaki(zwo) feel sick (at the stomach), have nausea
muaka(kwo) nausea
muak!(exklami) interjection of nausea

muar(kwo) moire, watered silk

muazin(kwo) muezzin

mucho(inplas-kwanto) much, many, a lot see also: maiste
gun mucho – work much
mucho jen – many people
mucho mani – a lot of money
mucho pyu hao – much better
muchos – many (people)
muchoyar-ney(kwel) of many years

muda(kwo) mood, spirits

muh(kwo) mouth
muh de riva – estuary
muh-ney(kwel) oral
muh-ney lingwa – oral language
muhka(kwo) mouthpiece

muhim(kwel) important
muhimtaa(kwo) importance, significance
dai muhimtaa a koysa – attach importance to smth
nomuhim(kwel) unimportant, trifling, trivial
nomuhimka(kwo) trifle, nothingness also: syaodela
muhimi(zwo) be of importance

muka(kwel) allegedly (used to express that what follows is doubtful or untrue)

mukati(zwo) blow one’s nose

mukus(kwo) mucus, mucilage; slime
nosmukus(kwo) snivel, snot

mule(kwel) mild, gentle
mulitaa(kwo) mildness, gentleness

multipliki(zwo) multiply (bay, pa – by)
tri multipliki pa char es shi-dwa (tri ves char es shi-dwa) – 3 multiplied by 4 makes 12
multiplika(kwo) multiplication

mumia(kwo) mummy (embalmed corpse)
mumisi(zwo) mummify (tr.)
mumifi(zwo) mummify (intr.)

munda(kwo) world
munda-ney(kwel) world; global

mur(kwo) wall see also: inmurisi

murena(kwo) moray

murkuta(kwo) wallpaper see: mur, kuta

murmuri(zwo) murmur cf. hamsi
murmura(kwo) murmur

mursha(kwo) husband also: gamiman, ko-man

mus(sta) must see also: gai, nidi, treba
Oli jen mus chi fo jivi. – All people must eat in order to live.
Manya me mus go a ofis. – Tomorrow I must go to the office.
Yu mus bu chi. – You must not eat.
bu mus(sta) to not have to
Yu bu mus chi. – You do not have to eat.
nomus(sta) must not (obligatory prohibition)
Yu nomus chi. – You must not eat.
Yeri me mus-nem go a skola. – Yesterday I had to go to school (and effectively did so).

musafer(kwo) passenger
musafer-avion – passenger aircraft

musbi(sta) it must be (expresses a higher degree of certainty than shayad)
Ta musbi go-te a dom. – He must have gone home.

musey(kwo) museum

mushkile(kwel) difficult ant.: fasile
sta gro-mushkile – feel miserable / wretched / unhappy
mushkilem(komo) with difficulty
mushkilitaa(kwo) difficulty (the state of being difficult)
mushkila(kwo) difficulty (obstacle)
sin mushkila – without difficulty, easily, with no trouble
mah-mushkile(zwo) make difficult

musika(kwo) music
tul-musika – instrumental music
vos-musika – vokal music
musikatul(kwo) musical instrument

musiki, fai musika(zwo) play/make music
musikale(kwel) musical
musiker(kwo) musician

muskula(kwo) muscle
mah-laxe muskula – relax muscles
tensi muskula – strain muscles
muskulatot(kwo) muscular system
muskulaful(kwel) brawny, muscular

musla(kwo) muzzle, snout
musladan(kwo) muzzle (device used to prevent animal from biting or eating)

muslina(kwo) muslin

musta(kwo) pattern (that from which a copy is made), specimen, sample

mustash(kwo) moustache; whisker (animal’s)

mute(kwel) dumb, mute

mutili(zwo) maim, mutilate, cripple
mutila(kwo) mutilation, deformity
mutilawan(kwo) cripple

mutu, mutu- – 1) (komo) one another, each other
nu lubi mutu – we love each other
a mutu – to each other
2) (syao) mutual
mutu-samaji – mutual understanding

mutuale(kwel) mutual, reciprocal

muvi(zwo) move
muva(kwo) move, motion, movement
sinmuva-ney – motionless

muy(modus-komo) very
muy jamile – very beautiful
muy kway – very quickly

myao(zwo) mew, meow, miaow

myati(zwo) crumple, crush, rumple

myen(kwo) mien


na(gramatika) optionally marks an end of a semantic group see also: ti

nabla(kwo) navel, umbilicus

nadi(zwo) hope ant.: denadi
nada(kwo) hope

nafra(kwo) aversion, disgust
nafre (nafra-ney)(kwel) abominable, repulsive, detestable

nafta(kwo) (mineral) oil, petroleum

naga(kwo) nail (of metal) cf. naka
nagi(zwo) nail

nagle(kwel) impudent, insolent, impertinent
naglitaa(kwo) impudence, insolence
nagla (naglo, naglina)(kwo) impudent/insolent fellow

nailon(kwo) nylon

naive(kwel) naive
naiva, naivnik(kwo) naive person

naka(kwo) nail; claw cf. naga

nakali(zwo) incandesce
nakali-ney(kwel) incandesced

nal(kwo) horseshoe

naloga(kwo) tax (money paid to the government)

nam(kwo) name
nami(zwo) name; be named, be called
Komo yu nami? – What is your name
Me nami Jon. – My name is John.
namem(komo) namely
samnam-ney(kwel) of the same name
samnamjen(kwo) namesake

namastee(exklami) hello; good-bye

namba(kwo) number cf. numer, sinnamba-ney
gran namba – big number
pare namba – even number
namba expresa – numerical expression

namre(kwel) modest
namrem(komo) modestly
namritaa(kwo) modesty

nana(kwo) nurse
hospital nana – hospital nurse
mednana (medike nana) – nurse (for the sick)

nangwa(kwo) pumpkin

nargila(kwo) hookah

narko(kwo) narcotic, addictive drug

narkolepsia(kwo) narcolepsy

nasha(kwo) intoxication (any kind of)
nashisi(zwo) stupefy, befuddle, besot, intoxicate
nashi-she(kwel) befuddling, intoxicating

nasion(kwo) nation
nasion-ney(kwel) national

natryum(kwo) sodium, natrium

natura(kwo) nature
abyas es dwa-ney natura – habit is second nature
naturale(kwel) natural
naturalem(komo) naturally
naturalitaa(kwo) naturalness

naturmorta(kwo) still life (work of art)

nau(taim-komo) now
til nau – till now
depos nau – from now on
al nau(komo) at the moment, presently; nowadays
lo nau(kwo) the present (time)
nau … nau(konekti) now … now
Nau ta silensi, nau shwo mucho. – Now he keeps silent, now he speaks much.
nau-ney(kwel) present, actual, today's, current

navigi(zwo) navigate, sail
naviga(kwo) navigation

nayu(kwo) butter
nayudan(kwo) butterdish

nefra(kwo) kidney

negative(kwel) negative
negativa(kwo) negative

negi(zwo) deny, negate ant.: aserti, konfirmi
nega(kwo) negation

neglekti(zwo) neglect, treat carelessly, slight, be remiss ant.: kuydi
neglekta(kwo) negligence

negra(kwo) a Black person, negro
negro(kwo) a Black male
negrina(kwo) Negress

nektar(kwo) nectar

nektarin(kwo) nectarine

neme(kwel) numb, insensible
nemifi(zwo) grow numb
nemitaa(kwel) numbness

neon(kwo) neon
neon-jaopay – neon sign

Neptun(kwo) Neptune (planet) see also: Merkuri, Venus, Arda, Marsa, Jupiter, Saturna, Uran, Pluton
Neptun-ney(kwel) Neptunian

nerva(kwo) nerve
nerva-ney(kwel) nerve, nervous
nerva-sistema – nerve system
nerva-morba – nervous disease

nesese(kwel) necessary (also: "of an inevitable nature")
nesesitaa(kwo) necessity

nesta(kwo) nest
nesti(zwo) nest, build its nest; nestle

neta(kwo) net
texi neta – weave a net

neuron(kwo) neuron

neutrale(kwel) neutral

neva(taim-komo) never see also: nulves

-ney(gramatika) modifier-making particle
Tina-ney vos – Tina's voice
brata-ney nam – brother's name
jen-ney – human
chi-ney fan – eaten food
rude-fas-ney man – red-faced man
olo es yo zwo-ney – everything is already done
un-ney – first
dwa-ney – second
un-nem – firstly, at first
Un-nem me go a skola, poy a dom. – First I go to school, then home.
dwa-nem – secondly

ni(gramatika) ant.: i
ni … ni … – neither … nor
ni me ni yu – neither me nor you

nich(konekti-komo) down(wards) ant.: uupar
go nich – to go down syn.: desendi
nich kolina – down the hill
nich fluisa – downstream
nichen(konekti-komo) down (at what place?), at the lower part of
Lai nich. Me es nichen. – Come down. I am down.
nichen bey – at the lower part of back
nichen kolina – at the bottom of the hill.
fon nichen – from below
nichifi (fa-nich)(zwo) sink, drop, move down
nichisi (mah-nich)(zwo) lower, bring down; turn down
nichisi kapa – hang one’s head
nichisi kansa – lower one's gaze

niche(kwel) lower, situated below ant.: uupare cf. nise
zuy niche lif – lowest leaves
nicha(kwo) lower part, bottom
nicha-uupar – upside down, bottom up
fon nicha til uupara – from top to bottom
nichlok(kwo) lowland, depression

nidi(zwo) need, have need of cf. gai, mus, treba
me nidi reposi – I need a rest
lu nidi yur helpa – he needs your help
buniden(kwel) unnecessary, needless
nida(kwo) need

nihil(kwo) non-being, nil, nothing
nihilisi(zwo) destroy, eliminate, annihilate syn.: destrukti
nihilisa(kwo) destruction, annihilation

nihon – 1) (kwel) Japanese
2) (kwo) Japanese (person) see also: Nipon
3) (kwo) Japanese (language)

nikab(kwo) niqab

nikel(kwo) nickel (metal)

niki(zwo) nod
nika(kwo) nod

Nil(kwo) Nile
Nil-ney krokodil – Nile crocodile

nin(kwanto) nine (9) see also: nol, un, dwa, tri, char, pet, sit, sem, ot, shi, sto, mil
ninshi(kwanto) ninety
ninsto(kwanto) nine hundred

Nipon(kwo) Japan see also: nihon
Nipon-jen(kwo) inhabitant/citizen of Japan

nise(kwel) low (of small hight or placed below normal height) cf. niche
nisisi (mah-nise)(zwo) lower, reduce hight (tr.)

nisha(kwo) niche

nishan(kwo) target (butt or mark to shoot at; goal or objective)

nitrat(kwo) nitrate (chem.)

nitrogen(kwo) nitrogen

nivel(kwo) level
niveli(zwo) level, level out

nixa(inplas-kwo) nothing
Me jan ke me bu jan nixa. – I know that I know nothing.
Danke! - Es nixa. – Thank you! - That's nothing.

no…(syao) makes antonyms
kalme – calm   ⇒   nokalme – uneasy
pinchan – ordinary   ⇒   nopinchan – extraordinary
pa nofortuna – unfortunately

Noa(kwo) Noah
ship de Noa – Noah's Ark

noble(kwel) noble

nobyen(kwel) inconvenient; inopportune, inappropriate ant.: byen

nocha(kwo) night ant.: dey
pa nocha – at/by night
hao nocha! – good night!
fa-nocha – night is coming
nochi, tranochi(zwo) pass the night, spend the night

nochaparpar(kwo) moth see: nocha, parpar

noda(kwo) knot
nodaful(kwel) knotty, snaggy, gnarled
nodi(zwo) knot
nodi tay – to tie one's tie

nok(kwo) point, tip
bay finga nok – by finger tips
igla nok – needle point
buta nok – boot tip

nokalme(kwel) unquiet, uneasy, restless, troubled
sta nokalme – be anxious/uneasy
nokalmitaa(kwo) anxiety, unrest, uneasiness
nokalmi(zwo) worry
nokalmisi (mah-nokalme)(zwo) disquiet, worry, make anxious/uneasy

nol(kwanto) zero (0) see also: un, dwa, tri, char, pet, sit, sem, ot, nin, shi, sto, mil
shi gradus sub nol – ten degrees below zero

non(exklami) no see also: bu, bye
Ob yu pri sey kitaba? - Non. – Do you like this book? - No.

nopare(kwel) odd, uneven ant.: pare

nopinchan(kwel) extraordinary, unusual, uncommon, singular ant.: pinchan see also: ajibe, astoni-she, strane

nopri(zwo) dislike
nopria(kwo) dislike

norda(kwo) northsee also: esta, suda, westa
norde (norda-ney)(kwel) north(ern), northerly
norde feng – north wind
norden(konekti-komo) to the north, north of
urba es norden – the town is to the north
norden urba ye shulin – forest is north of the town

norma(kwo) norm
normale(kwel) normal
normalem(komo) normally
normalisi(zwo) normalize
normalisa(kwo) normalization

nos(kwo) nose see also: kornanos
nosdun(kwo) nostril
nosmukus(kwo) nasal mucus, snivel

nosantisi(zwo) desecrate, profane, defile see: no, santisi

nosion(kwo) notion (concept; mental image or representation)

nota(kwo) note (a brief piece of writing; a diplomatic missive; a musical sound/mark)
bankanota(kwo) bank note
noti(zwo) note (record) cf. merki

notifiki(zwo) notify (formally)
notifika(kwo) notification, notice

nove(kwel) new
novika(kwo) smth new (e.g. product)
novitaa(kwo) newness, novelty
novnik(kwo) novice
novifi (fa-nove)(zwo) be/get renewed
novisi (mah-nove)(zwo) renew; update
novisa(kwo) renewal; update

novela(kwo) novel (short story) cf. roman

novemba(kwo) November also: mes-shi-un
pa novemba – in November

nu(inplas-kwo) we; us see also: me, yu, lu, ela, it, ta, li
nuy (nu-ney)(inplas-kwel) our
Walaa nuy dom. – Here's our house.
Sey dom es nu-ney, bu li-ney. – This house is ours, not theirs.

nuansa(kwo) nuance

nude(kwel) nude, naked, bare
nudpede (nudpeda-ney) – barefooted
nuditaa(kwo) nudity, bareness, nakedness
nudifi(zwo) become naked
nudisi(zwo) bare, strip
nudisi swa, mah swa nude – bare/strip oneself
nudisma(kwo) nudism
nudina(kwo) a naked woman

nudla(kwo) noodles

nuka(kwo) back of the head, nape, occiput
nuka-darba – cuff on the nape

nuklea(kwo) nucleus
sela-nuklea – nucleus of cell
atom-nuklea – atomic nucleus
nukleare(kwel) nuclear

nuksan(kwo) harm; mischief
nuksani(zwo) harm
nuksan-ney(kwel) harmful

nul, nul…(inplas-kwel) no (whatever) none (whatever)
Nul kinda pri go somni. – No child likes to go sleep.
nulem(inplas-komo) in no way
nulgrad(inplas-komo) not in the least see: grad
nullok(inplas-komo) nowhere see: lok
Me zai shuki may kalam. Me bu mog findi it nullok. – I am looking for my pencil. I can't find it anywhere.
a nullok – to nowhere
nulves(taim-komo) not once, never see: ves see also: neva
nulwan(konekti-kwo) nobody see: wan
Nulwan jan. – Nobody knows.
Me bu koni nulwan hir. – I don't know anybody here.
nulnik(kwo) a nobody, nonentity

numer(kwo) number (No.) cf. namba
kaval numer char jiti – horse number four wins
tri-ney numer de nuy programa – the third number of our program
numeri(zwo) number
numera(kwo) numeration

nungu(kwo) porcupine

nuta(kwo) nut
kreki nuta – crack nuts

nutri(zwo) nourish, feed
nutra(kwo) nourishing, nutrition
nutritive(kwel) nutritive, nutritious
el-nutra – power supply

nutria(kwo) nutria, coypu

nuy(inplas-kwel) our short form of nu-ney

Nyusiland(kwo) New Zealand


othe name of the letter O

o (oda)(unisi) or
Kwo yu pri pyu, rasmi o gani? – What do you like more, to draw or to sing?
oda … oda … – either … or
Me bu mog dai a yu ambi kamel. Pren un. Oda sey-la, oda toy-la. – I cannot give you both camels. Take one. Either this one or that one.

ob – 1) (gramatika) interrogative particle see also: ku
Ob me mog ofni winda? – May I open the window?
2) (gramatika) whether
Me kwesti, ob me mog ofni winda. – I ask whether I may open the window.

obedi(zwo) obey, comply with
obeda(kwo) obedience
desobedi(zwo) disobey
desobeda(kwo) disobedience

obese(kwel) obese
obesitaa(kwo) obesity

objeti(zwo) object, adduce as an objection
objeta(kwo) objection

obligi(zwo) oblige (put under obligation to do or not to do smth), bind, constrain (by duty, honour, etc.)
obliga(kwo) obligation
oblige (obliga-ney)(kwel) obligatory

oblikue(kwel) oblique

observi(zwo) observe (carefully view; follow)
observa(kwo) observation

obsesi(zwo) obsess
obsesen bay foba – obsessed with fear
obsesa(kwo) obsession

obskure(kwel) obscure (without sufficient light, dim, somber; not easily understood) syn.: tume ant.: klare
obskurisi(zwo) obscure, dim, darken
obskurifi(zwo) become obscure

obstakla(kwo) obstacle
obstakla-loping – steeplechase (athletic event)
obstakli, fai obstakla(zwo) impede, hamper, put obstacles in the way

obwol(unisi) though, although
Me shwo a yu, obwol yu bu yao audi me. – I speak to you, although you don't want to hear me.

obyekta(kwo) object (thing, item)

ochak(kwo) hearth, fireplace; (fig.) hotbed, seat, breeding ground, focus, center
ochak de gwer – seat of war
ochak de resista – centre of resistance

of(komo) off (about a mechanism or connection)
Radio es of. – The radio is off.
Plis mah-of radio. – Please put off the radio.

ofensi(zwo) offend, give offence to
ofensa(kwo) offence
fa-ofensi(zwo) be offended
fa-ofensishil(kwel) touchy, susceptible, quick to take offence
ofense (ofensa-ney), ofensive(kwel) offensive
no-ofensive(kwel) inoffensive
ofensen (ofensi-ney)(kwel) offended, resentful, hurt
ofensem (ofensi-nem)(komo) offendedly, resentfully
ofenser(kwo) offender

ofis(kwo) office (place), bureau

ofisiale(kwel) official (authorized; authoritative)
ofisiala(kwo) official, officer, functionary, bureaucrat

oflain(kwel) offline ant.: onlain

ofni(zwo) open
ofna(kwo) opening
ofne (ofna-ney)(kwel) open
idyen/kelkem ofni-ney – ajar
ofner, ofnika(kwo) opener
ofnitura(kwo) aperture, orifice
ofnelok(kwo) open place, opening, glade

ofri(zwo) offer, proffer, tender
fa-ofri(zwo) present itself (about an opportunity)
ofra(kwo) offer

ofser(kwo) officer (military, police, nautical)
subofser(kwo) non-commissioned officer

ofte(kwel) frequent
oftem(komo) often

ohoo(exklami) oho

oista(kwo) oyster

oko(kwo) eye
ofni/klosi okos – open/close one’s eyes
klosi-presi okos – close one's eyes tight
fai gro-okos – to goggle
kan koysa bay gro-okos – to gape at smth
okovati(zwo) eye
oko-yama – eye socket

okra(kwo) ochre

oktoba(kwo) October also: mes-shi

okula(kwo) glasses, spectacles, goggles

okupi(zwo) occupy (a place, time, mind) see also: mangi, zun
se okupi oli may duma – this occupies all my thoughts
se okupi mucho taim – it takes much time
okupen (okupi-ney)(kwel) occupied
toy tabla es okupen – that table is occupied

ol(inplas-kwel) all, the whole of, throughout the whole of
ol dey – all day long
oli(inplas-kwo, kwel) all, everyone, everybody
oli jan – everybody knows
oli may amiga – all my friends
oli dey – all the days
oli hi – all to a man, every single one
Nu oli es hir. – We are all here.
olo(inplas-kwo) all, everything
me jan olo – I know everything

olea(kwo) oil (liquid fat)
olei(zwo) oil

oliva(kwo) olive
olivabaum(kwo) olive tree

olosam(komo) all the same; anyway syn.: enikas, malgree olo, es egale, bu muhim
Kwo unkwe yu shwo, me ve zwo se olosam. – Whatever you say, I'll do it anyway.
Tu go adar, tu bu go adar, es olosam. – To go there or not, it's all the same.

oltaim(komo) all the time, constantly
oltaim pyu hao – better and better
oltaim pyu – more and more
oltaim pyu mushkile – increasingly difficult

om(konekti) about, concerning; on (refers to the subject of activity)
om se – about this
om to – about that
om olo – about everything
Nu zai gun om sey problema. – We are working on this problem.

oma(kwo) grandmother see also: opa

omlet(kwo) omelette

on –1) (konekti) on (on the surface)
on tabla – on the table
2) (komo) on (about a mechanism or connection)
Radio es on. – The radio is on.
mah-on TV – turn on the TV

onda(kwo) wave
ondi(zwo) wave, undulate
onding(kwo) undulation
onda-ki(kwo) ripple (small wave)
ondika(kwo) ruffle (dress decoration)

onhev(zwo) have on, wear see: on, hev cf. porti

oni(inplas-kwo) one, they (indefinite personal pronoun)
oni shwo ke … – they say that …
Lai pyu blisem! Hir oni bu mog audi nul worda. – Come closer! Here one can’t hear a word.

onishwoka(kwo) rumour, hearsay see: oni, shwo

onkla(kwo) 1) uncle (the brother of one's mother or father) see also: tia
2) the way a child addresses or names an adult man: man, gentleman, sir, mister

onkla-docha(kwo) first cousin (uncle's daughter) see also: dal-docha

onkla-son(kwo) first cousin (uncle's son) see also: dal-son

onlain(kwel) online (connected to a computer; accessible via computer network) ant.: oflain

onpon(kwo) put on (clothes, glasses) see: on, pon
lu onpon-te shapa – he put his hat on

onsa(kwo) ounce (unit of weight)

oo(exklami) 1) oh
Oo es ya jamile! – Oh, it’s so beautiful!
Oo ya! – Oh yes!
2) o (vocative particle)
Hao fortuna a yu, oo shefa de wulfas! – Good luck go with you, O Chief of the Wolves!

opa(kwo) grandfather see also: oma
praopa(kwo) great-grandfather

opera(kwo) opera

operati(zwo) operate
operata(kwo) operation also: operasion
operater(kwo) operator

opini(zwo) opine, deem, be of opinion
opini koysa/koywan kom koysa/koywan – regard/hold smth/smb as smth/smb
opini ta kom amiga – regard him/her as a friend
opini koysa kom muhim – believe smth to be important
me opini se kom may deba – I regard it as my duty
opina(kwo) opinion
segun may opina – in my opinion / view

oposi(zwo) oppose
oposa(kwo) opposition
oposer(kwo) oppositionist; opponent

opresi(zwo) oppress
opresa(kwo) oppression

optimale(kwel) optimal, optimum

ora(kwo) hour see also: sekunda, minuta
afte dwa ora – in two hours
pa haf-ora afte to – in half an hour after that

orak(kwo) sickle

oranja(kwo) orange (fruit)
oranja jus – orange juice

oranje(kwel) orange (colour)

orda(kwo) order (request) cf. komanda, orden, ordina
defai orda – cancel an order
ordi(zwo) order, book

orden(kwo) order (awarded decoration; organization) cf. komanda, orda, ordina

ordina(kwo) order (arrangement; the state of being well arranged) cf. komanda, orda, orden
ordini(zwo) put in order; arrange
ordini kama – do one's bed
desordini(zwo) disarrange
ordini swa – tidy oneself up, set oneself to rights
no-ordina(kwo) disorder
ordinnik(kwo) an orderly person
no-ordinnik(kwo) sloven

organ(kwo) organ (part of organism) cf. orgel

organike(kwel) organic (biol., chem.) ant.: no-organike
organike kemia – organic chemistry

organisi(zwo) organize
organising(kwo) organization (process)
organisa(kwo) organization (quality of being organized or way in which smth is organized)
organisasion(kwo) organization (group of people)

organisma(kwo) organism (lit. and fig.)

orgel(kwo) organ (musical instrument) cf. organ
orgelista(kwo) organist, organ player

orienti(zwo) orient, orientate
orienti swa – orient oneself
orienta(kwo) orientation
orienting(kwo) orienteering
orientika(kwo) reference point

origin(kwo) origin
origini(kwo) originate, arise, begin

originale(kwel) original (first, preceding all others in time); original (fresh, unusual)
originala(kwo) original (first form, firsthand work)
originalnik(kwo) original (odd or curious person)

orkestra(kwo) orchestra

orla(kwo) eagle

ornamenta(kwo) ornament, ornamental pattern

orni(zwo) adorn, embellish, bedeck syn.: dekori
ornika(kwo) adornment, embellishment

ortodoxia(kwo) orthodoxy cf. pravaslavia
ortodoxike(kwel) orthodox

ortografia(kwo) orthography
ortografike(kwel) orthographic (relating to orthography)

osean(kwo) ocean see also: mar

Oseania(kwo) Oceania

osi(zwo) dare (be courageous or bold enough to)

osobe(kwel) especial, particular
osobem(komo) especially, particularly
osobitaa(kwo) peculiarity, (special) feature

osoka(kwo) sedge, carex

osta(kwo) bone
ostalik(kwel) bony
ostifi(zwo) ossify
ostifa(kwo) ossification

Osterraih(kwo) Austria

ot(kwanto) eight (8) see also: nol, un, dwa, tri, char, pet, sit, sem, nin, shi, sto, mil
ot-ney(kwel) eighth
otshi(kwanto) eighty
otsto(kwanto) eight hundred

otbrach(kwo) octopus see: ot, bracha

oton(kwo) autumn, fall see: vesna, saif, hima
fa-oton – autumn is coming
oton-ney(kwel) autumn

otre, otre…(inplas-kwel) other, another
ni un ni otre – neither one nor the other
pa otre taraf – on the other hand
otrem – in other way, differently; otherwise
otrelok(inplas-komo) in another place, somewhere else see: lok
a otrelok – to another place
otreves(inplas-komo) next time, another time see: ves
Me mangi nau. Nu diskusi ba se otreves. – I am busy now. Let us discuss it another time

ouran(komo) casually, accidentally; inadvertently syn.: kasualem
ouran-ney(kwel) random, planless, accidental, inadvertent
ourantaa(kwo) randomness, planlessness


oval(kwo) oval
oval-ney(kwel) oval

ovo(kwo) egg
ovoshel(kwo) eggshell
ovosela(kwo) ovicell
ovotot(kwo) spawn

oxa(kwo) ox
Old English

oxigen(kwo) oxygen


pa(konekti) preposition of a wide meaning, often can be used instead of other prepositions
1) indicates place, time (at, on, in)
pa dom – at home
pa mur – on the wall
pa gata – in the street
sidi pa tabla – sit at the table
London lagi pa Tems – London lies on the Thames
ob mani es pa yu? – is the money with you?
pa vesna – in spring
2) introduces adverbial phrase
shwo pa inglish – speak English
pa un-ney kansa – by first sight
ta jivi pa shi kilometra fon mar – he lives 10 km from the see
pa exponenta – exponentially
pa ol mogsa – with all one's might
pa char – four (together)
pa fortuna – fortunately
pa versa – by/in verses
It loki pa dwa dey de going (de safara). – It takes two-day journey to get there.

padma(kwo) lotus

pagale(kwel) crazy, mad
pagalitaa(kwo) craziness, madness
pagalifi(zwo) go mad
pagala, pagalnik(kwo) madman, lunatic

pagi(zwo) pay (give money)
paga(kwo) pay, payment
prepaga(kwo) prepayment, upfront payment, advance (of money)

pah(kwo) groin (anatomy)

pai(zwo) receive, get; succeed, achieve, obtain
nulwan pai kapti ta – nobody managed to catch it
pai kreki nuta – to (succesfully) crack the nut
pai ofni ken – to open can (at last)
Nu pai zwo to! – We did it!

paisaja(kwo) landscape, scenery

paja(kwo) page

pajo(kwo) page (serving boy)

pak(kwo) pack, package, parcel
paki(zwo) pack
depaki(zwo) unpack

paketa(kwo) packet

pakla(kwo) tow, oakum

palak(kwo) eyelid

palas(kwo) palace

pale(kwel) pale (light in colour)
palenesa(kwo) paleness, pallor

paliati(zwo) palliate, alleviate
paliata(kwo) palliation, alleviation
paliative(kwel) palliative

palka(kwo) pod (seed case for legumes, e.g. peas, beans, peppers)

palma(kwo) palm (palm tree) cf. pama
palma-semdi – Palm Sunday

paloma(kwo) pigeon, dove
salam-paloma – dove of peace

palpi(zwo) feel (about), palpate cf. senti, tachi
palpi-shuki – grope
palpa(kwo) feeling (by touch), palpation
palpibile(kwel) palpable

palto(kwo) coat, overcoat
farwapalto(kwo) fur coat

pama(kwo) palm (of hand) cf. palma
pama-holika – hollow of the hand

pan(kwo) bread
blan pan – white bread
pankin(kwo) bread roll, bun
panshop(kwo) baker’s
pandan(kwo) bread box/bin
suhpan(kwo) dried crust, rusk, zwieback
halka-pan – bagel, ring-shaped roll
panisi(zwo) bread (coat with bread crumbs, as before cooking)

panika(kwo) panic
sta pa panika – be in panic, be panic-stricken

pankreas(kwo) pancreas

panta(kwo) trousers, pants
pantakin(kwo) underpants
pantagamba(kwo) trouser leg
swimi-panta(kin) – swimming trunks

pantalon(kwo) breeches (clothing)

pantera(kwo) panther

panza(kwo) armour

pao(kwo) bubble; blister
paovati(zwo) bubble, form bubbles

papa(kwo) dad, daddy, papa syn.: patra see also: mama

papagay(kwo) parrot
fai papagay, papagayvati(zwo) parrot (to repeat or imitate, esp. without understanding)

papaya(kwo) papaya

papir(kwo) paper

paprika(kwo) paprika cf. pepa

para(kwo) pair, couple
para dey – a couple of days
para-ney(kwel) pair, forming a pair
gamipara(kwo) married couple
para-jen – match (person)
pari(zwo) pair

parada(kwo) parade (procession or ceremonial review of troops)

paradigma(kwo) paradigm (philos., gram.)

paradoxa(kwo) paradox
paradoxale(kwel) paradoxical
paradoxalem(komo) paradoxically

paragraf(kwo) paragraph

paralele(kwel) parallel
paralela(kwo) parallel

paralisa(kwo) paralysis, palsy
paralisi(zwo) paralyze

parapeta(kwo) parapet; railing, handrail, banisters

parashut(kwo) parachute

parasita(kwo) parasite
parasitike(kwel) parasitic

parda(kwo) curtain syn.: kurtena
fer-ney parda – iron curtain

pardoni(zwo) forgive, pardon syn.: skusi
pardona(kwo) forgiveness, pardon

pare(kwel) even (divisible by 2) ant.: nopare

parka(kwo) park

parki(zwo) park (a car)
parking(kwo) parking (act or practice)
parkilok(kwo) parking (space)
parking-kloka – parking meter see: kloka

parlamenta(kwo) parlament

parodia(kwo) parody
parodike(kwel) parody
parodista(kwo) parodist

parola(kwo) password also: pasiworda

parpar(kwo) butterfly see also: nochaparpar

parta(kwo) part
parte (parta-ney)(kwel) partial
partem (parta-nem)(komo) partly, partially
parti(zwo) share, divide, part
parti suy senta kun otres – share one's feelings with others
partura(kwo) partition (part or section into which sth has been divided)

partia(kwo) party (group taking one side of smth; political group) cf. pati

partikla(kwo) particle

partikulare(kwel) particular (not general or universal)
partikularitaa(kwo) particularity (the quality or state of being particular rather than general; a specific point or detail, a particular)

partisipi(zwo) participate
partisipa(zwo) participation
partisiper(zwo) participant, participator

partner(kwo) partner (of either sex)
gin-partner, partnerina(kwo) female partner

parus(kwo) sail (of a ship or boat)
parus-kapra – sailcloth

pas(konekti-komo) past, by
lu go-te pas nu – he went past us
lu go-te pas – he went past

pasaja(kwo) passageway, gangway, aisle

pashu(kwo) cattle
syao pashu – small cattle
pashudom(kwo) cattle-shed

pasi(zwo) pass; pass by
pasen (pasi-ney) yar – the past year
pasi nocha – pass night
taim pasi lentem – the time drags on/crawls
pasiwat(kwo) past (the period of time that has already happened)
(mah-)pasi(zwo) pass, spend (time)
pasijen(kwo) passer-by
pasiworda(kwo) password also: parola
trapasi(zwo) pass through, make one's way through
pasi-auto – passing car
Pren un pasi-auto e lai ba kway! – Take a passing car and come quickly!

pasienta(kwo) patient (one who receives medical attention)

pasion(kwo) passion
pasion-ney(kwel) passionate

pasiva(kwo) liability (finance)

pasive(kwel) passive
pasivitaa(kwel) passivity

paska(kwo) Easter

paslasi(zwo) let pass; miss see: pas, lasi
paslasi hao shansa – to miss a good chance
Ta stopi fo paslasi nu. – He/She stopped to let us pass.

pasporta(kwo) passport

pasta(kwo) paste
panpasta(kwo) dough

pastet(kwo) pâté (a finely-ground paste of meat etc.)

pasturi(zwo) graze, pasture
pasturi-sha(kwo) herder, herdsman, shepherd also: gurtayuan

pata(kwo) paw
pa char pata – on all fours
mah swa nich pa char pata – go down on all fours

patata(kwo) potato, potatoes
patata-sup – potato soup

patenta(kwo) patent (declaration issued by a government agency to an inventor)
patenti(zwo) patent
patenting(kwo) patenting

pati(kwo) party (social gathering especially for pleasure or amusement) cf. partia

patina(kwo) patina (film on copper)

patlajan(kwo) eggplant, aubergine

patra(kwo) father syn.: papa see also: mata
prapatra(kwo) forefather
mata-patra(kwo) parents
patralanda(kwo) fatherland

patranam(kwo) patronymic (name)

patriarka(kwo) patriarch

patriota(kwo) patriot

patrul(kwo) patrol
patruli(zwo) patrol

paun(kwo) pound (unit of mass; unit of currency)

pausa(kwo) pause
pausi(zwo) pause
leson-pausa – break, intermission (between lessons)

pava(kwo) peafowl
pavo(kwo) peacock
pavina(kwo) peahen
yunpava(kwo) peachick

pavimenta(kwo) pavement
pavimenti(zwo) pave; cobble

pay(kwo) pie

pazla(kwo) puzzle (game)

pethe name of the letter P

peda(kwo) foot
pedabey(kwo) instep, back of the foot
pedi(zwo) go on foot see also: lisipedi
pedisoldata(kwo) infantryman
peditrupa(kwo) infantry
pedi-sha, pedijen(kwo) pedestrian
peding(kwo) walking; footrace

pedal(kwo) pedal
presi pedal – press a pedal
depresi pedal – depress a pedal
gaspedal(kwo) accelerator pedal

pedidao(kwo) sidewalk see: pedi, dao

pega(kwo) peg (a cylindrical wooden, metal etc. object used to fasten; a protrusion used to hang things on)

peki(zwo) bake
peking(kwo) baking
pekitura(kwo) pastry
pekiguan(kwo) bakery
peker(kwo) baker

pelatuk(kwo) woodpecker

pelikan(kwo) pelican

pelikula(kwo) film (pellicle thin sheet or coating) cf. filma

pelin(kwo) wormwood, absinth

pelmeni(kwo) pelmeni
pelmeninka(kwo) one pelmeni


pen(kwo) tub, basin
banipen(kwo) bathtub
woshipen(kwo) sink, washbowl

pendi(zwo) hang (intr./tr.)
bependi(zwo) hang round (with), cover (with)
bependi mur bay piktura – cover the wall with pictures
pendi-kili(zwo) hang, kill by hanging see also: galga
pendika(kwo) rack, hanger

pendula(kwo) pendulum

penetri(zwo) penetrate
penetra(kwo) penetration, permeation

peni – 1) (zwo) to take the trouble (to do smth or to do smth difficult of execution), to take pains
Me peni zwo se hao. – I take pains in doing it well.
To bu es penival. – That is nor worth the trouble.
pena(kwo) pains, trouble, strain
2) (kwo) penny, pence

penis(kwo) penis

pension(kwo) pension (money)
pensioner(kwo) pensioner, retiree

pepa(kwo) pepper cf. paprika
fai pepa(zwo) pepper
pepadan(kwo) pepper pot

pepla(kwo) ashes
pepladan(kwo) ash-tray
peplisi(zwo) burn to ashes
peplalok(kwo) site of fire, ashes

per(konekti) per, for each/every cf. fo, por, pro, pur
6% per yar – 6% per year
100 gram per kilo – 100 gram per kilo
100 kilometra per ora – 100 km per hour
pet dolar per jen – 5 dollars per head

pera(kwo) pear

perfekte(kwel) perfect
perfektitaa(kwo) perfection (quality)
perfektisi(zwo) perfect, improve, polish up
swa-perfektisa(kwo) self-perfection

perfori(zwo) perforate
perfora(kwo) perforation

pergamen(kwo) parchment

perioda(kwo) period
periodike(kwel) periodical
periodika(kwo) periodical

perka(kwo) perch (fish)

perla(kwo) pearl(s)
perlamata(kwo) mother-of-pearl

permanente(kwel) permanent (lasting for an indefinitely long time)

permiti(zwo) permit, allow
permiti a swa – allow oneself; afford (be able or rich enough for)
permita(kwo) permission
permitibile(kwel) permissible

perplexe(kwel) perplexed, puzzled
perplexitaa(kwo) perplexity

persekwi(zwo) persecute, pursue, chase see also: goni
persekwa(kwo) persecution; pursuit, chase

persepti(zwo) perceive
persepta(kwo) perception
perseptibile(kwel) perceptible

persik(kwo) peach

persilya(kwo) parsley

persona(kwo) person
personale(kwel) personal
personalem(komo) personally
personalitaa(kwo) personality

personifiki(zwo) personify
personifika(kwo) personification

perspektive(kwel) perspective
perspektiva(kwo) perspective

perteni(zwo) belong, pertain

peruka(kwo) wig, peruke

pes(kwo) piece (separated part) cf. ge
char pes sukra – 4 pieces of sugar

pesta(kwo) plague

pet(kwanto) five (5) see also: nol, un, dwa, tri, char, sit, sem, ot, nin, shi, sto, mil
petshi(kwanto) fifty
petsto(kwanto) five hundred
pet-ney(kwel) fifth

petala(kwo) petal

petdi(kwo) Friday also: venudi see also: undi, dwadi, tridi, chardi, sitdi, semdi

petision(kwo) petition, written request
fai petision, petisioni(zwo) petition, present a petition

pi(zwo) drink
pi-akwa – drinking water
pia(kwo) drinking; drink
fai pia pro koywan – drink the health of smb
piwat(kwo) drink, beverage
piguan(kwo) pub, public house
pilok(kwo) watering place

piano(kwo) piano
baji/fai piano – play piano

piesa(kwo) play (theatrical performance), piece (musical composition, literary work)

piga(kwo) leather
piga ganta – leather gloves

pigma(kwo) pygmy

pijama(kwo) pyjamas

pik(kwo) spades (suit of playing cards) see also: pleikarta

pikee(kwo) pique (fabric)

piki(zwo) prick, sting
frosta piki fas – frost stings the face
pika(kwo) prick, puncture
piki-she(kwel) prickly
pikishil(kwel) hot, spicy (of food)

pikti(zwo) depict, picture, paint cf. kolori, pinti
pikter(kwo) painter (artist who paints pictures)
piktura(kwo) picture, image
kitaba kun jamile piktura – a book with beautiful pictures
pikting(kwo) painting (art)
piktival(kwel) picturesque

pila(kwo) pile (heap)
pila de kitabas – pile of books
pila de pyata – pile of plates

pilota(kwo) pilot (of aircraft or ship)

pimenta(kwo) pimento; allspice

pin(kwo) commodity, article(s), goods, ware(s)

pina(kwo) pine
pina shulin – pine forest, pinery

pinchan(kwel) ordinary, usual ant.: nopinchan see also: abyas-ney
pinchanem(komo) ordinarily, usually

pinguin(kwo) penguin

pinsel(kwo) (artist’s or painter’s) brush

pinsi(zwo) pinch
pinsa(kwo) pinch
pinser(kwo) pincers, pliers
pinserkin(kwo) tweezers

pinta(kwo) paint (substance)
pinti(zwo) paint (apply paint to) cf. kolori, pikti
pintaken(kwo) can of paint
pinter(kwo) painter (laborer) cf. pikter

pionir(kwo) pioneer syn.: dao-ofner

pipa(kwo) (tobacco) pipe cf. duda, tuba

pipeta(kwo) pipette, medicine dropper

pipsi(zwo) peep, cheep

piramida(kwo) pyramid

pirata(kwo) pirate

pirsi(zwo) pierce
Flecha pirsi luy sina. – The arrow pierced his chest.
pirsi dun – to pierce a hole
pirsing(kwo) piercing

pisi(zwo) piss syn.: urini

pisina(kwo) swimming pool

pistaka(kwo) pistachio

pistola(kwo) pistol, handgun

piti(zwo) have compassion on; pity
pita(kwo) compassion; pity
piti-she, pitishil(kwel) compassionate, pitiful
nopiti-she, nopitishil(kwel) ruthless, pitiless, merciless
pitival(kwel) pitiable

pitsa(kwo) pizza

plaki(zwo) weep, sob, cry cf. krai
plaki-shwo – lament, keen
plaka(kwo) weeping
plaknik(kwo) weeper, cry-baby, sniveller
plak!(exklami) interjection of weeping

plan(kwo) plan
plani(zwo) plan
planing(kwo) planning

plane(kwel) plane, level, even, flat cf. plate
plana(kwo) plane
planika(kwo) plain; smth level
planisi(zwo) even, level, plane
planisa(kwo) levelling, smoothing

planeta(kwo) planet
planeta-ney(kwel) planetary

planka(kwo) plank, board
planka-kama – plank bed

planta(kwo) plant (organism)
planti(zwo) plant
beplanti agra bay repa – to plant the field with turnips
planting(kwo) planting (act)
plantiwat(kwo) planted plant
plantura(kwo) plantation, planting also: plantasion

plasa(kwo) place (for smth or smb; room, space) cf. loko
okupi plasa – to occupy a place
Plasa ye. – There are free places./There is room.
Plasa yok. – There are no places./There is no room.
plasi(zwo) place
fa-plasi(zwo) find room, go in, be placed

plasma(kwo) plasma

plasta(kwo) plaster (adhesive bandage)
lipi-plasta – sticking plaster

plastik(kwo) plastic (material)
plastik-ney(kwel) plastic

plastike(kwel) plastic (capable of being shaped or formed)

plataforma(kwo) platform

plate(kwel) flat, flattened cf. plane
platbota(kwo) flat-boat
platpeda(kwo) flat-foot
plata(kwo) plate, plaque, slab
platem(komo) flatways, flatwise
plati(zwo) flatten (tr./intr.)
plating(kwo) flattening (process)
platisi(zwo) flatten (tr.)
platifi(zwo) flatten (intr.)
platifa(kwo) flattening (act or result)

platin(kwo) platinum

plato(kwo) plateau, tableland

playa(kwo) beach

plecha(kwo) shoulder
ek-lifti plechas – shrug one's shoulders
plechavati(zwo) shoulder

plei(zwo) play cf. baji
plei ruola – play role
pleisa(kwo) play cf. geim
pleika(kwo) plaything, toy
pleier(kwo) player
plei-sha(kwo) player (person)
worda-pleisa – pun, wordplay

pleikarta(kwo) playing cards see: plei, karta see also: kordia, kros, kwadra, pik
pleikarta-seta – a pack of playing cards

plen(kwo) captivity
plenjen(kwo) captive, prisoner
plenisi(zwo) take prisoner; captivate (also fig.)

plesir(kwo) pleasure
kun plesir – with pleasure
may hi plesir – my pleasure
plesiri(zwo) pleasure, please, gratify

pleski(zwo) splash, plash, lap, swash
pleska(kwo) splash, plash, lapping, swash
ek-pleska(kwo) a splash (single)

plexi(zwo) braid, plait, twine, wreathe, weave see also: interplexi, texi
plexika(kwo) smth (inter)twined; plait, braid
plexus(kwo) plexus (anatomy)

pliga(kwo) fold; crease, plait
pligi(zwo) fold
al pligen gambas – with folded legs
pligi-sikin – clasp-knife

depligi(zwo) unfold
pligibile(kwel) folding (designed to fold)
uuparpligi(zwo) fold up, turn up

plis(exklami) please
Dai a me chiza plis. – Give me the spoon please.

plota(kwo) raft

pluga(kwo) plough, plow see also: lihua
plugi(zwo) plough
pluging(kwo) ploughing, tillage
pluger(kwo) plowman, ploughman
pluga-sikin – ploughshare

pluki(zwo) pluck, cull, gather, pick (fruits flowers, etc.); pluck (pull out the hair or feather of)

pluma(kwo) feather, plume
plumamao(kwo) plumage, feathering

plumba(kwo) lead (metal)

plunji(zwo) dive, plunge
plunja(kwo) dive, plunge
plunjer(kwo) diver

pluri, pluri…(inplas-kwanto) several
Me hev pluri kitaba. – I have several books.
Me he visiti ela pluri ves. – I visited her several times.
pluri-forma, plurika – (kwo) plural (gram.)

plus(kwo, konekti, komo) plus (plus sign; advantage; besides)
To es plus fo yu. – That is a plus for you.
Char plus pet es nin. – Four plus five is nine.
plus-ney(kwel) plus, extra
plusi(zwo) add

Pluton(kwo) Pluto (dwarf planet) see also: Merkuri, Venus, Arda, Marsa, Jupiter, Saturna, Uran, Neptun

pluva(kwo) rain
pluvi(zwo) rain
pluvi gro – it is pouring, it pours
pluvi-ki – it is drizzling, it drizzles
pluvinka(kwo) raindrop
aispluva(kwo) hail

po(konekti) refers to distribution in portions
olo es po tri dolar – everything costs 3 dollars each piece
po un jen – one at a time, one by one
po tri – in threes
po shao – in small portions
shao-po-shao – little by little

poda(kwo) floor cf. etaja

podle(kwel) vile; mean; foul
podla(kwo) scoundrel, rascal, villain

poema(kwo) poem

poesia(kwo) poetry

poeta(kwo) poet
poetike(kwel) poetic
shma-poeta(kwo) poetaster

pokloni(zwo) bow (in greeting, courtesy, veneration etc.)
poklona(kwo) bow

pol(kwo) pole (either extremity of an axis through a sphere; a magnetic pole)
polare(kwel) polar
polaritaa(kwo) polarity
polarisi(zwo) polarize (tr.)
polarisa(kwo) polarization

poliglota(kwo) polyglot

Polinesia(kwo) Polynesia

polis(kwo) police
polisyuan(kwo) policeman
polisguan(kwo) police station

politika(kwo) policy, politics
politike(kwo) political
politiker(kwo) politician

polo(kwo) polo (game)

polsa(kwo) wrist (the joint between the hand and the forearm) cf. pulsa

polva(kwo) dust
polvinka(kwo) speck of dust
polvisi(zwo) spray, atomize, pulverize
polviser(kwo) sprayer, atomizer, pulverizer

pomelo(kwo) pomelo

pompa(kwo) pomp, state
fai pompa – behave pompously
pompa-ney, pompaful(kwel) pompous

pompon(kwo) pompon

pon(zwo) put see also: depon, onpon, prepon
pon se dar – put it there
bepon tabla – lay the table

pondi(zwo) weigh (determine weight; consider) cf. vegi
ponding(kwo) weighing
pondika(kwo) balance, scales syn.: vaka cf. balansa, kaskasa, skala
pondidan(kwo) scale (either of the pans, trays or dishes of a balance or scales)

poni(kwo) pony

ponta(kwo) bridge

pop(kwo) Christian priest

popa(kwo) stern, poop; buttocks, bottom cf. diba

popla(kwo) poplar

populare(kwo) popular

populasion(kwo) population

por(konekti) due to, because of cf. fo, per, pro, pur
Danke por atenta! – Thank you for your attention!
Nu bu go promeni por bade meteo. – We are not going for a walk due to bad weather.
Me lai por vidi luma in yur winda. – I came because of seeing light in your windows.

porcha(kwo) porch

porselan(kwo) porcelain, china

porsion(kwo) portion (an alloted part)

porti(zwo) bear, carry; wear cf. onhev
raki-porti – convey or transport in a vehicle
porti wek – take away, carry away
porting(kwo) carrying, bearing
portibile(kwel) portable
portisulam(kwo) ladder
porter(kwo) porter
portika(kwo) stretcher, litter
portiwat(kwo) what is carried, load, burden

portreta(kwo) portrait

portu(kwo) port, harbour

Portugal – Portugal
Portugal-jen – inhabitant/citizen of Portugal

portuges – 1) (kwel) Portuguese (relating to ethnicity, language or country)
2) (kwo) Portuguese (person of Portuguese ethnicity)
3) (kwo) Portuguese language

posa(kwo) pose, posture

posesi(zwo) possess
poseser(kwo) owner, proprietor, possessor, holder
ardaposesa(kwo) estate, landed property, manor
ardaposeser(kwo) landowner
en-posesi(zwo) take possession of

posh(kwo) pocket
poshtuh(kwo) handkerchief

posible(kwel) possible
buposible(kwel) impossible
posiblitaa(kwo) possibility
mah-posible(zwo) enable also: mogisi

posision(kwo) position
posision-ney(kwel) positional

positive(kwel) positive
positiva(kwo) positive

posta(kwo) 1) post (position of employment; outpost, guard-post) cf. meil
2) post (message in an electronic forum)
posti(zwo) post (send to an electronic forum)

pot(kwo) pot (a household vessel of medium size)
florpot(kwo) flowerpot
kukipot(kwo) cooking pot

potensial(kwo) potential (ability or capacity for growth; physical notion)

potente – (kwel) potential, potent, endowed with energy adequate to a result
potensia – (kwo) potentiality, potency, ability or capacity to perform; math. power cf. autoritaa, mahta
potensia de motor – engine potency

povre(kwel) poor (with little money; to be pitied)
povre jen – poor man; pauper
povre jenta – the poor
povritaa(kwo) poverty
povra (povro, povrina)(kwo) poor fellow

poy(taim-komo) then, later see also: dan1
Me bu mog go adar nau, me ve go poy. – I cannot go there now, I shall go later.
un-nem … poy – first … then
Un-nem me go a skola, poy a dom. – First I go to school, then home.

pra…(syao) 1) remote kinship
praopa – great-grandfather
prajanmer – forebear
prakinda – descendant, offspring, scion
2) primordiality, antiquity
pralingwa – parent language
prajen – ancestor, forefather

prais(kwo) price
prais-lista – price list

praktika(kwo) practice
praktike(kwel) practical, pertaining to practice
praktikem(komo) practically
praktiki(zwo) practice, exercise, put into practice
praktiki-she leker – a practical doctor

pravaslavia(kwo) Orthodoxy (religion) cf. ortodoxia
pravaslavike(kwel) Orthodox
pravaslavike Kirka – Orthodox Church

prave(kwel) right (correct just, true, appropriate) syn. (with narrower meaning): juste, korekte, vere
prave jawaba – right answer
prave desida – sound decision
prave dao – right way
yu es prave – you are right
pravitaa(kwo) rightness
noprave(kwel) wrong
pravnik(kwo) righteous man

pre…(syao) pre-, fore-
previdi(zwo) to foresee
preshwo(zwo) to foretell
pre-existi(zwo) to preexist
prenam(kwo) forename
preyeri(taim-komo) the day before yesterday
pregoer(kwo) predecessor
prejuda(kwo) prejudice
prelaste(kwel) penultimate

preferi(zwo) prefer
me preferi pi chay – I better drink tea
preferi koysa pyu kem koysa – to prefer smth to smth
prefera(kwo) preference see also: favorita
preferival(kwel) preferable, preferred
preferivalem(komo) preferably

pregi(zwo) ask for, beg, request
pregi-pai – obtain by request, asking
prega(kwo) request
gro-pregi(zwo) entreat, implore, supplicate, beseech
gro-prega(kwo) entreaty

prei(zwo) pray
preisa(kwo) prayer
preiyuan(kwo) priest
preikitaba(kwo) prayer book
preijuk(kwo) mantis

prelime(kwel) preliminary

premia(kwo) bonus, premium (also: finance), prize
Nobel premia(kwo) Nobel Prize

pren(zwo) take see also: auspren, kunpren
prensa(kwo) taking

prepon(zwo) premise see: pre, pon
prenponsa(kwo) premise

pres(kwo) press (the entirety of media and agencies that collect, publish, transmit, or broadcast the news) cf. preser

presedi(zwo) precede
presedi-she(kwel) preceding
preseda(kwo) precedence

presente(kwel) present (not absent; current)
presensia(kwo) presence

preservi(zwo) preserve (fon koysa – from smth) save, keep from injury

presi(zwo) press
ek-presi handa – shake hand
presi labas – press one's lips together
taim presi – the time presses
preser(kwo) press (a devise used to apply pressure to an item) cf. pres
presa(kwo) pressure

presidenta(kwo) president

presigna(kwo) omen, presage augury see: pre, signa
presigni(zwo) portend, presage, forebode syn.: suli, wadi

preskribi(zwo) prescribe, direct, order
preskriba(kwo) precept, direction; prescription

presuposi(zwo) presuppose, imply as an antecedent condition

preventi(zwo) prevent
preventa(kwo) prevention

preworda(zwo) preface, foreword

pri(sta) to like
Me pri flor. – I like flowers.
Me pri sey flor. – I like this flower.
May kinda pri rasmi. – My child likes to draw.
pria(kwo) liking
prival(kwel) lovely, alluring, nice

priate(kwel) agreeable, pleasant, pleasing
nopriate(kwel) disagreeable, unpleasant

prichi(zwo) preach
pricha(kwo) sermon, preaching, preachment

primadona(kwo) prima donna

primare(kwel) primary (elementary, first or lowest in order)

prime(kwel) prime (first in importance or quality), primary, paramount
es prime kwesta – it’s a question of primary importance
primem(komo) above all, first of all; primarily, chiefly, mainly, principally

primitive(kwel) primitive

primula(kwo) primula, primrose

prinsa(kwo) prince

prinsip(kwo) principle
prinsip-ney(kwel) of principle

printi(zwo) print
printa, printing(kwo) print, printing
printer(kwo) printer
printiguan(kwo) printing house

pris(kwo) prize (smth striven for in a contest)

prisenti(zwo) present (reveal, show) cf. introdukti
prisenta(kwo) presentation

prison(kwo) prison, jail
prisonyuan(kwo) jailer

private(kwel) private

privilegia(kwo) privilege

pro(konekti-syao) pro, in favour of cf. fo, per, por, pur
pro-weste stata – a pro-Western state
Nu es pro guverna. – We support government.
Ob yu es pro may idea? – Do you support my idea?

proba(kwo) trial, test; sample see also: dusproba
probi(zwo) sample (to take or to test a sample), test; try on; try out cf. trai

probable(kwel) probable, likely
shao-probable – unlikely, not likely
probablem(komo) probably see also: shayad
probablitaa(kwo) probability

problema(kwo) problem
problema yok! – no problem!

probus(kwo) proboscis (of elephant, of insect)

produkta(kwo) product
produkti(zwo) produce
produktive(kwel) productive
produktivitaa(kwo) productivity
produkter(kwo) producer
produkting(kwo) production
produktura(kwo) produce, items/amount produced

profesion(kwo) profession, occupation see also: profi

profesor(kwo) professor

profeta(kwo) prophet, seer
profeti(zwo) prophesy, augur
profetura(kwo) prophecy

profi(kwo) professional (expert), pro see also: profesion
profi-ney(kwel) professional

profit(kwo) profit
profit-ney(kwel) profitable
profiti(zwo) profit

prognosa(kwo) prognosis, forecast
prognosi(zwo) prognose

programa(kwo) programme
programi(zwo) programme
programing(kwo) programming
programista(kwo) programer

progresa(kwo) progress
progresi(zwo) progress

prohibi(zwo) prohibit, forbid, interdict
prohiba(kwo) prohibition, interdiction, ban

Proisen(kwo) Prussia

proisih(kwel, kwo) Prussian

proklami(zwo) proclaim, cry out
proklama(kwo) proclamation

prolongi(zwo) prolong, lengthen, extend
prolonga(kwo) prolongation

promeni(zwo) stroll, go for a walk
pyu hao ke yu go promeni – you better go for a walk
promena(kwo) walk, stroll

pronunsi(zwo) pronounce (utter, say words)
pronunsa(kwo) pronunciation

propagandi(zwo) propagandize
propaganda(kwo) propaganda
propagander(kwo) propagandizer, propagandist

propagi(zwo) propagate (extend, spread)
propaga(kwo) propagation (dissemination, diffusion)

prope(kwel) own syn.: swa-ney
propisi(zwo) appropriate, take for one’s own

proporsion(kwo) proportion
proporsion-ney(kwel) proportional, proportionate
proporsion-nem(komo) proportionally

proposi(zwo) propose (suggest) cf. sugesti
proposa(kwo) proposal, proposition, suggestion
proposa om salam – peace proposal

prosa(kwo) prose
prosa-ney, prosalik(kwo) prosaic

prosenta(kwo) percent

prosesa(kwo) process

prosesion(kwo) procession, train

prostituta(kwo) prostitute

protekti(zwo) protect
protekta(kwo) protection
protekter(kwo) protector
protektive(kwel) protective

protesti(zwo) protest
protesti kontra gwer – protest against the war
protesta(kwo) protest

prototip(kwo) prototype

provinsia(kwo) province
provinsiale(kwel) provincial

provoki(zwo) provoke
provoka(kwo) provokation

proyekta(kwo) project
proyekti(zwo) project

pruf(kwel) proof (firm or successful in resisting)
akwapruf kloka – waterproof watch
pruf kontra temta – proof against temptation

pruja(kwo) spring (mechanical device) cf. vesna
pruji(zwo) be springy/resilient
pruji-she(kwel) springy, resilient

pruta(kwo) rod (bar; twig)
grata-pruta – grate bars

pruvi(zwo) prove (give proof)
pruva(kwo) proof

psalma(kwo) psalm

psikiatria(kwo) psychiatry
psikiatrike(kwel) psychiatric
psikiatrier(kwo) psychiatrist, psychiater

psikika(kwo) psyche
psikike(kwel) psychic, psychical

psora(kwo) any evident skin disease
psore (psora-ney)(kwo) mangy, scabby

puba(kwo) pubis

publika(kwo) public; audience
publike(kwel) public
publikisi(zwo) publish, make public

puda(kwo) powder cf. pudra
dentapuda(kwo) tooth-powder
woshpuda(kwo) washing powder
lignapuda(kwo) sawdust

puding(kwo) pudding (dessert)

pudla(kwo) poodle

pudra(kwo) face powder cf. puda
pudri(zwo) powder (use face powder)

puha(kwo) fluff, fuzz, fluffy covering (down; thin hair)
puhe (puha-ney)(kwel) downy, fluffy
puhisi(zwo) fluff up

puhle(kwel) swollen; plump
puhlifi(zwo) swell
puhlifa(kwo) swelling
puhlika(kwo) tumor

puji(zwo) worship
puja(kwo) worship

pula(kwo) domestic fowl(s), poultry
pula-ferma – poultry farm

pulga(kwo) flea

pulmon(kwo) lung
pulmones(kwo) the lungs

pulova(kwo) sweater, pullover

pulsa(kwo) pulse cf. polsa

puma(kwo) puma

pumbe(kwel) silly (may be used without insulting connotations), simple-minded, goofy see also: stupide
pumba(kwo) silly, simpleton, ninny, duffer
pumbitaa(kwo) folly

pumpa(kwo) pump
pumpi(zwo) pump
pumping(kwo) pumping

puni(zwo) punish
puna(kwo) punishment, penalty
manipuna(kwo) fine (a payment or fee issued as punishment for breaking the law)
punitive(kwel) punitive
punival(kwel) deserving punishment

punta(kwo) point (dot; full stop, period; item or entry in list; score; place or locality)
puntakoma(kwo) semicolon
dwapunta(kwo) colon (punctuation mark)
vidipunta(kwo) point of view, standpoint
punta-konta – score (number of points earned)

pupa(kwo) pupa, chrysalis

pupila(kwo) pupil (of eye)

pur – 1) (konekti) for, in exchange for cf. fo, per, por, pro
Tu kupi signifi pren koysa pur mani. – To buy means to take something for money.
pur to – in return, instead, but then
2) (konekti) for, in place of
chi pur tri jen – eat for three men

pure(kwel) pure cf. klin
pure fantasia – sheer fantasy
puritaa(kwo) purity
purisi(zwo) purify
purisa(kwo) purification

purgi(zwo) purge (the body, soul, mind, party)
purga(kwo) purge (act)
purgi-farmak, purgika(kwo) purge (medicine)

purpur(kwo) purple
purpur-ney(kwel) purple

pushi(zwo) push
pushi-ofni dwar chaurem – push the door wide open
pusha(kwo) push
pushing(kwo) pushing

putre(kwel) rotten; putrid
putri(zwo) rot (tr./intr.)
putrifi(zwo) rot, decay, putrefy, become bad
putrisi(zwo) make rot
putrika(kwo) rotten stuff

putunhua(kwo) Putonghua syn.: hanlingwa

pwa(kwo) pea(s)
pwa-sup – pea soup
grin pwa – green peas

pyan(kwel) drunk, drunken, tipsy
ta es pyan – he/she is drunk
gro-pyan(kwel) blind drunk
pyannesa(kwo) intoxication
fa-pyan(zwo) become drunk
pyani(zwo) drink hard/heavily
pyaning(kwo) drunkenness, hard drinking
pyanisi (mah-pyan)(zwo) make drunk, intoxicate
pyannik(kwo) drunkard

pyasi(zwo) thirst
pyasa(kwo) thirst
fai pyasa – be thirsty
defai pyasa – slake/quench one's thirst
pyase (pyasa-ney)(kwel) thirsty
sta pyase – be thirsty

pyata(kwo) plate (dish) syn.: dish
chyen pyata – dinner-plate; side plate
glube pyata – soup-plate

pyu(gramatika-komo) more
Sey gaseta es pyu interes-ney kem toy-la. – This newspaper is more interesting than that one.
Lu lopi pyu kway kem yu. – He runs quicker than you.
Lu lekti pyu kem me. – He reads more than me.
Me bu yao audi se pyu. – I don't want to listen to this any more.
pyu o meno hao, pyu-meno hao – more or less good
fa-pyu(zwo) increase
pyu-nem(komo) rather, to a greater degree


rabati(zwo) make a reduction in (value or price)
rabata(kwo) reduction, diminution, rebate, abatement (in price)

rabia(kwo) rabies, canine madness
rabike(kwel) rabid

rada(kwo) wheel
dentarada(kwo) gear wheel, cog-wheel

radiatia(kwo) radiation
radiati(zwo) radiate

radikal(kwo) radical (linguistics, chemistry)
radikal-ney(kwel) radical (linguistics, chemistry)

radikale(kwel) radical (favouring fundamental change)
radikala(kwo) radical (a person with radical opinions)

radio(kwo) radio
radioyuan(kwo) radio/wireless operator
fai radio(zwo) wireless, radio, wire

radis(kwo) radish

raduga(kwo) rainbow cf. arka
raduge (raduga-ney)(kwel) iridescent, rainbow
radugisi(zwo) rainbow

radyum(kwo) radium

ragi(zwo) jut out, protrude, stick up, stick out
ragi-she(kwel) prominent, protruding

rahim(kwel) merciful; charitable
rahimtaa(kwo) mercy, charity, grace
rahimem(komo) mercifully
norahimem(komo) unmercifully, cruelly
rahimi(zwo) spare (treat mercifully)

raidi(zwo) ride (on a horse), straddle
raidem (raidi-shem)(komo) astride, astraddle
raider(kwo) rider

raita(kwo) right (a legal or moral entitlement)
jen raitas – human rights
voti-raita – the right to vote, suffrage

raja(kwo) raja

raketa(kwo) 1) rocket; missile
ala-raketa – cruise missile
2) racquet

raki(zwo) ride (to transport oneself by means of smth), drive, go by smth (tr./intr.)
raki kaval – ride a horse
raki bus – go by bus
raki tren – go by train
raker(kwo) rider; passenger
raking(kwo) ride, riding; drive, driving
rakibile(kwel) passable, able to be ridden along (road)

rakonti(zwo) narrate, tell, give an account, recount
rakonta(kwo) tale, narrative, story, account

rakun(kwo) racoon

ramla(kwo) sand
ramlinka(kwo) grain of sand
ramlakloka(kwo) hourglass

randa(kwo) plane (tool)
Tajik, Hindi

rane(kwel) early ant.: tarde see also: sabah, savera, suryachu
ranem(komo) early

ranga(kwo) rank (level, position in society or organization)

ranunkul(kwo) buttercup

rap(kwo) rap music
rapi(zwo) rap

rare(kwel) rare, infrequent
rarem(komo) seldom, rarely, infrequently
raritaa(kwo) rarity (rareness)
rarika(kwo) rarity (a rare object)

ras…(syao) separation, division, or dispersion
muvi – to move   ⇒   rasmuvi – to move apart
dai – to give   ⇒   rasdai – to distribute, give to several people
sendi – to send   ⇒   rassendi – to send out/round
lwo – to fall   ⇒   raslwo – to fall to pieces
pon – to put   ⇒   raspon – to lay out, place
goni – to drive, chase   ⇒   rasgoni – to drive away, disperse, scatter
haki – to hack   ⇒   ras-haki – to hack to pieces
pendi – to hang   ⇒   raspendi – to hang out
lansi – to throw   ⇒   raslansi – to throw around, scatter

rasa(kwo) race (breed)

rasma(kwo) drawing (smth drawn: picture, diagram etc.)
rasmi(zwo) draw (depict with lines)
rasming(kwo) drawing (act or instance; the art)

raspi(zwo) scrape, rasp, abrade, graze see also: skrapi
raspitul(kwo) rasp file
raspitura(kwo) graze, abrasion

rasta(kwo) rake (tool)
rasti(zwo) rake
rasting(kwo) raking

rasum(kwo) reason (cognitive faculties; reasoning; ability to think) cf. kausa
jen do rasum – man of reason
rasum-ney(kwel) reasonable
norasum-ney(kwel) unreasonable, unwise; foolish
norasum-ney akta – an unwise act
rasum-nem(komo) reasonably

rata(kwo) rat

raubi(zwo) rob, maraud, plunder, loot
rauba(kwo) robbery, brigandage, pillage
rauber(kwo) robber, brigand

rauki(zwo) wheeze; speak hoarsely, croak; be hoarse
rauka(kwo) wheeze, hoarse sound
rauke (rauka-ney)(kwel) hoarse, raucous, husky

raunda(kwo) round (a unit of play)

ravan(kwo) amble (of a horse)
ravaner, ravan-kaval(kwo) ambler
Turkish, Bulgarian

ray(kwo) ray, beam
surya-ray – sun’s rays

razi(zwo) shave
razi swa – shave oneself
raza, razing(kwo) shave, shaving
razer(kwo) razor

rea(kwo) yard (naut.)

reaksion(kwo) reaction (chemistry, physics)
reaksioni(zwo) react (chemistry, physics)

reakti(zwo) react (act in response)
reakta(kwo) reaction

reale(kwel) real cf. aktuale
realem(komo) really
realitaa(kwo) reality
in realitaa – in reality
realisi(zwo) realize (make real)
realifi(zwo) come true, be realized
realisa(kwo) realization (making real), accomplishment
realisibile(kwel) realizable

rebeli(zwo) rebel
rebela(kwo) rebellion

redakti(zwo) edit cf. editi
redakter(kwo) editor
redakting(kwo) redaction (process of editing)
redakta (redaktura)(kwo) redaction, version
tri-ney redakta de kitaba – the third version of the book
redaktitim(kwo) editorial staff
redaktiguan(kwo) editorial office

redukti(zwo) reduce
redukta(kwo) reduction
redukter(kwo) reducer

reflekti(zwo) reflect (throw or bend back from a surface, mirror) cf. mediti
reflekta(kwo) reflection

reflexa(kwo) reflex (physiology, phychology)

reformi(zwo) reform, amend for the better
reforma(kwo) reform

refrena(kwo) refrain (burden of song)

refuja(kwo) refuge, shelter syn.: asilum
refuji(zwo) refuge, shelter

refusi(zwo) refuse, decline
refusa(kwo) refusal

refuti(zwo) refute, confute, disprove
refuta(kwo) refutation, disproof

rega(kwo) monarch, king/queen
rego(kwo) king
regina(kwo) queen
regale(kwel) royal, regal, kingly
regi(zwo) reign
reging(kwo) reign
regilok, regilanda(kwo) kingdom, realm

regei(kwo) reggae

regimenta(kwo) regiment

region(kwo) region (all senses)
regionale(kwel) regional

register(kwo) register (computer science, music)

registri(zwo) register (record, enter, enroll)
registra(kwo) registration

regula(kwo) rule, regulation
kom regula – as a rule
regulatot(kwo) regulations
regulare(kwel) regular
regularitaa(kwo) regularity
reguli(zwo) regulate
reguling(kwo) regulation (act of regulating)
regulator(kwo) regulator

reina(kwo) rein

rejekti(zwo) reject
rejekta(kwo) rejection

rejim(kwo) regime, regimen

rejisor(kwo) director (in a show or film)

rek(komo) right (directly, straight; downright, quite) syn.: direktem, ga
Es rek stupide. – It's downright stupid.
chi rek bay handas – eat directly by hands

reka(kwo) streak, stroke, line cf. linia

reklama(kwo) advertisement; ad, commercial
reklami(zwo) advertise
reklaming(kwo) advertising

rekola(kwo) harvest
rekoli(zwo) harvest cf. jami, kolekti
rekoling(kwo) harvesting

rekomendi(zwo) recommend
rekomenda(kwo) recommendation

rekompensi(zwo) recompense, reward, remunerate
rekompensa(kwo) requital, recompense

rekoni(zwo) recognize
rekoni lao amiga – recognize an old friend
rekoni nodependa – recognize independence
rekoni pa vos – recognize by voice
rekona(kwo) recognition

rekonsili(zwo) reconcile
rekonsila(kwo) reconciliation

rekor(kwo) record (unsurpassed measurement)

rekordi(zwo) record, make an audio/video recording
rekorda(kwo) record, recording
rekorder(kwo) recorder, tape recorder

rekruta(kwo) recruit, conscript
rekruti(zwo) recruit, enroll, enlist

rekte(kwel) straight (not crooked or bent) cf. direkte
rekte linia – a straight line
rektisi(zwo) straighten
rektangula(kwo) rectangle

rel(kwo) rail (the metal bar that makes the track for a railroad)

relatem(konekti) in relation to, relative to
un relatem otre – one relative to the other
Lu es neutrale relatem sey kwesta. – He is neutral in relation to this question.

relati(zwo) relate (have connection or relationship)
se bu relati a dela – this doesn’t relate to the matter
relata(kwo) relation, relationship (connection; condition of being related)
relative(kwel) relative
relativem(komo) relatively
relativitaa(kwo) relativity

relief(kwo) relief (shape)

religion(kwo) religion
religion-ney(kwel) religious (of religion)
religionful(kwel) religious (having reverence for God)

reloki(zwo) relocate
relokifi(zwo) move (to), migrate, transmigrate, resettle
reloka(kwo) relocation

rema(kwo) oar
remi(zwo) row (propel a boat by use of an oar)
reming(kwo) rowing
ek-reming(kwo) a sweep of oars
remer(kwo) rower, oarsman

remarki(zwo) remark (express briefly and casually as a comment)
remarka(kwo) remark (comment, a casual or brief expression of opinion)

remembi(zwo) remember (have in memory; recall from memory)
rememba(kwo) recollection, reminiscence
mah-remembi(zwo) remind cf. memorisi

remorsi(zwo) feel remorse
remorsa(kwo) remorse

renegat(kwo) renegade, apostate
renegat-ney(kwel) renegade, apostate

rensheng(kwo) ginseng

renta(kwo) rent (payment)

renversi(zwo) capsize, overturn; overthrow, subvert
renversa(kwo) overthrow

repa(kwo) turnip

repari(zwo) repair
reparen (repari-ney)(kwel) repaired
repara(kwo) repair
reparaguan(kwo) repair shop/station

repeli(zwo) repel (put off, force away)
Olea repeli akwa. – Oil repels water.
Elektre sharja do same signa repeli mutu. – Electric charges of the same sign repel one another.
repela(kwo) repelling, repulsion
repeler(kwo) repellent

repertuar(kwo) repertoire, repertory

repeti(zwo) repeat; rehearse (practice by repetition)
repeta(kwo) repetition; rehearsal

replasi(zwo) replace, displace, supersede
replasa(kwo) replacement

repliki(zwo) cue, retort, rejoin, reply syn.: bakshwo
replika(kwo) cue, retort, replication, rejoinder, reply

reporta(kwo) report, account, reportage
reporti(zwo) report, give an account
reporter(kwo) reporter

reposi(zwo) rest, take/have a rest, repose
reposi-stopa – halt, rest
reposa(kwo) rest, repose

representi(zwo) represent (stand for; be the representative of; depict)
representer(kwo) representative

represi(zwo) repress, check, restrain, suppress, subdue
represi rida – repress a laugh
represa(kwo) repression

reprodukti(zwo) reproduce
reprodukta(kwo) reproduction
reproduktive(kwel) reproductive

reproshi(zwo) reproach, upbraid
reprosha(kwo) reproach, reproof, rebuke
sinreproshe (sinreprosha-ney)(kwel) irreproachable, blameless

reptila(kwo) reptile

republika(kwo) republic
republikista(kwo) republican

reputasion(kwo) reputation

resepta(kwo) recipe

reservi(zwo) reserve, save, set apart, lay by or up
reserva(kwo) reserve, store, stock
reserve (reserva-ney)(kwel) reserve, spare, held in or forming a reserve

residi(zwo) reside, dwell, abide
residilok(kwo) residence, abode

resisti(zwo) resist
resisti koysa – withstand smth
resista(kwo) resistance

resivi(zwo) receive
resiva(kwo) reception
resivi-sha(kwo) recipient, receiver (person), receptionist
resiviyuan(kwo) receptionist
resiver(kwo) receiver (device)
resivishamba(kwo) reception, parlour
resivi-nota – receipt (written acknowledgement of receipt)

resolusion(kwo) resolution (formal decision)

resolute(kwel) resolute, determined, firm, unwavering
resolutem(komo) resolutely
resolutenesa(kwo) resoluteness, determination, resolution
resoluti(zwo) be resolved

resolvi(zwo) solve, resolve (find solution) cf. solvi
resolva(kwo) solution (answer, plan)

reson(kwo) reason, grounds; point, sense; argument
resoni(zwo) reason
resona, resoning(kwo) reasoning
resonful(kwel) reasonable, well-grounded, having a point

resora(kwo) spring (of vehicle)

respekti(zwo) respect, esteem
respekta(kwo) respect, esteem
kun gro-respekta – with profound respect
respektival(kwel) respectable, honourable

responsi(zwo) be responsible (om koysa – for smth)
responsi-she(kwel) responsible
responsa(kwo) responsibility

responsorio(kwo) responsory

resti(zwo) remain (continue unchanged in place, form or state; be left over)
resti stan – remain standing, stand on
resti pa dom – stay at home
resta(kwo) remainder, rest
resting(kwo) stay, sojourn
reste (resta-ney)(kwel) remaining
lo reste – the rest
olo reste – all the rest
restes(kwo) the rest (people)
restika(kwo) remainder; change (money given back)

restori(zwo) restore ant.: exosti
restora(kwo) restoration

resulta(kwo) result
resulti(zwo) result

resumi(zwo) recapitulate, sum up, summarize
resuma(kwo) recapitulation, summary, resume

resursa(zwo) resource

reteni(zwo) retain, keep in one’s possession syn.: kipi
retena(kwo) retention

returni(zwo) return (come or go back; give back)
returna(kwo) return

reumatisma(kwo) rheumatism (abbr.: reuma)

reveli(zwo) reveal, disclose, uncover
reveli ke – as it turned out
reveli swa – reveal oneself
fa-reveli(zwo) turn out, prove (to be)
riva fa-reveli chyen – the river turned out to be shallow
revela(kwo) revelation, disclosure

reveransa(kwo) curtsey, curtsy
reveransi(zwo) curtsey

reversa(kwo) reverse (back side of anything); reversal
sin reversa – irreversibly
reverse (reversa-ney)(kwel) reverse
reversi(zwo) reverse (turn or move in the opposite direction)

revolusion(kwo) revolution (overthrow of government; a momentous change in a situation)
revolusion-ney(kwel) revolutionary

ri…(syao) "again, anew"
riapari – to reappear
rizwo – to redo

riba(kwo) rib (anat. and fig.)

riche(kwel) rich
richenesa(kwo) richness
fa-riche(zwo) become rich

ridi(zwo) laugh see also: ha-ha, hi-hi
rida(kwo) laugh
ridival(kwel) laughable, ridiculous

rif(kwo) reef (rocks at or near surface of water)

rigide(kwel) rigid, stiff, unyielding
rigiditaa(kwo) rigidity

rima(kwo) rhyme

ring(kwo) (boxing) ring

ris(kwo) rice

rishte(kwel) kindred, related, akin
rishtitaa(kwo) kindred, kinship, relationship
rishtejen, rishta(kwo) kinsman, relative
rishtejenta(kwo) kinsfolk, relatives, relations, kin

rishvat(kwo) bribe see also: bakshish
rishvati(kwo) bribe, suborn


risin(kwo) ricin
risinbush(kwo) castor oil plant
risinolea(kwo) castor oil

riska(kwo) risk, hazard
riski(zwo) risk, hazard

riter(kwo) knight

ritma(kwo) rhythm
ritmike(kwel) rhythmic, rhythmical

ritual(kwo) ritual, rite
ritual-ney(kwel) ritual

riva(kwo) river

riza(kwo) root (also: math.)
kwadra-riza – square root
riza-ney(kwel) radical (of or pertaining to a root or to the intrinsic nature of smth)

roba(kwo) dress, gown
shamba-roba – dressing gown

rogen(kwo) rye

roka(kwo) rock (a relatively large body of rock, as a cliff or peak)

roli(zwo) roll see also: volvi
rolika(kwo) roll; roller
rola, roling(kwo) roll (act), rolling
rolisketas(kwo) roller skates
rolikama(kwo) wheeled bed

rom(kwo) rum

Roma(kwo) Rome
Roma-ney imperia – Roman Empire

romale – 1) (kwel) Gipsy
2) (kwo) a Gipsy
3) (kwo) the Gipsy language
jamile romale gana – beautiful Gipsy song

roman(kwo) novel (rather large) cf. novela
roman-ki(kwo) short novel, story, narrative

romanike(kwel) Romance, Romanic
romanike lingwa – Romance language

ronde(kwel) round
ronda(kwo) round (a circular object/route)
muva pa ronda – movement in a circle
rondisi(zwo) round (off)

rosa(kwo) rose

rose(kwel) pink, rosy

rosti(zwo) roast
rostiwat(kwo) roast (smth roasted or prepared for roasting)
rostistanga(kwo) spit (rod for meat)

roti(zwo) rotate, revolve
rota(kwo) rotation, revolution

rubin(kwo) ruby (red jem)

rubla(kwo) rouble

ruchey(kwo) brook, creek, stream

rude(kwel) red
rude flaga – red flag
rudish(kwel) reddish, red (of hair), orange-brown, ginger
rudifi (fa-rude)(zwo) redden, become red
rudisi (mah-rude)(zwo) redden, make red

ruf(kwo) roof
rufshamba(kwo) attic, garret

ruga(kwo) wrinkle (crease) see also: fora
rugi(zwo) wrinkle, wrinkle up
rugi nos/frenta – wrinkle one’s nose/forehead

ruina(kwo) ruin (remains), ruins
ruini(zwo) ruin

ruja(kwo) rust
ruje (ruja-ney)(kwel) rusty
ruji(zwo) rust
buruji-stal – rustless steel, stainless steel
rujing(kwo) rusting

rul(kwo) steering apparatus: steering wheel; handlebars; helm; rudder
ruli(zwo) steer, drive; rule, control

rumba(kwo) 1) rhumb (one of the 32 compass points); 2) rumba (dance)

ruola(kwo) role, part
plei/fai ruola – to act the part

rupti(zwo) break
rupta(kwo) breakdown, breakage
ruptishil(kwel) fragile
shiprupta(kwo) shipwreck
rasrupti(zwo) knock to pieces, to smash into smithereens

Rusia(kwo) Russia
Rusia-jen(kwo) inhabitant/citizen of Russia

ruski – 1) (kwel) Russian (relating to ethnicity, language or country)
2) (kwo) Russian (person of Russian ethnicity)
3) (kwo) Russian language

rusla(kwo) watercourse, (river)bed, channel

ruta(kwo) route, itinerary

rutabaga(kwo) swede, rutabaga

rutina(kwo) routine, rut
rutine (rutina-ney)(kwel) routine, trivial, commonplace


sabah(kwo) morning ant.: aksham see also: rane, savera, suryachu
sey sabah – this morning
manya sabah – tomorrow morning
ranem pa sabah – early in the morning
Hao sabah! – Good morning!
sabahfan(kwo) breakfast

sabla(kwo) sabre

sabra(kwo) patience
nosabra(kwo) impatience
sabre (sabra-ney)(kwel) patient
sabrem (sabra-nem)(komo) patiently
nosabre(kwel) impatient
nosabrefai yao zwo koysa – to be impatient to do smth

sabun(kwo) soap
sabundan(kwo) soap dish

sada(kwo) embankment, bank

safara(kwo) journey, trip, voyage
Hao safara! – Have a good trip!
sirkum-munde safara – round-the-world travel
safara-gola – destination (place set for the end of a journey) cf. destini
gunsafara(kwo) business trip
safari(zwo) travel, journey, voyage
safari-sha(kwo) traveller
safarnik(kwo) confirmed traveller

safran(kwo) saffron

sagarme(kwel) zealous, fervent, enthusiastic, eager, keen
sagarma(kwo) enthusiast
sagarmitaa(kwo) enthusiasm, zeal, fervour

sago(kwo) sago

sahe(kwel) sober
sahitaa(kwo) sobriety, soberness
sahnik(kwo) teetotaller, abstainer

sahil(kwo) coast, shore, bank
sahil de riva – bank of the river
sahil-gata – seafront

sahra(kwo) desert (barren area)
sahralik(kwel) desolate, desert, deserted (uninhabited)

saif(kwo) summer see: vesna, oton, hima
garme saif – hot summer

sais(kwo) size

sait(kwo) site, website

saje(kwel) wise, sage cf. intele
sajitaa(kwo) wisdom
saja(kwo) sage

sak(kwo) sack
somnisak(kwo) sleeping bag

sakrale(kwel) sacral, sacred

sakrum(kwo) sacrum

sakte(kwel) severe (stern harsh; very bad or intense) syn.: strikte
saktitaa(kwo) severity, sternness; austerity

sal(gramatika) "to be about to" (immediate future)
Ela sal plaki. – She was about to cry.

sala(kwo) hall (large room, meeting room)

salam – 1) (kwo) peace
salam inter jenmin – peace between the peoples
al yao salam, tayari ba gwer – if you want peace, get ready for a war
salam-ney(kwel) peaceful, pacific; peace loving
2) (exklami) a greeting
Salam, kare amigas! – Hello, dear friends!

salata(kwo) 1) salad
2) lettuce also: gardensalata

salim(kwel) safe, sound, intact, unharmed, unhurt
salimtaa(kwo) soundness, intactness

saliva(kwo) saliva
saliva-ney(kwel) salivary
salivi(zwo) salivate
saliving(kwo) salivation

salmon(kwo) salmon

salon(kwo) 1) parlour, sitting room, living room; 2) salon
salon do jamilitaa – beauty salon

salpa(kwo) volley, salvo
fai salpa – fire a volley

salti(zwo) jump, leap, spring
bay salti, al salti – skippingly, hoppingly
salta(kwo) jump, leap
en-stan pa salta – spring to one's feet
salting(kwo) jumping; hopping, skipping
saltikorda(kwo) skipping rope, jump rope
risalti(zwo) bounce, rebound, recoil
saltijuk(kwo) grasshopper

saluti(zwo) greet, salute
saluta(kwo) greeting, salute, salutation

salvi(zwo) save (help to survive; write a file to disk), rescue cf. spari
salvi swa – save oneself
salva(kwo) salvation, rescue
salver(kwo) savior

sam… kom – as … as
Ta lopi sam kway kom yu. – He runs as quickly as you.
sam kom – same as
Sam kom yu, me pri aiskrem. – Same as you, I like ice-cream.

sam…2(syao) of the same … see also: same
samkolor-ney(kwel) of the same colour
samtaim-ney(kwel) contemporary (coexistent in time); simultaneous
samtaimjen(kwo) contemporary
samdumnik(kwo) like-minded person

samaji(zwo) understand, comprehend, realize syn.: graspi
hao-samaji-ke – easy to understand, understandable
samajibile(kwel) understandable, comprehensible
busamajibile(kwel) inconceivable, incomprehensible, inscrutable
samaja(kwo) understanding, realization
sinsamaje (sinsamaja-ney)(kwel) unconscious
samajishil(kwel) quick-witted, bright, quick in the uptake

saman(kwo) adobe (unburnt brick dried in the sun)
saman-dom, samanka(kwo) adobe (house made of adobe brick)

same(inplas-kwel) the same, that very see also: sam…2
Nu shwo same lingwa. – We speak the same language.
pa same taim – at the same time
samem(inplas-komo) in the same way
Li oli akti samem. – They all act in the same way.
sama (inplas-kwo) the same
Hao nocha! - Sama a yu! – Good night! - The same to you!
Es sama. – It’s all the same.

samride(kwel) prosperous, thriving, flourishing
samriditaa(kwo) prosperity, well-being

samula(kwo) nut (fastener)
samula-klef – wrench, screw key


sandala(kwo) sandal (open shoe) cf. santal

sandwich(kwo) sandwich; bread and butter

sane(kwel) healthy; wholesome
sanitaa(kwo) health
nosane(kwel) unhealthy
sanisi(zwo) make healthier; sanitate
sanlok(kwo) health resort

santal(kwo) sandalwood cf. sandala

sante(kwel) holy; sacred
santisi(zwo) sanctify
santisa(kwo) sanctification
santejen, santa(kwo) saint
nosantisi(zwo) desecrate, defile see: no

santimetra(kwo) centimeter see: metra

santush(kwel) content, contented, gratified, pleased
santushtaa(kwo) contentment, contentedness

sanyam(kwel) (self-) restrained, temperate, abstinent
sanyamtaa(kwo) restraint, reticence, temperance

sapa(kwo) toad

saplai(zwo) supply, furnish, provide
saplaisa(kwo) supply, provision, procurement
saplaiwat(kwo) supplies

sardina(kwo) sardine, pilchard

sari(kwo) sari

sarsaparila(kwo) sarsaparilla

sarwe(kwel) general (of the majority of those involved; prevalent), universal (common to all) cf. generale
sarwe elekta – general election
sarwe voti-raita – universal suffrage
sarwe nosantushtaa – general discontent

satan(kwo) Satan, Devil (the chief antagonist of God) see also: bes, diabla

sate(kwel) satiate, full, filled to satisfaction
Me he chi un lenge pay e me sta sate. – I have eaten a cold pie and I am full.
chi til sta sate – eat one's fill
satifi (fa-sate)(zwo) satiate oneself
satisi (mah-sate)(zwo) satiate, sate
busatibile(kwel) insatiable
satitaa(kwo) satiety

satelita(kwo) satellite

satira(kwo) satire

satisfakti(zwo) satisfy
fulem satisfakti nida de jenley – fully satisfy the needs of mankind
satisfakti-she(kwel) satisfactory
satisfakta(kwo) satisfaction

saturdi(kwo) Saturday also: sitdi see also: lunadi, marsadi, merkudi, jupidi, venudi, suryadi

saturi(zwo) saturate
satura(kwo) saturation
saturi-ney(kwel) saturated

Saturna(kwo) Saturn (planet) see also: Merkuri, Venus, Arda, Marsa, Jupiter, Uran, Neptun, Pluton

saum(kwo) garlic

sauna(kwo) sauna

saus(kwo) sauce (liquid condiment)

savaje(kwel) wild, savage
savaja(kwo) savage

savana(kwo) savanna

savera(kwo) early morning, daybreak see also: rane, sabah, suryachu
Me en-stan pa savera. – I get up early in the morning.

saxofon(kwo) saxophone

se(inplas-kwo) this, these cf. to
Kwo es se? Se es dom. – What is this? This is a house.
Se es dom, e to es auto. – This is a house, and that is a car.
sey(inplas-kwel) this, these
Sey gaseta es pyu interes-ney kem toy-la. – This newspaper is more interesting than that one.

sedey(taim-komo) today

sedla(kwo) saddle

sega(kwo) saw (tool)
segi(zwo) saw

segun(konekti) according to, in accordance with
segun luy worda – according to his words
pikter segun vokasion – painter by vocation
segun to ke me vidi – according to what I see/ judging from what I see
segun me – in my opinion
segun ke – as, in proportion as
Segun ke presa fa-syao, volum fa-gran. – As pressure diminishes, the volume grows.

sekla(kwo) century

sekondare(kwel) secondary (not primary, minor, accessory)

sekret(kwo) secret (hidden knowledge)
sekret-ney(kwel) secret
sekret-nem(komo) secretly
sekretnesa(kwo) secrecy


sekretar(kwo) secretary

seksion(kwo) section (part, division)

sekta(kwo) sect
sektayuan(kwo) sectarian, member of a sect

sektor(kwo) sector

sekunda(kwo) second (unit of time) see also: minuta, ora

sekwi(zwo) follow
pa sekwi-dey – on the next day
(pa) sekwi-ves – next time
sekwi bay okos – follow with one's eyes
sekwi exampla de koywan – follow smb's example
sekwa(kwo) consecution, succession, sequence; consequence
sekwe (sekwa-ney)(kwel) consecutive, successive; following, next
sekwi-she(kwel) following, next
Treba merki lo sekwi-she. – One should note the following.
sekwitura(kwo) consequence, sequel; after-effects

sekwita(kwo) suite, retinue

sela(kwo) cell (all senses)
sela-ney(kwel) cellular
ovosela(kwo) ovum, ovocyte
puna-sela – punishment cell, lockup

selekti(zwo) select, choose, pick out
selekta(kwo) choice, selection
selektura(kwo) what is chosen/selected

selfa, selfa- – 1) (komo) oneself one's own self
Ta lubi sol swa selfa. – He loves only himself.
Me selfa zwo-te se. – I did it myself.
E walaa Jon selfa. – And here is John in person.
2) (komo) itself, taken on its own
sistema selfa es hao – the system itself is good
Yur mata es karimtaa selfa. – Your mother is kindness itself.
pa selfa – on its own, by itself (himself etc.)
3) (syao) self- (unassisted, happening on its own; automatic) сf. swa
selfa-lumi-she – self-luminous
selfa-zwo-ney – self-made

selri(kwo) celery

Selsyus(kwo) Celsius
trishi gradus do Selsyus – 30 degrees Celsius

sem(kwanto) seven (7) see also: nol, un, dwa, tri, char, pet, sit, ot, nin, shi, sto, mil
shi-sem(kwanto) seventeen
semshi(kwanto) seventy
semsto(kwanto) seven hundred

semafor(kwo) traffic light (signalling device)

sembli(zwo) seem, appear cf. apari
sembli ke olo go hao – it seems that everything goes well
luna sembli muvi – the moon seems to be moving
sembla(kwo) semblance, appearance
sembli-she(kwel) seeming
semblem (sembli-shem)(komo) seemingly, apparently
semblisi(zwo) pretend, feign

semdi(kwo) Sunday also: suryadi see also: undi, dwadi, tridi, chardi, petdi, sitdi

semena(kwo) seed; semen
semeni(zwo) sow; inseminate
semening(kwo) sowing; insemination
semeni-sha(kwo) sire, stud, bull
semener(kwo) seeding-machine

sementa(kwo) cement

sempre(taim-komo) always
fo sempre – forever
sempre-ney(kwel) regular, usual, customary

sena(kwo) senna

senat(kwo) senate
senator(kwo) senator

sendi(zwo) send
sendijen(kwo) messenger, envoy
sendiwat(kwo) smth sent
mani-senda(kwo) remittance
missendi(zwo) dispatch/send to the wrong address
for-sendi(zwo) forward, send on

sens(kwo) sense (faculty) cf. sensu, senta
pet sens – five senses
ilusion de sens – illusion of the senses
sit-ney sens – the sixth sense
sens-ney(kwel) sensual (of or pertaining to senses), sensory
sens-ney munda – the sensual world
sens-ney anubav – sensual experience
sensi(zwo) sense (use senses)
sensa(kwo) sensation (perception through senses)
sensa de tunga – sensation of pain

sensasion(kwo) sensation (a state of intense public interest and excitement)

sensu(kwo) sense (meaning) cf. sens, senta
in chaure (tange) sensu – in a wide (narrow) sense
se bu hev sensu – this doesn’t have sense
in sertene sensu – in a certain sense
sinsensu-ney(kwel) senseless
Portuguese, Calabrese

sentensia(kwo) sentence (maxim, dictum, saying) cf. frasa

senti(zwo) feel (a sensation) cf. palpi, tachi
senti swa buhao – feel unwell
senta(kwo) feeling, sensation; emotion; sense (natural appreciation or ability) cf. sens, sensu
elay senta versu lu – her feelings towards him
senta de lo jamile – sense of beauty
yuma senta – sense of humour
pre-senti(zwo) have a presentiment
pre-senta(kwo) presentiment, anticipation

sentimentale(kwel) sentimental

sentra(kwo) centre
sentrale(kwel) central
sentralisi(zwo) centralize
sentralisa(kwo) centralization

sentrifuga(kwo) centrifuge
sentrifugi(zwo) centrifuge

sentu(kwo) cent
tri euro petshi sentu – three euros fifty cents

senu(kwo) hay
senupila(kwo) haystack, hayrick

separi(zwo) separate
separi fon koywan – part with smb, sepatare from smb
separi-ney(kwel) separate
separa(kwo) separation

septemba(kwo) September also: mes-nin
pa septemba – in September

serafim(kwo) seraph (highest order of angels)

sereal(kwo) cereal

seremonia(kwo) ceremony

serenada(kwo) serenade

seria(kwo) series

seriose(kwel) serious syn.: gambir
seriositaa(kwo) seriousness

serpenta(kwo) serpent, snake

serpi(zwo) meander, twist, wind; (fig.) shift (get along by tricky or evasive means) syn.: viti
serpa(kwo) winding, meander, bend, twist

serte(kwel) certain (knowing or known for sure); indisputable
me es serte ke ta lugi – I am sure that he is lying
sertem(komo) certainly, of course
mah-serte(zwo) assure (remove doubt)
fa-serte(zwo) become assured
mah swa serte – make sure (of); make certain (that)
Sempre mah swa serte ke oli dwar es klefi-ney. – Always make certain that all doors are locked.
sertitaa(kwo) certainty

sertene(kwel) certain (fixed, settled; of a specific but unspecified character/degree/quantity)
al sertene kondision – under a certain condition
in sertene sensu – in a certain sense

serva(kwo) service (occupation, function, work)
servi(zwo) serve
servi-sha(kwo) servant
serving(kwo) act of service
server(kwo) comp. server

serveta(kwo) serviette, napkin

serviri(zwo) serve (bring food)

servis(kwo) service (set of dishes or utensils)

sesam(kwo) sesame

sesion(kwo) session

seson(kwo) season

seta(kwo) set (kit, collection) syn.: kompleta

sex(kwo) sex (sexual intercourse)
fai sex – have sex

sexu(kwo) sex (male or female), gender
sexuale(kwel) sexual

sey(inplas-kwel) this, these see: se

sfera(kwo) sphere
haf-sfera – hemisphere

shablon(kwo) template

shada(kwo) shadow, shade
shadaful(kwel) shady, umbrageous
shadi, fai shada(zwo) shade, overshadow, cast a shade

shafi(zwo) stand up (for), take smb's side, intercede (for)
shafer(kwo) intercessor, defender; protector

shah(kwo) check (in chess)
shah e mat! – checkmate!

shahmat(kwo) chess
shahmat-geim – a chess game

shahta(kwo) shaft (opening)

shai – 1) (zwo) to be hot, burn (about the sun)
surya shai – the sun is hot
sub surya-shaisa – right in the sun, in the full blaze of the sun
2) (zwo) to sun (expose to the sun's rays, as for warming, drying, or tanning); sunbathe
me shai on playa – I sunbathe on the beach
shaitume(kwel) sunburnt, sunburned, suntanned, brown, bronzed
shaitumitaa(kwo) sunburn, tan

shaih(kwo) sheikh

shakal(kwo) jackal

shakwi(zwo) complain
shakwa(kwo) complaint

shal(kwo) shawl cf. skarfa

shalash(kwo) shelter of branches

shali(zwo) play pranks/tricks, be naughty

shalwar(kwo) shalwar, loose trousers

shaman(kwo) shaman

shamba(kwo) room, chamber
trenshamba(kwo) compartment (in train)
shipshamba(kwo) ship cabin also: kabina

shambelan(kwo) chamberlain

shami(zwo) be ashamed
mah-shami(zwo) shame, put to shame
shama(kwo) shame
shamival(kwel) shameful, disgraceful
shamishil(kwel) bashful, shy, easily abashed

shampanya(kwo) champagne

shampu(kwo) shampoo

shan(kwo) leaf, fold, wing (movable section of door, window, etc.)
un-shan-ney dwar – single-wing door, one-leaf door
dwa-shan-ney dwar – double door (consisting of two halves)
dwa-shan-ney winda – double-casement window


shanji(zwo) change (make or become smth different)
feng shanji-te direksion – the wind has changed direction
shanja(kwo) change
mani shanja – money exchange
shanjishil(kwel) changeable, inconstant

shansa(kwo) chance (probability; opportunity, possibility)

shantaja(kwo) blackmail
shantaji(zwo) blackmail
shantajer(kwo) blackmailer

shao(inplas-kwanto) little (in quantity), few
Ta hev shao amiga. – He has few friends.
shao-po-shao – little by little
pyu shao – less, smaller amount
zuy shao – least, the smallest amount of
shao-ney(kwel) little in quantity, scanty
shaotaa(kwo) scarcity; shortage

shapa(kwo) cap (head covering), hat cf. kapushon

sharja(kwo) charge (electric; of a gun etc.)
sharji(zwo) charge (electrically; to load equipment with material required for its use, as a firearm with powder)
Sharji ba yur banduk! – Charge your weapons!
sharjing(kwo) charging, loading

sharka(kwo) shark

sharnir(kwo) hinge, joint

shatami(zwo) curse, cuss, swear cf. blami, damni, kondamni
shatama(kwo) curse, swearword
shatam(exklami) swearword

shauza(kwo) ladle

shayad(komo) perhaps, probably see also: musbi, probablem

-she1(gramatika) active participle marker
lubi-she man – a loving man

she2 – 1) (konekti) at, in (refers to smb's abode, country)
Me es she me. – I am at mine.
Me zai lai fon she ela. – I am coming from hers.
Sta ba kom she yu! – Feel yourself at home!
she dushman – among enemies, in enemy's country
2) (konekti) in the work / writings of (refers to author)
she Homer – in Homer (Homer's writing)
3) (konekti) in, with (refers to person or animal)
es abyas she lu – it is a habit with him
instinkta she animal – instinct in animals

shefe(kwel) main, chief
shefa(kwo) chief, boss
shefem(komo) mainly, chiefly
shefurba(kwo) capital (city)
shefkomander(kwo) commander in chief

sheiki(zwo) shake syn.: tremi
sheika(kwo) shake, jolt
sheiking(kwo) shaking, jolting

shel(kwo) shell (hard covering)
ovoshel(kwo) eggshell
tortuga-shel – tortoise shell

sheri(kwo) sherry

sheshi(zwo) lisp
sheshnik(kwo) lisper

shi(kwanto) ten (10) see also: nol, un, dwa, tri, char, pet, sit, sem, ot, nin, sto, mil
shi-ney(kwel) tenth
shifen(kwanto) tenth
un (de) shifen – one tenth (= nol koma un)
shi-un(kwanto) eleven
shi-dwa(kwanto) twelve
shi-dwaka(kwo) dozen
shika(kwo) a group of ten

shibit(kwo) dill

shidla(kwo) awl

shifra(kwo) cipher, cypher, code

shifti(zwo) shift, alter, dislocate, displace see also: smena
shifta(kwo) shift, dislocation, displacement

shik(kwo) chic
shik-ney(kwel) chic

shikar(kwo) game, bag, prey
shikari(zwo) hunt
shikara, shikaring(kwo) hunt, hunting
shikaridoga(kwo) hunting dog
shikari-sha(kwo) hunter
shikarnik(kwo) (inveterate) hunter

…shil(syao) "having inclination or tendency to"
gun – to work   ⇒   gunshil – industrious
kusi – to bite   ⇒   kusishil – tending to bite
fobi – to fear   ⇒   fobishil – timorous

shilda(kwo) shield

shiling(kwo) shilling

shimpansa(kwo) chimpanzee

shin(kwo) shin (front part of the leg below the knee and above the ankle)

ship(kwo) ship

shirma(kwo) screen (divider, protector) cf. ekran
lampa-shirma(kwo) lamp shade, abat-jour

shlang(kwo) hose (flexible tube)
Russian, Swedish

shma-(syao) "disparagement"
shma-kaval – nag
shma-dom – shack
shma-kitaba – trash/filthy book
shma-gunsa – botch, bungle
shma-skribi – scribble, scrawl
shma-ney(kwel) wretched, poor, inferior

shmah(kwo) disgrace, infamy syn.: nohonor
shmah e shama! – a sin and a shame, for shame!
shmahisi(zwo) disgrace, discredit

shofer(kwo) (motor-car) driver, chauffeur

sho(kwo) show (exhibition, program, entertainment)

shok(kwo) shock (smth surprising; electric shock; medical emergency)
shoki(zwo) shock

shop(kwo) store, shop syn.: dukan

shorta(kwo) shorts

shosee(kwo) highway, high road

shsh!(exklami) Hush! Sh!

shu(kwo) shoe
shuer(kwo) shoemaker

shuan(kwo) bar, bolt, hasp
shuani(zwo) bar, bolt
deshuani, defai shuan(zwo) unbar, unbolt

shuin(kwo) mercury

shuki(zwo) search, seek, look for
shuka, shuking(kwo) search
shuki-sha(kwo) seeker, searcher (person)
shuker(kwo) finder (device)
beshuki(zwo) search, ransack
beshuki krimenjen – search the criminal
shukidoga(kwo) sleuth-hound

shukran(exklami) thanks, thank you syn.: arigatoo, danke
Arabic, Hindi

shulan(kwo) sloth (animal)

shulin(kwo) forest, woods
shulin-ki(kwo) grove, copse

shum(kwo) noise
shum-ney(kwel) noisy
shumi(zwo) make a noise; be noisy
sinshum-ney(kwel) noiseless
sinshum-nem(kwel) noiselessly

shumay(kwo) panic grass

shuti(zwo) shoot, fire
shuti bay banduk (kanon) – fire a rifle (cannon)
shuti a koysa – shoot at smth
ek-shuti(zwo) fire a shot
shuti-kili(zwo) shoot, kill by shooting
shuta(kwo) shot
shuting(kwo) shooting, firing
shuter(kwo) shooter
shutiguan(kwo) shooting gallery
shuti-maidan – firing range

shwabra(kwo) mop, swab

shwai(zwo) throw (esp. with great force or abruptly), hurl, fling
rasshwai(zwo) scatter, throw about

shwo(zwo) say, speak
si mog shwo tak – so to speak
otrem shwo-yen – to put it differently
shwoing(kwo) speaking; (grammar) mood
shwosa(kwo) speech see also: bashan
shwo-ke(kwel) speech, related to speaking
shwotura(kwo) saying; proverb
shwoer(kwo) speaker
lautshwoka, shwoka(kwo) loudspeaker
shwonik(kwo) talker
shwo-talenta – eloquence

shwofu(zwo) persuade, exhort

si, -si – 1) (konekti) if see also: dan1
Si pluvi dan me resti pa dom. – If it rains then I rest at home.
Kwo si ta bu lai? – What if he doesn’t come?
2) (gramatika) a likening particle ("sort of, similar to, something like, a kind of, as if, seemingly")
Ta bildi un dom-si aus brancha. – He built a kind of house using branches.
Kwo lopi tra shamba? - Un maus-si. – What is running across the room? - A mouse or something.
rude-si – reddish
shi-si – about ten

sidi(zwo) sit
sidi lagem – lounge (sit in a relaxed manner)
en-sidi(zwo) sit down
sidika(kwo) seat (object for sitting or connected with sitting)

sidra(kwo) cider

siferblat(kwo) dial (a graduated, circular scale over which a needle moves to show a measurement); (clock) face

sifra(kwo) cipher (a numeric character), digit, figure
arabi sifra – Arabic numerals
sifra-ney(kwel) digital (numerical)

sifta(kwo) sieve (device)
sifti(zwo) sieve, sift
sifting(kwo) sieve, sift, screening

sigara(kwo) cigar

sigareta(kwo) cigarette
sigaretadan(zwo) cigarette-case

sigla(kwo) seal (signet, its impression, etc.) cf. fok
sigli(zwo) seal

signa(kwo) sign; token see also: presigna
pa signa de koysa – as a token/sign of smth
trafik-signa – traffic sign
signi(zwo) do/give a sign cf. signati
signika(kwo) insignia; badge, pin

signal(kwo) signal
signali(zwo) signal, give a signal

signati(zwo) sign (write one’s signature) cf. signi
signati-ney e sigli-ney – signed and sealed
signatura(kwo) signature

signifi(zwo) signify, mean, stand for syn.: maini
signifa(kwo) meaning
signifaful(kwel) significant (carrying meaning; having a covert or hidden meaning)

sigure(kwel) confident or connected with confidence, sure, secure and certain, safe, reliable, dependable
sigure om swa selfa, swa-sigure – sure of oneself, self-confident
sigure om sukses – confident of success
sigure plasa – safe place
sigure vos – confident / steady voice
sigure metoda – sure method
sigure handa – sure hand
fo sta sigure – just in case
sigurem(komo) confidently, with confidence
siguritaa(kwo) confidence, assurance; reliability
swa-siguritaa – self-reliance
sigurisi(zwo) ensure, assure, secure; insure
sigurisi swa – secure oneself, insure oneself
sigurisa(kwo) guaranteeing, securing, ensuring; insurance

sihulu(kwo) squash, marrow squash, vegetable marrow see also: zukini

sikada(kwo) cicada

sikin(kwo) knife see also: chitul
sikin do kalam(kwo) penknife

sikla(kwo) cycle

sikom(unisi) since, because, as, considering that (at the beginning of a clause)
Me bu yao-te shwo to a yu, bat sikom yu selfa begin sey kunshwosa, yu mus jan, ke yu hi es nofelise. – I didn’t want to tell it to you, but since you yourself began this conversation, you must know that it’s you who is unhappy.

sikrita(kwo) secretion (secreted substance)
sikriti(zwo) secrete
sikriting(kwo) secretion (process of secreting)

silaba(kwo) syllable

silda(kwo) herring

silensi(zwo) be/keep silent; keep silence
silensa(kwo) silence
silense (silensa-ney)(kwel) silent cf. kalme, kyete, trankwile
silensishil(kwel) taciturn, silent, reserved

silinda(kwo) cylinder

silka(kwo) silk

siluet(kwo) silhouette

silya(kwo) eyelash; (biol.) cilium, cilia
elay longe silya bin pinti-ney – her long eyelashes were painted

sima(kwo) top, apex, summit

simbol(kwo) symbol
simbolike(kwel) symbolic
simboli(zwo) symbolize

simile(kwel) similar, alike
jen-simile – resembling a human being
similitaa(kwo) likeness, resemblance, similarity, similitude
simili(zwo) be similar; resemble
lu simili suy mata – he resembles his mother
similisi(zwo) liken cf. asimili
nosimile(kwel) dissimilar, unlike

simpatia(kwo) sympathy (liking, kindly feelings (for))
simpatike(kwel) likable, nice

simple(kwel) simple
simplitaa(kwo) simplicity
simplisi(zwo) simplify (tr.)
simplisa(kwo) simplification
simplem (sim)(komo) simply; just
Me sim bu jan. – I just don't know.

simti(zwo) shrink, shrivel, cower ant.: expansi

simtoma(kwo) symptom

simuli(zwo) feign; simulate
simula(kwo) simulation
simuli-sha(kwo) simulator (person); malingerer
simuler(kwo) simulator (device)

sin, sin…(konekti) without
(syao) "-less"
sinsensu-ney(kwel) senseless
singola-ney(kwel) aimless

sina(kwo) breast; bosom

sinap(kwo) mustard

single(kwel) single (consisting of one part/aspect; undivided; individual and distinct) cf. sole
single tota – a single whole
single shamba – a single room
single forma, singlika(kwo) singular (gram.)
singla(kwo) single

sinian(zwo) miss (to feel the absence of someone or something, sometimes with regret), yearn, pine
Me sinian om yu. – I miss you.
Ta sinian om dom. – He is homesick.

sinior(kwo) sir, gentleman (a polite form of addressing or naming a male) see also: madam, mis1, sir

sinjen-ney(kwo) empty of people, lonely, desolate

sinki(zwo) sink (submerge; subside; go down slowly)
sinki fas in kushen – bury one's face in the pillow
sinka(kwo) sinking, submersion, submergence

sinnamba-ney(kwel) innumerable see: sin, namba

sinonim(kwo) synonym

sinsere(kwel) sincere (not feigned, genuine)
sinseritaa(kwo) sincerity

sintes(kwo) synthesis

sinua(kwo) convolution, sinuosity
brein-sinua – brain convolution(s)

sinus(kwo) sine (math.)

sipi(zwo) pour (about granular solid) see also: liti

sir(kwo) sir (a honorific before the name of baronets and knights) see also: sinior

sirena(kwo) siren (nymph; device)

siringa(kwo) syringe

sirke(komo) approximately, about, around see also: bli
dar he ye sirke dwashi jen – there were about 20 people
sirke mil dolar – around 1000 dollars

sirkuita(kwo) (electric) circuit
kurte sirkuita – short circuit

sirkula(kwo) circle (also: group of persons)
sirkule (sirkula-ney)(kwel) circular
sirkulalinia(kwo) circumference
sirkuler(kwo) pair of compasses

sirkuli(zwo) circulate
sirkuling(kwo) circulation also: sirkulasion

sirkum(konekti-komo) around
sirkum dom – around the house
kan sirkum – to look around
pren sirkum – clasp in arms
sirkumi(zwo) encircle, surround
sirkuma(kwo) encirclement
sirkumlok, lo sirkum(kwo) surroundings

sirkus(kwo) circus

sirop(kwo) syrup

sisma(kwo) earthquake also: ardatrema

sista(kwo) sister cf. brata

sista-docha(kwo) sororal niece (sister's daughter)


sista-son(kwo) sororal nephew (sister's son)

sistema(kwo) system

sit(kwanto) six (6) see also: nol, un, dwa, tri, char, pet, sem, ot, nin, shi, sto, mil
sitshi(kwanto) sixty
sitsto(kwanto) six hundred

sitata(kwo) quotation, citation
sitati(zwo) cite, quote

sitdi(kwo) Saturday also: saturdi see also: undi, dwadi, tridi, chardi, petdi, semdi

siti(kwo) city (most ancient part of a town; the financial and commercial center; municipality) cf. urba

sitisen(kwo) citizen (person that is a legally recognized as a member of a state)

situasion(kwo) situation
situasion-ney(kwel) situational

sivile(kwel) civil (pertaining to a citizen and his rights; not military or ecclesiastical), civic, civilian
sivila(kwo) civilian

sivilisi(zwo) civilize
sivilisa(kwo) civilization

skala(kwo) scale (a system of ordered marks at fixed intervals; calibrated line; the ratio of depicted distance to actual distance; size, scope) cf. balansa, kaskasa, pondika, vaka

skalpel(kwo) scalpel

skandal(kwo) scandal
skandal-ney(kwel) scandalous

skandi(zwo) chant (shout rhythmically); scan (verse)

skara(kwo) scar, cicatrice
skari(zwo) scar; cicatrize

skarfa(kwo) scarf (a long garment worn around the neck) cf. shal

skata(kwo) ray (fish), skate

skay(kwo) sky cf. swarga

skayskraper(kwo) skyscraper see: skay, skraper

skecha(kwo) sketch, draft, outline
skechi(zwo) sketch

skelet(kwo) skeleton (anat.) see also: karkasa

skema(kwo) scheme (outline of system, not project)
skema-ney(kwel) schematic
skema-nem(komo) schematically

skena(kwo) scene; stage (theater)

sketa(kwo) skates, skate
sketi(zwo) skate
sketing(kwo) skating

ski(kwo) ski
fai ski(zwo) ski
skiing(kwo) skiing
skier(kwo) skier

skoba(kwo) cramp, staple; bracket, parentheses
kwadra-skoba – square brackets "[ ]"
angula-skoba – angle brackets "< >"

skola(kwo) school
skolakitaba(kwo) schoolbook

skorpion(kwo) scorpion

skotish – 1) (kwel) Scottish
2) (kwo) Scotsman

Skotland(kwo) Scotland

skrapi(zwo) scratch, scrape see also: raspi
skrapi swa – scratch oneself
skrapitura(kwo) scratch (result of scratching)
skraping(kwo) scratching

skribi(zwo) write
skriba, skribing(kwo) writing
skribitura(kwo) inscription; writing (smth written)
skribitip(kwo) handwriting
skriber(kwo) writer

skriki(zwo) creak

skrupulose(kwel) scrupulous, meticulous

skulpti(zwo) sculpt, sculpture, chisel, carve
skulptura(kwo) sculpture (result of sculpting)

skuma(kwo) foam, spume; scum; froth; lather
skuma-onda, skumika(kwo) breaker (wave)
skumi(zwo) foam; froth

skunka(kwo) skunk

skupa(kwo) scoop, dipper cf. cherpika

skusi(zwo) excuse (forgive; make allowance for; serve as justification for) syn.: pardoni see also: bahani
skusa(kwo) excuse
pregi skusa – apologize

skwili(zwo) squeal, screech, scream, shrill

slama(kwo) straw

slapi(zwo) slap, flap, flop, plump see also: klapi
slapi-lwo – fall with a plop, plop down
slap!(exklami) flop! plop!

slavian(kwo) Slav
slavianike(kwel) Slavic

slika(kwo) snail

slim(kwel) slender, slim

slipa(kwo) slipper
slipas – slippers

sliva(kwo) plum
slivabaum(kwo) plum tree

sloy(kwo) layer, stratum
sloy-ney(kwel) stratified, laminar, flaky
sloy-ney panpasta – puff pastry
sloy-nem(komo) in layers
fa-sloy(zwo) stratify
mah-sloy(zwo) layer

slu(zwo) listen, strain one's ears to hear; auscultate; eavesdrop see also: audi
sluka(kwo) eavesdropping device

smaili(zwo) smile ant.: fruni
smaila(kwo) smile
dussmaili(zwo) smirk, grin

smaragda(kwo) emerald
smaragda-ney(kwel) emerald

smena(kwo) shift (group of workers or working period) see also: shifti

smiri(kwo) smear, anoint, daub, spread (a substance by rubbing)

smola(kwo) resin (plant secretion)
smola-ney(kwel) resinous

smuk(kwo) grass snake
akwa-smuk – dice snake

smuli(zwo) smoulder (burn slowly without flame)
smuli-she gual – smouldering coals

snega(kwo) snow
snegi(zwo) snow
sneging(kwo) snowing
snegalwosa(kwo) snowfall
snega-feng – snowstorm
sneginka(kwo) snowflake

snifi(zwo) smell at, snuff, sniff at

snova(komo) again, anew

snufi(zwo) snuffle, breathe heavily and noisily through the nose

snuva(kwo) the sniffles, the snuffles

soba(kwo) buckwheat
soba-kasha – buckwheat porridge

sobre(konekti-komo) above, over
sobre urba – over the town
es sobre – it is above
vidi fon sobre – to see from above
mil metra sobre marnivel – one thousand meters above sea level
sobreolo(komo) especially
sobre-ney(kwel) superjacent; superior
sobrenesa(kwel) superiority
sobreyuan(kwo) superior (a person of higher rank)
sobreshefa(kwo) supreme chief

sobredurti(zwo) outwit, overreach, circumvent see: sobre, durti

sobrekrai(zwo) outcry, cry louder

sobrelodi(zwo) overload, overburden see: sobre, lodi
sobreloda(kwo) overload

sobrepasi(zwo) outrun, outstrip, outdistance, overtake
ateni e sobrepasi – catch up and overtake

sobreplei(zwo) outplay

soda(kwo) soda

sok(kwo) sock (covering for the foot)
un para sok – a pair of socks

sol(komo) only
sol manya – only tomorrow
bu sol … bat yoshi … – not only … but also …

soldata(kwo) soldier

soldi(zwo) solder (unite or repair parts with solder)
soldika(kwo) solder (fusible alloy)

sole(kwel) sole, only; alone, solitary, lonely cf. single
pa sole – alone, on one's own
solitaa(kwo) solitude, loneliness
solem(komo) alone; solely

solemne(kwel) solemn

solidare(kwel) solidary
solidaritaa(kwo) solidarity

solide(kwel) solid (reliable, upstanding and dependable; substantial) syn.: gaurawe cf. twerde

solo(kwo) solo
fai solo(zwo) solo

solstis(kwo) solstice

solta(kwo) salt
solti(zwo) salt
solte (solta-ney)(kwel) saline
nosolte akwa – fresh water, sweet water
solten (solti-ney)(kwel) salted
solta-nish(kwel) saltish
soltadan(kwo) saltcellar; salt shaker

solvi(zwo) dissolve, melt cf. resolvi
solvi solta in akwa – dissolve salt in water
solving(kwo) dissolving, dissolution
solvitura(kwo) solution (liquid mixture)
solver(kwo) dissolvent, solvent

somni(zwo) sleep
treba go somni – one should go sleep
somna(kwo) sleep
somne, somnaful(kwel) sleepy
somnisi(zwo) put to sleep
somniser(kwo) soporific, sleeping draught

son(kwo) son cf. docha

sonda(kwo) sonde, probe, sounder
sondi(zwo) probe, sonder, sound

soneta(kwo) sonnet

sonji(zwo) dream (to see imaginary events in one’s mind while sleeping) cf. drimi
Pa sey nocha me he sonji un yarke sonja. – I dreamed a vivid dream this night.
sonja(kwo) dream (imaginary events while sleeping)
dussonja(kwo) nightmare

sonore(kwel) sonorous, ringing, resonant

sorgo(kwo) sorghum

soroka(kwo) magpie

sorpi(zwo) sup, sip

sorta(kwo) sort, kind
oli-sorta-ney – all kinds of, sundry

sosiale(kwel) social (relating to society)
sosialisma(kwo) socialism
sosialista(kwo) socialist

sosietaa(kwo) society

sosis(kwo) sausage
sosiskin(kwo) frankfurter, small sausage

sospiri(zwo) sigh
sospira(kwo) sigh

sovi(zwo) shove, poke

sovrin(kwo) sovereign (coin)

soya(kwo) soya
soya saus – soy sauce
soya bona – soya bean(s)

spaida(kwo) spider
spaidaweba(kwo) cobweb, spiderweb

spam(kwo) spam
spami(zwo) spam

spari(zwo) spare (be frugal), save, economize syn.: ekonomi cf. salvi
nospari(zwo) squander, dissipate see also: disipi
sparishil(kwel) frugal, thrifty, economical
spara, sparing(kwo) economy (frugal use), saving
sparitura(kwo) savings
nospare (nospara-ney)(kwel) unthrifty, improvident

spas(kwo) space (also: whitespace) see also: interspas
spas-ney(kwel) spacial
spas-taim-ney(kwel) spatiotemporal, space-time

spektakla(kwo) performance (presentation, especially a theatrical one)

spelta(kwo) spelt (a kind of wheat)

spendi(zwo) spend, expend
spenda(kwo) expenditure, expense
pa swa-ney spenda – at one's own expense

sperma(kwo) sperm

spesia(kwo) species (biol.)

spesiale(kwel) special
spesialem(komo) specially
spesialitaa(kwo) speciality
spesialista(kwo) specialist

spesifi(zwo) specify, designate particularly
spesifa(kwo) specification
spesifike(kwel) specific
spesifikitaa(kwo) specificity

spika(kwo) thorn, spine, prickle
spikatel(kwo) barbed wire
spikabush(kwo) thorn bush

spila(kwo) pin
spili(zwo) pin

spin(zwo) spin (make thread)
spintura(kwo) yarn
spintul(kwo) spinning wheel

spina(kwo) spine, backbone

spinata(kwo) spinach

spion(kwo) spy
spioni(zwo) spy

spiral(kwo) spiral

spiri(zwo) breathe
spiri gro – pant
spiri mushkilem – gasp
ausspiri(zwo) exhale, breathe out see also: ausspiri
inuspiri(zwo) inhale, breathe in see also: inuspiri
spira(kwo) breath
rifai spira – catch one's breath
spira-falta – shortness of breath, short wind

spiritu(kwo) spirit (non-material essence)
spirituale(kwel) spiritual
spiritualitaa(kwo) spirituality

splin(kwo) spleen (melancholy, depression) syn.: melankolia cf. limpa

splinta(kwo) splinter

sponja(kwo) sponge
sponja-biskwit – sponge cake
sponji(zwo) sponge

spontane(kwel) spontaneous

spora(kwo) spore

sporta(kwo) sport (physical activity, often competitive)
zun sporta – go in for sport
hima sportas – winter sports
sporte (sporta-ney)(kwel) sport, sports

spota(kwo) blot, stain, spot
spoti(zwo) spot, stain, maculate
spoten (spoti-ney)(kwel) spotty, spotted
suryaspota(kwo) sunspot

sprata(kwo) sprat

sprinki(zwo) sprinkle, scatter in drops or particles

spuki(zwo) spit (evacuate saliva)
spuka(kwo) spit, spittle

srok(kwo) term (fixed space of time, time limit)

sta(sta) be in a certain state; be doing, feel, stand (about the matters)
Komo yu sta? – How are you?
Komo may kitaba sta? – How is my book doing?
Lu sta bu tro hao. – He feels not too good.
rista normale – recover to normal condition
stasa(kwo) state (condition) cf. kondision
hao-stasa-ney – in a good condition

staba(kwo) staff, headquarters

stabile(kwel) stable syn.: stay
stabilitaa(kwel) stability
stabilisi(zwo) stabilize, make stable
stabilisa(kwo) stabilization

stadia(kwo) stage, phase

stadion(kwo) stadium (arena)

staka(kwo) stake (piece of wood pointed at one end)
staka-barana, stakatot(kwo) palisade, paling

stakato(kwo) staccato

stal(kwo) steel
buruji-stal – rustless steel, stainless steel

stampa(kwo) stamp (device; official mark; impression)
fingastampa(kwo) fingerprints
stampi(zwo) stamp, imprint on the surface cf. tompi, topti

stan(zwo) stand
stankolar(kwo) stand-up collar
en-stan(zwo) stand up, rise, get up
stansa(kwo) standing; stand (position), stance; point (stance taken by a hunting dog)
stanka(kwo) stand (device to hold smth), strut, prop, stay
stanshil(kwel) stable (maintaining equilibrium)
mah-stan(zwo) erect, stand (to cause to stand, place upright)

standa(kwo) stand (device for displaying information; section of an exhibition)

standarda(kwo) standard
standarde (standarda-ney)(kwel) standard

stanga(kwo) pole (a long slender piece of wood etc.), rod
flagastanga(kwo) flagstaff, flagpole

stanum(kwo) tin (metal)

stara(kwo) star
stara-figura – constellation syn.: konstelasion
stara-ney(kwel) stellar
staraful(kwel) starry, starlit
starakin(kwo) asterisk

starti(zwo) start (begin; set into operation) syn.: begin, inisi
starta(kwo) start
starter(kwo) starter

stasion(kwo) station
ferdao-stasion(kwo) railway station

stata(kwo) state (polity; a political division of a federation)
Unifen Statas de Amerika (USA) – the United States of America
state (stata-ney)(kwel) state (attr.), national
statagana – national anthem

statua(kwo) statue

stavi(zwo) set, station, set up, put up; mount, install
stavi tenta – set up a tent
stavi limita – set a limit
stavi parus – set / make sail
destavi(zwo) demount, uninstall
destavi parus – furl / take in sails

stay(kwel, komo) steady, steadily; constant, regular, standing, permanent, persistent syn.: stabile
stay gwinsa – stable/regular income
stay klienta – regular customer

stem(kwo) stem, stalk (main axis of a plant)
stemkin(kwo) stem (as of a leaf)


stepi(zwo) step (move the foot in walking), pace, tread
stepa(kwo) step; also: measure, action
fai stepa fo/kontra koysa – take steps for/against smth
rasstepi(zwo) give way, part, step aside

stif-(syao) "step"
stif-mata – stepmother
stif-patra – stepfather
stif-brata – stepbrother
stif-docha – stepdaughter
stif-kinda – stepchild
stif-son – stepson

stik(kwo) stick (piece of wood; smth resembling a stick)
gro-stik(kwo) cudgel, bludgeon, club

stil(kwo) style

stimula(kwo) stimulus, incentive
stimuli(zwo) stimulate
stimuling(kwo) stimulation, encouragement

stiri(zwo) stretch (lengthen by pulling or when pulled) cf. extendi, tiri
stiren (stiri-ney) pulova – stretched sweater
stiri swa – stretch oneself

sto(kwanto) hundred (100) see also: nol, un, dwa, tri, char, pet, sit, sem, ot, nin, shi, mil
stofen(kwanto) hundredths
sem de stofen – seven hundredths
stofenka(kwo) hundredth part
stoka(kwo) a group of hundred

stolba(kwo) post, pillar, column, pole
fa-stolba(zwo) be dumbfounded
fa-stolba-ney(kwel) dumbfounded, stupefied, stumped

stomak(kwo) stomach (organ) cf. duza

ston(kwo) stone
ston-ney(kwel) stone, stony
stonifi(zwo) turn to stone; petrify
stonifa(kwo) petrifaction

stopi(zwo) stop; cease
stopi shwo! – stop talking!
sin stopi – without stopping, nonstop
stopi in hotel – stop at the inn
stopa(kwo) stop (act of stopping), stopping; cessation, cease
gunstopa(kwo) strike (a work stoppage)
stoper(kwo) stopper
stopika(kwo) stop (halting place)
stop(exklami) stop

storma(kwo) storm cf. sturma
snegastorma(kwo) snowstorm; blizzard

storna(kwo) starling

stotri(zwo) stammer, stutter
stotra(kwo) stammer(ing), stutter(ing)

strane(kwel) strange, odd, queer see also: ajibe, astoni-she, nopinchan
stranem(komo) strangely
stranitaa(kwo) strangeness

strategia(kwo) strategy
strategike(kwel) strategic
strategikem(komo) strategically

stres(kwo) stress (strain, tension) cf. aksenta

strikte(kwel) strict (exact; rigorous) syn.: sakte
striktenesa(kwo) strictness

stripa(kwo) stripe
stripi(zwo) stripe
stripe (stripa-ney)(kwel) striped, stripy

strofa(kwo) verse (one of several similar units of a song, consisting of several lines, generally rhymed) see also: versa

strom(kwo) stream, torrent, flow
stromi(zwo) stream, run, pour, flow
en-stromi(zwo) gush, spout
elektre strom, el-strom – electric current

struktura(kwo) structure
strukture (struktura-ney)(kwo) structural
strukturisi(zwo) structure (give arrangement to)
strukturisa(kwo) structurization

studenta(kwo) student

studi(zwo) study
studa(kwo) study

studio(kwo) studio

stuka(kwo) stucco
stuki(zwo) stucco, plaster

stula(kwo) chair
brachastula(kwo) armchair

stumbli(zwo) stumble (trip)

stupide(kwel) stupid, silly, foolish, idiotic see also: pumbe
stupida(kwo) fool syn.: ahmak
stupiditaa(kwo) stupidity, foolishness, silliness

stupor(kwo) stupor, torpor, numbness
fai stupor – be in stupor; become numb, stiffen
defai stupor – awake from stupor

sturma(kwo) assault, storm, onslaught cf. storma
sturmi(zwo) assault, storm

suan(kwel) sour; acid
suannesa(kwo) sourness; acidity
suantaa(kwo) acid
suanmilka(kwo) sour milk
fa-suan(zwo) turn/go sour
mah-suan(zwo) sour, make sour
suanish(kwel) sourish

sub(konekti-komo) under, below
sub tabla – under the table
fon sub tabla – from under the table
fon sub – from below
sub nuy kontrola – under our control
sub-ney(kwel) subjacent; subordinate, inferior (of lower rank)
subyuan(kwo) subordinate
subjen(kwo) subject (a person ruled over) cf. tema, subyekta
subnik(kwo) stooge, lackey syn.: lakey

subi(zwo) undergo cf. sufri, toleri

subkapitan(kwo) first mate, chief officer see: sub, kapitan

subkapra(kwo) lining see: sub, kapra
subkapri(zwo) line (to cover the inner surface of)
subkapri palto bay silka – to line the coat with silk

submarina(kwo) submarine boat

subordini(zwo) subordinate or be subordinate

substansa(kwo) substance (matter, material) cf. esensia, substansia
grey substansa – gray substance
organike substansa – organic substance

substansia(kwo) substance (philosophy) cf. esensia, substansa

substituta(kwo) substitute
substituti(zwo) substitute
substituting(kwo) substitution

subtitla(kwo) subtitles, captions see also: titla

subtragi(zwo) subtract
Sem subtragi dwa es pet. – If you subtract 2 from 7, the answer is 5.
subtraga(kwo) subtraction

suburba(kwo) suburb see also: urba

subyekta(kwo) subject (gram., log., philos.) cf. tema, subjen

suda(kwo) southsee also: esta, norda, westa
sude (suda-ney)(kwel) south, southern
sude feng – south wind
suden(konekti-komo) to the south, south of
urba es suden – the town is to the south
suden urba ye shulin – forest is south of the town

sudak(kwo) pike-perch

sudor(kwo) sweat, perspiration
sudor-ney(kwel) sweaty
sudori(zwo) perspire, sweat
sudorisi(zwo) produce sweating
sudoriser(kwo) sudorific

suf…(syao) indicates sufficiency of action
sufchi(zwo) eat one's fill
sufsomni(zwo) have a good sleep, have one's sleep out
sufplei(zwo) play to one's heart's content
sufpromeni(zwo) have had a walk long enough
suflopi(zwo) have one's fill of running

sufi(zwo) suffice
se sufi – it’s sufficient
sufi-she(kwel) sufficing, sufficient
sufem (sufi-shem)(komo) sufficiently, enough see also: basta
busufi-she(kwel) insufficient
sufa(kwo) sufficiency
sufe (sufa-ney)(kwel) sufficient

sufliri(zwo) prompt (theater and television)

sufri(zwo) suffer (feel pain or distress; sustain loss, injury, harm, or punishment) cf. subi, toleri
sufra(kwo) suffering

sugesti(zwo) suggest (put an idea etc. into a person's mind) cf. proposi
sugesta(kwo) suggestion (psychol.)

suhbranchika(kwo) brushwood, dry twigs see: suhe, brancha

suhe(kwel) dry
suhe-si rida – a dry laugh
suhitaa(kwo) dryness; drought
suhi(zwo) dry
suhing(kwo) drying
mah-suhe(zwo) make dry
fa-suhe(zwo) become dry
suher(kwo) dryer

suhsliva(kwo) prune (dried plum) see: suhe, sliva

suhvin (suhvinberi)(kwo) raisins, raisin see: suhe, vinberi

suki(zwo) suck
suking(kwo) sucking
suker(kwo) sucker
suki-sha(kwo) sucker (a person or animal)

sukra(kwo) sugar
sukradan(kwo) sugar-bowl

sukses(kwo) success
suksesi (fai sukses)(zwo) succeed
sukses-ney(kwel) successful
sukses-nem(komo) successfully

sulam(kwo) stairs; staircase; ladder
portisulam(kwo) stepladder
kordasulam(kwo) rope ladder
ship-sulam(kwo) ship's ladder
sulam-plana(kwo) landing (of a staircase)

sulfa(kwo) sulfur

suli(zwo) bode, forebode, promise syn.: presigni, wadi

suluki(zwo) behave
suluka(kwo) behavior

suma(kwo) sum
in suma – in sum
sumi(zwo) sum up
suming(kwo) summing up, summation (process)
sumare(kwel) total, aggregate

sumpa(kwo) bog, morass, swamp, marsh

sun(komo) soon
Til sun! – See you soon!
sun-ney(kwel) near, coming soon

sundi(zwo) convey, deliver (bring or transport to the proper place or recipient; distribute)
sunda(kwo) delivery

sunduk(kwo) (big) chest (strong box)

sungi(zwo) see off
sunga(kwo) send-off, seeing-off

suola(kwo) sole (underside of a shoe or foot)

suomen – 1) (kwel) Finnish (relating to ethnicity, language or country)
2) (kwo) Finn (person of Finnish ethnicity)
3) (kwo) Finnish language

Suomi – Finland also: Finland

suon(kwo) sound
fai nul suon – utter no sound
suoni(zwo) sound, ring
suoning(kwo) sounding

sup(kwo) soup

super(kwel, komo, exklami, syao) super
superjen – superman
superstara – superstar

superflue(kwel) superfluous

superi(zwo) surpass, exceed; overcome

supermarket, market(kwo) supermarket

suplementa(kwo) supplement, appendix

suporti(zwo) support
suporta(kwo) supporting, support
suporter(kwo) supporter

suposi(zwo) suppose, assume
suposa(kwo) supposition
suposem (suposi-nem)(komo) supposedly

surfas(kwo) surface

surfi(zwo) surf
surfing(kwo) surfing

surma(kwo) antimony, stibium

surprisa(kwo) surprise
pa koywan-ney surprisa – to smb's surprise
surprisi(zwo) surprise; be surprised
surprise (surprisa-ney)(kwel) surprising

sursa(kwo) source

surya(kwo) sun
suryaflor(kwo) sunflower
suryaspota(kwo) sunspot
suryadarba(kwo) sunstroke
suryavati(zwo) sun

suryachu(kwo) sunrise ant.: suryalwo see also: rane, sabah, savera

suryadi(kwo) Sunday also: semdi see also: lunadi, marsadi, merkudi, jupidi, venudi, saturdi

suryalwo(kwo) sunset, sundown ant.: suryachu see also: aksham, tarde

suskribi(zwo) subscribe (contract to receive; promise to contribute)
suskriba(kwo) subscription

suspekti(zwo) suspect
suspektishil(kwel) suspicious (distrustful)
suspekta(kwo) suspicion
suspekte (suspekta-ney)(kwel) suspect, suspicious (arousing suspicion, dubious)
suspektem (suspekta-nem)(komo) suspiciously

susu(zwo) rustle
sususa(kwo) rustle, rustling

suti(zwo) sew, suture
suting(kwo) sewing
suti-igla(kwo) sewing needle
suter(kwo) sewer, tailor
sutura(kwo) seam; suture

suy(inplas-kwel) his, her, its see also: ela-ney, elay, it-ney, lu-ney, luy, ta-ney
Kada jen lubi suy kinda. – Everyone loves his/her child.

svenska – 1) (kwel) Swedish (relating to ethnicity, language or country)
2) (kwo) Swede (person of Swedish ethnicity)
3) (kwo) Swedish language

swa, swa- – 1) (gramatika) myself, yourself etc. (common reflexive pronoun for all persons and numbers)
Ela woshi swa. – She washes herself.
Ta lubi sol swa selfa. – He loves only himself.
Nu shwo a swa. – We say to ourselves.
swa-ney(kwel) own syn.: prope
2) (syao) self- (of oneself) сf. selfa
swa-luba – self-love
swa-kontrola – self-control

swaagat(exklami) welcome
swaagati(zwo) welcome

swarga(kwo) heaven cf. skay
swargalok(kwo) paradise

swasti(exklami) Good luck! May fortune favour you! Everything good to you!

swatberi(kwo) blackberry, bramble

swate(kwel) black
swatebrova-ney – dark-browed see: brova

swichi(zwo) switch (set a switch into another position)
swichi-on – switch on
swichi-of – switch off
swiching(kwo) switching
swicher(kwo) switch (device)

swimala(kwo) fin, flipper see: swimi, ala

swimi(zwo) swim
swiming(kwo) swimming
swimer(kwo) swimmer

swina(kwo) pig, swine
gin-swina (swinina)(kwo) sow, female pig
man-swina (swino)(kwo) boar, male pig
yunswina(kwo) piglet, young pig
swinamasu(kwo) pork

swingi(zwo) swing (move backward and forward; brandish; ride a swing)
swinging(kwo) swinging
swingika(kwo) swing (hanging seat)

swipa(kwo) lash, scourge, whip
swipi(zwo) lash, scourge, whip

syao(kwel) small, little (not large or big) ant.: gran
syaodela(kwo) trifle (thing of little importance) also: nomuhimka

syen(kwo) string (esp. of a musical instrument or of a bow) cf. korda
syentul(kwo) stringed instrument
arkusyen(kwo) bow string


ta(inplas-kwo) he/she/it; him/her/it (common for animate) see also: me, yu, lu, ela, it, nu, li
Es may kota, ta nami Vladimir. – This is my cat, its name is Vladimir.
ta-ney(inplas-kwel) his, her, its see also: suy

tabahi(zwo) perish

tabak(kwo) tobacco
tabakdan(kwo) tobacco pouch

tabela(kwo) table (orderly arrangement of data)

tabla(kwo) table (item of furniture)
fantabla(kwo) dinner table
lignatabla(kwo) wooden table
skribitabla(kwo) writing-table

tableta(kwo) tablet, pill

tabu(kwo) taboo
tabui, fai tabu(zwo) taboo
tabu-ney(kwel) taboo, forbidden

tabula(kwo) board (flat surface on which a game is played; flat surface used for writing or posting; name board); (name) tablet

tabut(kwo) coffin
tabut-gari(kwo) hearse, bier

tachi(zwo) touch (also: fig.) cf. palpi, senti
tacha(kwo) touch

tafeta(kwo) taffeta

taim, …taim(kwo) time see also: intertaim
hev taim fo zwo koysa – to have time to do smth
es taim fo go a dom – it’s time to go home
es gro-taim fo samaji … – it’s high time to understand …
afte shao taim – after little time, shortly
pa hao taim – in time; at the right/proper time
nau-taim, wek-taim e lai-taim – the present tense, past tense and future tense
fon taim a taim – from time to time
taimike(kwel) temporary
taimikem(komo) temporarily
taim-ney(kwel) temporal (of or relating to time)

taimplan(kwo) timetable, schedule see: taim, plan
tren-taimplan – train schedule
taimplan de leson – timetable of lessons

taip(kwo) type, typeface, font
grose taip – thick/bold type

taipi(zwo) type, typewrite
taiping(kwo) typing

tak(komo) so, in this way
Me opini tak. – I think so.
Tak, bu kontra-nem. – So, not otherwise.
Hay bi tak! – So be it!
tak ke – so that

takta(kwo) tact (diplomacy, savoir-faire)

taktika(kwo) tactics
taktike(kwel) tactical

tal(inplas-kwel) such (like this, that etc.)
Me bu pri tal joka. – I don't like such jokes.
Jiva es tal hi. – Such is life.
talgrad – to such an extent

talam(kwo) tray
pekitalam(kwo) baking tray

talenta(kwo) 1) talent (marked ability or skill); 2) talent (unit)
talente (talenta-ney), talentaful(kwel) talented, gifted

talia(kwo) waist

talim(kwo) education cf. instrukta
minista de talim – minister of education
talimi(zwo) teach
talimi kindas – teach children
talimi musika a kindas – teach music to children
talimer(kwo) teacher cf. guru
taliming(kwo) teaching
talim-ney(kwel) educated
sintalim-ney(kwel) uneducated, ignorant

talisman(kwo) talisman, amulet cf. charma, jadu

talka(kwo) talc

tamani(zwo) wish (bid, express wishes for) cf. voli, yao
me tamani a yu fortuna – I wish you good luck
tamana(kwo) wish(es)
Zuy hao tamana! – Best wishes!

tambur(kwo) drum (percussive musical instrument)
tamburi (fai/baji tambur)(zwo) drum
tamburi bay finga on tabla – drum one’s fingers on the table

tampon(kwo) tampon

tamra(kwo) date (sweet fruit)
tamrapalma(kwo) date palm
suhtamra(kwo) dried dates

tamrin(kwo) exercise
tamrini (fai tamrin)(zwo) exercise, train, practice

tana(kwo) shelf

tange(kwel) narrow, tight
tangitaa(kwo) narrowness, tightness
tangifi (fa-tange)(zwo) get narrower
tangisi (mah-tange)(zwo) narrow, contract

tangli(zwo) tangle, snarl
tanglika(kwo) tangle (confused, intertwined mass)

tango(kwo) tango

tanike(kwel) tiny, wee
tanika(kwo) a tiny bit
tanikem(komo) a tiny bit
bu tanikem(komo) not in the least, not at all, not a bit

1) tank (armoured vehicle)
2) tank (container for liquids)
bensin-tanka(kwo) petrol tank

tanto(inplas-kwanto) so much, so many, thus much, so (to such an extent)
tanto kwanto treba – as much as needed
tantokemejan – as far as I know
Bu gai gun tanto. – One shouldn't work so much.
Es tanto muhim. – It's so important.
tanto … kom – as (much) … as
tanto kway kom posible – as quickly as possible
bu tanto … kom – not so much … as

tapa(kwo) spigot, tap, plug, stopper see also: korka
tapi(zwo) plug, gag

tapis(kwo) carpet

tara(kwo) tyre
infli tara – inflate (pump up) a tyre

taraf(kwo) side
pa un taraf … pa otre taraf – on the one hand … on the other hand
go a taraf – move aside
pa hir-ney taraf de riva – on this side of the river
Gratuli ta fon may taraf. – Give him my congratulations.
avantaraf(kwo) front, facing side also: avana
baktaraf(kwo) backside also: baka

taratori(zwo) jabber, gabble, chatter

tarde(kwel) late, tardy ant.: rane see also: aksham, suryalwo
es yo muy tarde – it’s very late already
til tarde nocha – till late at night
tardem es pyu hao kem neva – better late than never
tarditaa(kwo) lateness, tardiness; delay, late arrival
tardi, tardefai(zwo) be late

tarif(kwo) tariff, rate

tasa(kwo) cup (for tea or coffee)
Pi ba un tasa chay! – Drink a cup of tea!

taska(kwo) task
taska fo domgunsa – a task for the homework
betaski(zwo) charge, commission
betaski koywan bay koysa – charge smb with smth

tasma(kwo) lace, tape, braid
tasmi (fai) butas – lace up one’s boots

tatu(kwo) tattoo (on skin)
tatui(zwo) tattoo
tatuing(kwo) tattooing

tau(zwo) thaw, melt

tausian(zwo) surrender, give up, capitulate

tavan(kwo) ceiling

taverna(kwo) tavern

tawa(kwo) tower

taxi(kwo) taxi

tay(kwo) necktie

tayar(kwel) ready
Ob yu es tayar fo go? – Are you ready to go?
Deyfan es tayar. – The dinner is ready.
tayartaa(kwo) readiness, preparedness
tayari(zwo) prepare (tr./intr.)
tayari bavul – pack a suitcase
tayari kama – make the bed
fa-tayari, tayari swa(zwo) make oneself ready, get ready, prepare (fo koysa – for smth)
tayari swa fo safara – get ready for a trip
tayaring(kwo) preparing, preparation

te1the name of the letter T

-te2(gramatika) past tense marker (for any action, completed or not) see also: he
Me bu jan-te om to. – I didn't know about that.

teatra(kwo) theatre

tedi(zwo) bore, tire, weary cf. enoi
se tedi me – it bores me
fa-tedi(zwo) get bored, be bored
tedi-she(kwel) boring, tedious

tegla(kwo) tile, tiling

teip(kwo) tape (adhesive, magnetic, telegraph) see also: banda

teklif(kwo) ceremoniousness, primness, formality
sin teklif – without ceremony
teklifi(zwo) behave formally
Bye teklifi! – Make yourself at home!
Bu gai teklifi om sey kanalya. – One should deal shortly with this scoundrel.
noteklifem(kwo) in a familiar manner, with familiarity

teknika(kwo) technics; technique
teknike(kwel) technical

teknologia(kwo) technology
teknologike(kwel) technological

tel(kwo) wire
spikatel(kwo) barbed wire
sintel-ney(kwel) wireless (not having any wires)

telefon(kwo) telephone, phone also: fon2
telefoni(zwo) telephone, phone

telegraf(kwo) telegraph
telegrafi(zwo) telegraph
telegrafguan(kwo) telegraph office

telegrama(kwo) telegram, wire

teleskop(kwo) telescope

television(kwo) television (broadcasting system) cf. televisor
abbr.: TV

televisor(kwo) television set
abbr.: TV

tem(gramatika) (in comparisons)
kem pyu … tem pyu – the more … the more
Kem pyu lao, tem pyu stupide. – The older, the sillier.
Kem pyu, tem pyu hao. – The more, the better.
Ela bu lai ku? Tem pyu hao. – She is not coming? So much the better.
Es tem pyu surprisi-she ke ta hev mani. – It’s all the more surprising that he/she has money.

tema(kwo) theme, topic, subject cf. subjen, subyekta

temperatura(kwo) temperature

temti(zwo) tempt, entice
temti-she(kwel) tempting, alluring, seductive
temta(kwo) temptation
bu dukti nu inu temta – lead us not into temptation

tendi(zwo) tend, have tendency
tenda(kwo) tendency

tendon(kwo) tendon, sinew

teni(zwo) hold
Lu stan al teni brancha. – He stood holding a branch.
Lu stan al fa-teni pa brancha. – He stood holding on by a branch.
Fa-teni ba! – Hold on tight!
teni-dai – hold (smth) out (to smb) see: dai
en-teni(zwo) take hold of

tenis(kwo) tennis

tensi(zwo) tense, tighten, strain, stretch
tensa(kwo) tension, strain
tense (tensa-ney)(kwel) tense, tight
tensen (tensi-ney)(kwel) strained

tenta(kwo) tent
stavi tenta – put up a tent

teologia(kwo) theology
teologier(kwo) theologian

teoria(kwo) theory

terasa(kwo) terrace

terible(kwo) terrible syn.: dashat-ney, foba-ney

teritoria(kwo) territory

termin(kwo) term (a word having a particular meaning)

termit(kwo) termite

teror(kwo) terror (violence) cf. dashat
terorisi(zwo) terrorize
terorista(kwo) terrorist

teryer(kwo) terrier (dog)

tesa(kwo) thesis see also (in the meaning "dissertation"): disertasion

testa(kwo) test (trial; quiz)
testi(zwo) test

testamenta(kwo) testament, last will
testamenti(zwo) bequeath, leave, will

testikla(kwo) testicle

texi(zwo) weave see also: plexi
texer(kwo) weaver
texing(kwo) weaving
texitura(kwo) tissue, texture cf. histo
teximashina(kwo) loom

texta(kwo) text

tfu(exklami) ptooey

ti(gramatika) optional marker of a noun group; optional first element of the construction "ti … na" see also: na
In skay gao ti blan badal floti. – In the high sky white clouds float.
Me kwesti lu om ti lu jivi na planeta. – I asked him about the planet on which he lives.
Me bu yao diskusi ti yu shwo na kwesta. – I don’t want to discuss the question that you mention.

tia(kwo) 1) aunt (the sister of one's father or mother) see also: onkla
2) the way a child addresses or names an adult woman: lady, madam

tia-docha(kwo) first cousin (aunt's daughter) see also: dal-docha

tia-son(kwo) first cousin (aunt's son) see also: dal-son

tifus(kwo) typhus

tigra(kwo) tiger
tigro(kwo) male tiger
tigrina(kwo) tigress
yuntigra(kwo) tiger cub

tik(kwo) tic

tikli(zwo) tickle
tikla(kwo) tickle

tiktaki(zwo) tick (emit recurring clicking sounds)
tiktaking(kwo) ticking

til(konekti) till, until
fon kapa til peda – from head to foot
Til aksham! – Till the evening!
Me bu jan-te se til nau. – I didn't know it until now.

tim(kwo) team (a group organized to work or play together)

timide(kwel) timid, bashful, shy
timidem(komo) timidly
timidi, timidefai(zwo) be shy, behave timidly


tin(kwo) tin, tin plate
tin ken – tin can also: ken

tineijer(kwo) teenager, adolescent

tinta(kwo) ink

tintini(zwo) clink, tinkle, jingle
tintini glasa kun koywan – clink glasses with smb

tinza(kwo) arbour, pergola

tip(kwo) type (class)
tipike(kwel) typical

tiran(kwo) tyrant
tirani(zwo) tyrannize

tiri(zwo) draw, pull, drag cf. extendi, stiri
ek-tiri(zwo) give a tug
tira(kwo) pull, tug, draught
tiriboxa(kwo) drawer (box)
korkatirika(kwo) corkscrew

tirpan(kwo) scythe
tirpani(zwo) scythe

tit(kwo) nipple, teat

titan(kwo) Titan, titan
titanike(kwel) titanic

titanium(kwo) titanium

titar(kwo) partridge

titla(kwo) title (of a book, article, person), heading see also: subtitla
titla-piktura – frontispiece (of a book) see: piktura

to – 1) (inplas-kwo) that, those cf. se
Se es dom, e to es auto. – This is a house, and that is a car.
To es avion, bu faula. – That is an airplane, not a bird.
Me bu jan nixa om to. – I know nothing about that.
to es – that is, i.e.
toy(inplas-kwel) that, those
Toy kitaba bu es interes-ney. – That book is not interesting.
2) (gramatika) optional apposition marker
kota to kapter – cat the catcher
avion to fortesa – a plane that is also a fortress

toki(zwo) talk, converse syn.: kunshwo
toki kun koywan – talk to smb
toka(kwo) conversation, talk, discourse
toknik(kwo) conversationalist

tokon(kwo) stump, stub
kol-tokon – cabbage stump

tol(kwo) customs (governmental agency)

toleri(zwo) tolerate, stand, bear cf. subi, sufri
tolera(kwo) toleration, tolerance
toleribile(kwel) tolerable, bearable, endurable
notoleribile(kwel) unbearable, intolerable
tolerishil(kwel) tolerant, lenient
tolerishiltaa(kwo) lenience

tolki(zwo) interprete, expound
tolka(kwo) interpretation

tom(kwo) volume, tome (book)

tomata(kwo) tomato
tomata saus – tomato sauce

tompi(zwo) stamp (step heavily), tramp, pound cf. stampi, topti
tomping(kwo) stamping, tramping

ton(kwo) tone see also: tonus

tona(kwo) ton

tonus(kwo) tonus, tonicity, tone see also: ton

topale(kwel) lame
topali(zwo) limp
topaling(kwo) limping, lameness

topti(zwo) trample (beat down with the feet, tread destructively), tramp on, trample down cf. stampi, tompi

topuk(kwo) heel (part of the foot on the backside only) cf. kabluk

torcha(kwo) torch

tori(zwo) tear, rip
austori – tear out
tori kasam (wada) – break one's oath (promise)
tora(kwo) tear
toripes(kwo) scrap, shred

tormenti(zwo) torment, distress; agonize, suffer torments
tormenta(kwo) torment, misery, distress
tormentisi(zwo) torture, make suffer cf. torturi

tornado(kwo) tornado

torneo(kwo) tournament

torsi(zwo) twist, wring, contort
torsi por tunga – writhe with pain

torta(kwo) gateaux, cake (especially a rich and elaborate one filled with custard, fruit, or nuts)
tortakin(kwo) pastry, tart

tortuga(kwo) turtle
tortuga shel – turtle's shell

tortura(kwo) torture (infliction of severe physical pain as a means of punishment or coercion)
torturi(zwo) torture cf. tormentisi

toshi(komo) too, as well, also, likewise, similarly, like or in the same way as somebody or something else cf. haishi, iven, yoshi
Me pri gani. - Me toshi. – I like to sing. - Me too.
Me bu ve go a kino. - Me toshi. – I won't go to the cinema. - Neither will I.
Me toshi wud yao safari. – Me too would like to go to a trip.
Lu toshi es hir. – He is here as well.

tosta(kwo) toast (toasted bread)

tote(kwel) whole, entire
tote dey – the whole day
tota(kwo) whole
pa tota – on the whole, altogether
totale(kwel) total, overall
totem(komo) wholly, entirely, completely
bu totem – not entirely, not completely

toxin(kwo) poison, toxin, venom
toxin-ney(kwel) poisonous, toxic, venomous
toxini(zwo) poison, envenom
toxining(kwo) poisoning

toy(inplas-kwel) that, those see: to

tra(konekti-syao) through; over, across, to (on) the other side of
Me he vidi yu tra winda. – I saw you through the window.
Go tra gata! – Cross the street!
Nu gun om sey proyekta tra mucho yar. – We have been working on this project for many years.
tralekti – to read through (from beginning to end)
tranochi – to spend the night
trasalti – skip; omit
trakusi – bite through
tra-ney(kwel) through (allowing passage; passing from one end to another)
tra-nem(komo) (all the way) through
traen(konekti-komo) over, at the other side of
Faula flai traen riva. – A bird is flying on the other side of the river (over the river).
Lu jivi traen osean. – He lives over the ocean.
Es tume traen winda. – It's dark beyond the window.

tradision(kwo) tradition
tradision-ney(kwel) traditional

tradukti(zwo) translate (render in another language)
tradukta(kwo) translation

trafik(kwo) traffic (the passage of people or vehicles; the conveyance of messages or data)

trafugi(zwo) defect, desert to the enemy, go over (to) see: tra, fugi
trafuger(kwo) defector, deserter, turncoat

tragedia(kwo) tragedy

tragike(kwel) tragic, tragical

trai(zwo) try, attempt cf. probi
Plis trai lerni hao. – Please try to learn well.
Bu trai juli me! – Don't attempt to swindle me!
Oli jivika on Arda trai kapti garme surya-ray. – All creatures on Earth try to catch the hot sun's rays.
traisa(kwo) attempt, endeavour, try

trajivi(zwo) experience, go through, live through; survive (remain alive) see: tra, jivi cf. anubavi
Ela he trajivi mucho beda. – She has lived through many troubles.
Ta mog bu trajivi sey nocha. – He/she may not survive this night.

trakea(kwo) trachea

traktor(kwo) tractor

tralasi(zwo) let through
butralasike(kwel) impermeable, impenetrable; inscrutable

tram(kwo) tram, tramway

trani(zwo) drag, trail, train
fa-trani – drag oneself
tranika(kwo) trail, train (of a dress, of a comet)

trankwile(kwel) tranquil, placid, peaceful cf. kalme, kyete, silense
trankwilitaa(kwo) tranquility, peacefulness

transa(kwo) trance

transferi(zwo) transfer (convey or cause to pass from one place, person, or thing to another)
transfera(kwo) transfer, transference

transformi(zwo) transform (change the form, nature, or function)
transforma(kwo) transformation

transha(kwo) tranche

transistor(kwo) transistor
transistor-ney resiver – a transistor receiver

transiti(zwo) transit (also: "pass over into another state")
transita(kwo) transit, transition
transita-yash – transitional age

transmiti(zwo) transmit (convey, send out)
transmita(kwo) transmission (also: a broadcast)

transplanti(zwo) transplant (med., botan.)
transplantiwat(kwo) transplant (thing transplanted)
transplanta(kwo) transplantation

transporta(kwo) transport (vehicles; system of transporting)
transporti(zwo) transport (with vehicles)
transporting(kwo) transportation

trapa(kwo) rag (scrap/piece of cloth)
trapas – rags, raggery
Spanish, Russian

trasa(kwo) trace, spoor, track, trail
finga trasa – fingerprints
peda trasa – footprint
lyu trasa – leave traces
sin trasa – without a trace
sekwi trasa de koywan – follow in the tracks of smb; follow in smb's footsteps
trasi(zwo) trace, spoor, trail

trati(zwo) treat (handle, deal with or behave towards); approach (an issue etc.)
trati kun respekta – treat with respect
dustrati(zwo) ill-treat, abuse, mistreat
trata(kwo) treatment (process or manner of treating); approach (method of dealing with)

trauma(kwo) trauma, injury
traumi(zwo) traumatize
trauma depatmen(kwo) trauma department (at a hospital)

traur(kwo) mourning
traur-ney(kwel) mourning

travidibile(kwel) transparent see: tra, vidi

treba(sta) it is necessary; require has a wider meaning than gai, nidi, mus, and can be used in most cases
Treba zwo se olo til aksham. – It is necessary to do it all till the evening.
Es tarde, nu treba go a dom. – It is late, we must go home.
Treba pyu jen. – More people are needed/required.
Regula treba klarisa. – The rule needs clarification.
Sey kwesta treba kaulusa. – This question requires consideration.

trefi(zwo) hit, not miss; overtake, strike, befall, (med.) affect
trefi nishan – hit the target
trefen (trefi-ney) bay kula – bullet-stricken
disasta trefi-te lu – he was overtaken by disaster
sin trefi – beside the mark
shuti bu trefi – miss one’s shot
mistrefi(zwo) miss, fail to hit
trefishil(kwel) accurate (in shooting)
trefa(kwo) hit (successfully executed shot or blow)
trefnik(kwo) marksman

treiler(kwo) trailer (vehicle)

treini(zwo) train, drill
treina(kwo) coach, trainer


trek(kwo) track (sports; computer; music)
suontrek – sound track

tremi(zwo) tremble syn.: sheiki
ek-tremi – flinch, give a start
trema(kwo) tremble, tremor
ardatrema(kwo) earthquake also: sisma

tren(kwo) train (a line of connected railroad cars)
trenyuan(kwo) conductor (in a train)

trepi(zwo) flutter
trepi bay alas – flap the wings, flutter
trepi-flai – flutter (to fly by a quick light flapping of the wings) see: flai
trepa(kwo) flutter, trepidation

treska(kwo) cod (fish)

tresor(kwo) treasure

treta(kwo) trait, feature

tri(kwanto) three (3) see also: nol, un, dwa, char, pet, sit, sem, ot, nin, shi, sto, mil
li tri jen – the three of them
trifen(kwanto) third
un (de) trifen – one third
dwa (de) trifen – two thirds
trifenka(kwo) third
triple(kwel) threefold, triple
triplem(komo) triply
trishi(kwanto) thirty
tristo(kwanto) three hundred
tri-ney(kwel) third
tri-nem(komo) thirdly, in the third place

triangula(kwo) triangle

tribu(kwo) tribe

tribunal(kwo) tribunal syn.: judiguan

tribut(kwo) tribute
fai tribut on koywan – impose tribute on smb
pagi tribut – pay tribute

tridi(kwo) Wednesday also: merkudi see also: undi, dwadi, chardi, petdi, sitdi, semdi

triger(kwo) trigger
trigeri(zwo ) trigger

trimeska(kwo) quarter (period of 3 months) see: tri, mes

trimi(zwo) trim, cut cf. kati

Trinitaa(kwo) Trinity
Trinitaa-undi(kwo) Whit Monday

triste(kwel) sad (sorrowful) syn.: griva-ney
tristitaa(kwo) sadness
tristefai(zwo) be sad

triumfa(kwo) triumph
triumfa-arka – triumphal arch
triumfi(zwo) triumph

tro(komo) too, too much
Sey taska es tro mushkile fo me. – This task is too difficult for me.
Sey lampa bu es tro yarke. – This lamp is not too bright.
Yu gun ya tro. – You do work too much.
Es ya tro! – That's too much! That's going too far! That beats everything!
fai tro, troisi(zwo) overdo, go too far; exaggerate
troisa(zwo) exaggeration

trofee(kwo) trophy

trol(kwo) troll (imaginary creature)

tromba(kwo) thrombus

trombon(kwo) trombone

trompi(zwo) deceive, mislead syn.: juli
fa-trompi por koysa – be mistaken by smth
trompa(kwo) deception, deceit

tron(kwo) throne

tronka(kwo) trunk (of tree, of a human or animal)

tropika(kwo) tropic
tropike(kwel) tropic, tropical

troti(zwo) trot (along)

trubadur(kwo) troubadour

truk(kwo) trick (feat; knack, artifice; conjuring trick)
trukyuan(kwo) conjurer, magician

trumpeta(kwo) trumpet

trupa(kwo) troupe; herd, flock, troop, swarm; crowd see also: gurta, jenmenga
trupas(kwo) troops (military forces)

tsar(kwo) tsar (emperor of Russia)

tsunami(kwo) tsunami

tu(gramatika) the infinitive particle, substantivation
Tu samaji es tu pardoni. – To understand is to forgive.
Tu fobisi es muy fasile. – To scare, it's very easy.

tualet(kwo) WC, lavatory, toilet cf. tuvalet
tualet papir – toilet paper

tualya(kwo) towel

tuan(kwo) lump, clod, clot; clew, ball
volvi swa inu tuan – roll/curl (oneself) up into a ball
tuangrunta – lumpy soil
tuan in gorla – a lump in the throat

tuba(kwo) cf. duda, pipa
1) pipe, tube; barrel (of a gun)
dwa-tuba-ney banduk – double-barrelled gun
2) tuba (mus.)

tuberkulos(kwo) tuberculosis

tudun(kwo) hillock, knoll, mound, tussock

tufi(zwo) suffocate, strangle, choke, smother, stifle; drown (mask by a louder sound)
tufi shum – to stifle the noise
shum tufi suy vos – the noise drowned his voice
dus-herba tufi sereal – weeds choke the corn
tufi-she(kwel) suffocating, choking; stifling; stuffy, close

tuh(kwo) a piece of cloth, kerchief
avantuh(kwo) apron
poshtuh(kwo) handkerchief

tuhmat(kwo) slander, calumny
tuhmati(zwo) calumniate, slander, libel

tuhun(komo) together (jointly; simultaneously) syn.: pa hunta
tuhun kun – together with, along with
Li sempre go tuhun. – They always go together.
fai tuhun – go together

tukan(kwo) toucan

tuki(zwo) knock, rap, tap
tuki pa dwar – knock at the door
ek-tuki(zwo) give a knock/tap/rap
en-tuki(zwo) begin to knock
tuka(kwo) knock, rap, tap
tuking(kwo) knocking, rapping, tapping
tuk-tuk(exklami) rat-tat
Pelatuk tuki: tuk-tuk-tuk! – A woodpecker raps: rat-a-tat-tat!

tul(kwo) tool, instrument

tulipa(kwo) tulip

tuman(kwo) fog; mist
dense tuman kovri dol – thick fog covers the valley
tumanisi(zwo) fog, befog, haze

tume(kwel) dark syn.: obskure ant.: klare
tume-grin – dark green
tumitaa(kwo) darkness
tumderme (tumderma-ney)(kwel) dark-skinned, swarthy

tuna(kwo) tuna

tundra(kwo) tundra

tunel(kwo) tunnel

tunga(kwo) pain, ache
sensa de tunga – sensation of pain
tunge (tunga-ney)(kwel) painful, sore
tungaful(kwel) painful, excruciating
tungi(zwo) ache, hurt, be painful
may kapa tungi – my head aches

tupe(kwel) blunt, dull, obtuse (also fig.)
tupifi (fa-tupe)(zwo) get/become blunt
tupisi (mah-tupe)(zwo) make blunt, dull

tur(kwo) tour; turn (turn to do smth)
Es yur tur fo jawabi. – It's your turn to answer.
pa swa-ney tur – in its turn
pa tur – by turns
turi(zwo) tour
turista(kwo) tourist

turan(taim-komo) suddenly
Turan me he samaji olo. – Suddenly I understood everything.
turan-ney(kwel) sudden

turdi(zwo) stun
turdi-she(kwel) stunning
turdi-she habar – a stunning piece of news

turk – 1) (kwel) Turkish (relating to ethnicity, language or country)
2) (kwo) Turkish (person of Turkish ethnicity)
3) (kwo) Turkish language also: turk-lingwa

Turkiye(kwo) Turkey
Turkiye-jen(kwo) inhabitant/citizen of Turkey

turni(zwo) turn
turna(kwo) turn
turning(kwo) turning

tushi(zwo) extinguish, quench; die out
tushing(kwo) extinguishing, putting out; extinction, dying (away)

tuta(kwo) thigh

tuvalet(kwo) toilet (grooming or dressing) cf. tualet

tuy(komo) immediately, at once, right away
Lu he samaji to tuy. – He got it right away.
Riva es tuy afte dom. – The river is right after the house.
tuy ke – as soon as
Tuy ke ta vidi me, ta lopi a me pa fule kwaytaa. – As soon as he saw me, he ran to me at top speed.

tuza(kwo) hare
man-tuza (tuzo)(kwo) male hare
gin-tuza (tuzina)(kwo) doe-hare
yuntuza(kwo) young hare, leveret

twarog(kwo) curds, cottage cheese

twerde(kwel) hard, solid cf. solide
twerdi(zwo) harden (tr./intr.)
twerdifi (fa-twerde)(zwo) harden, become hard, coarsen
twerdisi (mah-twerde)(zwo) harden, make hard
twerdika(kwo) solid (not a liquid or gas); smth hard
twerditaa(kwo) hardness, solidity

twid(kwo) tweed

twin(kwo) twin
twines – twins, gemini

twoli(zwo) thresh
twoling(kwo) threshing
twolilok(kwo) threshing-floor
twolitul(kwo) flail
twolimashina(kwo) threshing machine

tyuba(kwo) tube (a flexible container with a screw top for pastelike substances)
tyuba de dentapasta – a tube of toothpaste


uthe name of the letter U

udali(zwo) remove, delete
udala, udaling(kwo) removal, deletion

udra(kwo) otter

uf(exklami) an exclamation expressing tiredness or relief, appeasement
Uf, me sta fatigi-ney! – Gosh, I am tired!
Uf, sey bao es grave! – Oh (gosh), this bag is heavy!
Uf, pa fin me es pa dom! – Oh, at last I am at home!

ugosti(zwo) regale (entertain with food)

ugrosa(kwo) threat, menace
ugrosi(zwo) threaten, menace; make threatening gestures
ugrosi bay finga a koywan – shake/wag one's finger at smb

Ukraina(kwo) Ukraine

ukrainska – 1) (kwel) Ukrainian (relating to ethnicity, language or country)
2) (kwo) Ukrainian (person of Ukrainian ethnicity)
3) (kwo) Ukrainian language

ulsa(kwo) ulcer

ultraviolete(kwel) ultraviolet

ulu(kwo) owl

un(kwanto) one (1) see also: nol, dwa, tri, char, pet, sit, sem, ot, nin, shi, sto, mil
un afte otre – one after another
un fon zuy jamile gela – one of the most beautiful girls
un-ney(kwel) first
arivi pa un-ney – arrive first
un-nem – 1) (komo) firstly, in the first place
   2) (taim-komo) at first, initially
un e haf – one and a half
unple(kwel) single, one-time
unves(inplas-komo) once
Unves me vidi ta pa gata. – Once I saw him/her in the street.
unka(kwo) one
fila de unka – the row of ones
Yur unka tro-simili semka. – Your ones look too similar to the sevens.

unatme (unatma-ney)(kwel) unanimous see: un, atma
unatmem (unatma-nem)(komo) unanimously

undi(kwo) Monday also: lunadi see also: dwadi, tridi, chardi, petdi, sitdi, semdi

une(kwel) united, joined into a single entity
une tota – a single whole
unitaa(kwo) unity
uni(zwo) unite (tr./intr.)
unisa, unifa(kwo) unification, integration
unisi-ney, unifi-ney(kwel) united

unichi(zwo) humiliate, abase
unicha(kwo) humiliation, abasement


unida(kwo) unit (elementary part of a whole; technical part or module)

uniforma(kwo) uniform (distinctive outfit)

uniforme(kwel) uniform
uniformitaa(kwo) uniformity
uniformisi(zwo) uniform

unike(kwel) unique
unika(kwo) unique

union(kwo) union
Europa-ney union – European Union

universa(kwo) the universe
universa-ney(kwel) universal (of the universe), cosmic

universale(kwel) universal (common to all; useful for many purposes)
universala(kwo) universal

universitet(kwo) university

unkorna(kwo) unicorn see: un, korna

unkwe(gramatika) "-ever"
kwo unkwe lu shwo – whatever he says
kwel unkwe suy janmalingwa es – whatever his/her native language is
kwel unkwe mahta lu posesi – whatever power he possesses
a wo unkwe nu go – wherever we go
komo unkwe lu trai – however he tries

upruge(kwel) resilient, springy see also: elastike

ups(exklami) oops

uragan(kwo) hurricane

Uran(kwo) Uranus (planet) see also: Merkuri, Venus, Arda, Marsa, Jupiter, Saturna, Neptun, Pluton

uranyum(kwo) uranium

urba(kwo) city, town cf. siti, suburba

urina(kwo) urine
urini(zwo) urinate syn.: pisi
urina-pao(kwo) urinary bladder

urjente(kwel) urgent (compelling immediate action or attention, pressing)
urjensia(kwo) urgency

urli(zwo) purr

urna(kwo) urn (vessel for ashes of a deceased person)
voti-urna – ballot box

urtiga(kwo) nettle

USA(kwo) USA (Unifen Statas de Amerika)
USA-jen(kwo) inhabitant/citizen of the USA cf. Amerika-jen

ushibi(zwo) contuse, hurt, bruise
ushiba(kwo) contusion, bruise

ustupi(zwo) concede, yield, give way
ustupa(kwo) concession
ustupishil(kwel) compliant, yielding, pliable

utera(kwo) uterus

utile(kwel) useful
noutile(kwel) useless
utilitaa(kwo) benefit, use, good
utilisi(zwo) make use of, utilize, avail oneself of
utilisi kasu – take occasion

utka(kwo) duck
utkina (gin-utka)(kwo) female duck
utko (man-utka)(kwo) male duck, drake
yunutka(kwo) duckling

utopia(kwo) utopia

uupar(konekti-komo) up, upwards ant.: nich cf. asendi
Kan uupar! – Look up!
Nu go uupar kolina. – We go up the hill.
Li go uupar sulam. – They go upstairs.
uuparen(konekti-komo) up, at the upper part of
Lai uupar! Me es uuparen. – Come up here! I am above.
uuparenmonta – at the top of the mountain
fon uuparen – from above
uuparifi (fa-uupar)(zwo) move up, go up, rise; turn up (intr.)
uuparisi (mah-uupar)(zwo) move up, go up, rise; turn up (tr.)

uupar-nich see: uupar, nich
fai uupar-nich(zwo) move up and down, heave (rise and fall rhythmically)
uupar-nichka(kwo) movement up and down

uupare(kwel) upper, top ant.: niche
uupare tiriboxa – top drawer
uuparetaja – upper/top floor
zuy uupare – uppermost
uupara(kwo) top, the upper part
uuparlok(kwo) eminence, upland


vafla(kwo) wafer, waffle

vagabondi(zwo) vagabond, lead the life of a vagabond see also: wandi
vagabondi-she(kwel) vagrant, strolling, nomadic
vagabonder(kwo) vagabond, tramp, vagrant
vagabonding(kwo) vagrancy

vage(kwel) vague, dim, indistinct

vagina(kwo) vagina

vagon(kwo) coach, carriage (railroad car)

vaika(komo) at least, just, be it even as little as; for example, say; whichever suits, if you like
Weiti ba vaika un minuta! – Won't you wait just a minute?
Ob yu mog obedi me vaika un ves? – Can you do as I tell you (at least) once?
Me bu mog desidi, ob kupi grin kamisa o rude-la. Ambi es jamile. - Bu dumi tro, kupi ba vaika rude-la. – I can’t decide, which shirt to buy: the green one or the red one. - Don’t think too much, buy for example the red one.
vaika nau – now, if you like
Lai ba vaika sedey, vaika manya. – You can come today or tomorrow, whichever suits you.

vaka(kwo) balance, scales syn.: pondika cf. balansa, kaskasa, skala
pondi bay vaka – weigh with scales

vakante(kwel) vacant (not occupied; not filled with activity; empty)
vakansia(kwo) vacancy

vakasion(kwo) vacation

vaksina(kwo) vaccine

vakue(kwel) empty, devoid of content
fa-vakue(zwo) become empty
mah-vakue(zwo) make empty
vakuitaa(kwo) emptiness
vakue-handa-ney(kwel) empty-handed

vakum(kwo) vacuum

val, …val – 1) (sta) (it) is worth
val go kan sey filma – it is worth to go see this film
2) (syao) "worth"
admirival – admirable
sey filma es goval – this film is worth going to see
geim es pleival – the game is worth playing
Govo valori shao, bat Bagira-ney honor es shayad koysa batalival, - Bagira shwo bay zuy mule vos. – "The worth of a bull is little, but Bagheera’s honor is something that he will perhaps fight for," said Bagheera in his gentlest voice.

valet(kwo) jack (playing card)

valide(kwel) valid

valor(kwo) value (worth; importance) cf. valu
valor-ney, valorful(kwel) valuable, precious
valori(zwo) be worth; value

valu(kwo) value (numerical quantity measured or assigned or computed) cf. valor

valza(kwo) waltz
valzi(zwo) waltz

vampir(kwo) vampire

vandala(kwo) vandal
vandalisma(kwo) vandalism

vane(kwel) vain, futile
vanem(komo) vainly, in vain
vanitaa(kwo) futility, vainness
vanisi(zwo) waste, squander; thwart, bring to naught

vapor(kwo) vapour, steam
vaporkazan – steam boiler
vapormashina – steam engine
vapori(zwo) evaporate
vaporing(kwo) evaporation

varan(kwo) monitor lizard

varia(kwo) variation
vari(zwo) vary
varibile(kwel) variable

varianta(kwo) variant

vasa(kwo) vessel (for holding liquids); vase (as for flowers, etc.)

vasal(kwo) vassal

vaste(kwel) vast, extensive (in all directions)
vastitaa(kwo) vastness, vast extent, spaciousness

vata(kwo) cotton wool; wadding

ve – 1) (gramatika) future tense marker cf. he
me he zwo / me zwo / me ve zwo – I did / I do / I shall do
2) the name of the letter V

vegan(kwo) vegan (person)
vegan-ney(kwel) vegan
veganisma(kwo) veganism

vegetarian(kwo) vegetarian (person)
vegetarian-ney(kwel) vegetarian
vegetarianisma(kwo) vegetarianism

vegi(zwo) weigh (have weight) cf. pondi
it vegi dwa kilo – it weighs two kilos
vega(kwo) weight

vena(kwo) vein (anat.) cf. arteria, jila

vendi(zwo) sell, vend
venda, vending(kwo) sale, selling
vendi-gina(kwo) saleswoman

venji(zwo) revenge, revenge oneself, avenge (a koywan – on smb)
venja(kwo) revenge, vengeance
venjishil(kwel) vindictive, revengeful

venudi(kwo) Friday also: petdi see also: lunadi, marsadi, merkudi, jupidi, saturdi, suryadi

Venus(kwo) Venus (planet) see also: Merkuri, Arda, Marsa, Jupiter, Saturna, Uran, Neptun, Pluton

ver(kwel) true, consistent with fact or reality ; indeed, true, really short form of vere
Es ver. – That’s true.
Bu es ver. – It isn’t true.
Ela es jamile, bu ver? - Ver. – She is beautiful, isn't she? - Yes, she is.
Es ver ke ela es jamile. – It’s true that she is beautiful.
Ver ku? – Really?
Ver ya! – Exactly! That’s it!

veranda(kwo) veranda

vere(kwel) true (correct; veritable, genuine, real) see also: juste, korekte, prave, ver
verem(komo) truly, genuinely, indeed, really
veritaa(kwo) truth, verity

verguy(kwel) precious see: ver, guy
verguyka(kwo) precious thing

verifiki(zwo) verify
verifika(kwo) verification

versa(kwo) verse (poetic form; a single line of poetry; Bible’s verse) see also: strofa

version(kwo) version

versu(konekti) toward, towards cf. a
Wo es dom? Versu westa. – Where is home? It's to the west.
Elay senta versu lu bu he shanji. – Her feelings towards him have not changed.
Versu sabah morba-ney jen en-sta pyu hao. – Towards morning the sick man felt better.

vertebra(kwo) vertebra

vertiga(kwo) giddiness, dizziness, vertigo
hev vertiga – to be dizzy

vertikale(kwel) vertical
vertikala(kwo) vertical

veruga(kwo) wart

ves, …ves(kwo) time (an instance or occurrence)
al un-ney ves – at the first time
mucho ves per dey – many times a day
kada ves yu zwo same galta – every time you make the same error
pa sey ves – this time
dwa ves dwa es char – twice two makes four
yoshi un ves – once again
pa un ves – at once, at the same time
pa nove ves (pa novves) – anew
otreves(komo) another time, some other time see: otre
laives(komo) next time see: lai
koyves(komo) sometimes, at times, occasionally see: koy
unves(komo) once see: un

vesna(kwo) spring (season) see: saif, oton, hima cf. pruja
pa vesna – in spring
fa-vesna – the spring is coming

vespa(kwo) wasp

vestibul(kwo) vestibule, lobby, antechamber, entrance hall

veteran(kwo) veteran

vexi(zwo) vex, annoy, irritate; become irritated cf. agravi
fa-vexi(zwo) become irritated
vexa(kwo) vexation, annoyance
vexishil(kwel) irritable

via(konekti) via (passing through, by way/means of)
a London via Paris – to London via Paris
via radio – via radio
May gin-visin sempre shwo mucho. Me en-jan oli habar via ela. – My female neighbour always speaks a lot. I learn all the news through her.

vibri(zwo) vibrate
vibra(kwo) vibration

video(kwo, kwel) video
rekordi video – record video

vidi(zwo) see
vida(kwo) sight, vision, view (ability to see, act of seeing, smth seen)
vidiwat(kwo) view, spectacle, smth seen
vidimogsa(kwo) vision (ability to see)
vidisens(kwo) the sense/organ of sight
vidipunta(kwo) point of view, standpoint
vidike(kwel) visual
vidibile(kwel) visible, which can be seen see also: travidibile
vidi-ney(kwel) seen, visible
vidi-nem(komo) in visible manner, visibly, apparently
fa-vidi(zwo) be seen, be visible
shulin fa-vidi in dalitaa – a forest could be seen in the distance
ek-vidi(zwo) catch a glimpse of
rividi(zwo) see again
Til rividi! – See you later!

vidituba(kwo) spyglass (a small portable telescope) see: vidi, tuba

vigor(kwo) vigor (exuberant and resilient strength of body or mind, vitality)
vigorful(kwel) vigorous
vigorisi(zwo) invigorate

vigyan(kwo) science
vigyan-ney(kwel) scientific
vigyaner(kwo) scientist

vije(kwel) sprightly, vivacious, brisk, zestful, cheerful, bright

vikar(kwo) vicar

vikla(kwo) vehicle (any means of transport; (fig.) a means of transmitting)

viktima(kwo) victim

vila(kwo) villa

vilaja(kwo) village

vin(kwo) vine, grape
vingrapa – bunch of grapes
vinjus – grape juice
vinberi – grape (grape berries)
vinberinka – one grape berry

vinegra(kwo) vinegar

vino(kwo) wine
suhe vino – dry wine
rude vino – red wine

vinta(kwo) screw; screw propeller
vinti(zwo) screw
devinti(zwo) unscrew (tr.)
fa-devinti(zwo) come unscrewed
vintitul(kwo) screwdriver

viola(kwo) viol

violati(zwo) violate (infringe, transgress, break (a law)) cf. violensi
violata(kwo) violation, infringement, breach

violensi(zwo) use/do violence, violate (rape, assault sexually) cf. violati
violensa(kwo) violence
violense (violensa-ney)(kwel) violent (having to do with violence)

violeta(kwo) violet (plant)
trikolor-violeta(kwo) heartsease

violete(kwel) violet, purple

violina(kwo) violin

vipera(kwo) adder, viper

virga(kwo) virgin
lao virga – spinster
virge (virga-ney)(kwel) virgin
virge shulin – virgin forest

virti(zwo) whirl
virti-mixi ovos kun milka – stir up the eggs with the milk
akwavirta(kwo) whirlpool, vortex
virtifeng(kwo) whirlwind
Hindi, Russian

virtuale(kwel) virtual (simulated; existing in the mind)

virulente(kwel) virulent

virus(kwo) virus

visa(kwo) visa

vise-(syao) vice-
vise-rega – viceroy

visin(kwo) neighbour
visin-ney(kwel) neighbouring
gin-visin(kwo) neighbour woman
visintaa(kwo) neighbourhood, vicinity

visiti(zwo) visit
visita(kwo) visit
visiter(kwo) visitor, guest

viskose(kwel) viscous, viscid

visok(kwo) temple (part of head)

viti(zwo) twine (encircle or coil around, esp. about vines; go in a winding course) syn.: serpi
barana bin viti-ney bay grinka – the fence was twined with greenery
ruchey kel viti tra shulin – a stream twining through the forest
vitiplanta(kwo) vine, twiner, climber

viva(exklami) long live!

vodka(kwo) vodka

vokala(kwo) vowel ant.: konsonanta

vokasion(kwo) vocation, calling

voki(zwo) call, summon, ask to come
oni voki lu a telefon – they called him to the telephone
ela voki helpa – she called for help
voka(kwo) call, summons
voki-leta, voki-notifika(kwo) summons (law)

voleibol(kwo) volleyball

voli(zwo) will, exercise volition cf. tamani, yao
voli-shem(komo) voluntarily
voler(kwo) volunteer
vola(kwo) will, volition
vola-forsa – strength of will
sin vola – without will, weak will
sinvole (sinvola-ney)(kwel) weak-willed
buvole(kwel) involuntary

volta(kwo) volt (unit of measure)
sto volta – one hundred volts
shi kilovolta – ten kilovolts
sit-volta-ney lampa – a six volt lamp

volum(kwo) volume
Segun ke presa fa-syao, volum fa-gran. – Volume increases as the pressure decreases.

volupta(kwo) voluptuousness
volupte (volupta-ney)(kwel) voluptuous

volvi(zwo) roll (up), form into spherical or cylindrical body, curl up, coil up see also: roli
volvi-ney serpenta – a coiled serpent
volvi swa inu tuan – roll oneself up into a ball
devolvi(zwo) unroll, uncurl

vomi(zwo) vomit
voma(kwo) vomit

vos(kwo) voice cf. vota
laute vos – loud voice
un-vos-nem – unanimously

vota(kwo) vote (expression of preference) cf. vos
maiste vota – majority of votes
voti(zwo) vote
voting(kwo) voting, poll, vote

vual(kwo) veil

vulgare(kwo) vulgar, smutty

vulkan(kwo) volcano
vulkanike(kwel) volcanic

vulva(kwo) vulva


wathe name of the letter W

wadi(zwo) promise syn.: presigni, suli
wada(kwo) promise

wahta(kwo) watch (the post or period of duty of a guard, sentinel, or watcher)
wahti(zwo) watch (keep a watchful eye on; guard)
wahti kinda – watch the kids
Wahti ba may bavul idyen, me lai tuy. – Watch my suitcase, I’ll be back in a minute.
wahting(kwo) watch (act or process)
wahter(kwo) sentinel, watchman

waipi(zwo) wipe, dry

walaa(exklami) here is/are
Walaa nu! – Here we are!

walnuta(kwo) walnut

wan, …wan(inplas-kwo) an individual one
pyan wan – (someone who is) drunk
Wan kel jan, ta bu shwo. – He who knows, he doesn’t speak (the one who knows, doesn’t speak)
eniwan(inplas-kwo) anybody, anyone, any (person) see: eni
kadawan(inplas-kwo) everyone see: kada
koywan(inplas-kwo) somebody see: koy
nulwan(konekti-kwo) nobody see: nul

wandi(zwo) wander, roam, ramble see also: vagabondi
wanda(kwo) wander, ramble, roam, travel, excursion

wanga(kwo) cheek (the fleshy part of either side of the face)
wanga-har – whiskers, sidewhiskers
wanga-osta – cheek-bone
wangadarba(kwo) slap in the face
wangaruda(kwo) redness in one’s cheeks, (high) colour, flush, blush

warme(kwel) warm
warmifi (fa-warme)(zwo) get warm, warm up, grow warm
warmisi (mah-warme)(zwo) warm, make warm
warmish(kwel) lukewarm, tepid
warmitaa(kwo) warmth
trawarmi(zwo) warm through

warni(zwo) warn (om koysa – of smth)
warna(kwo) warning

wat(kwo) watt
sto wat – one hundred watts
tri megawat – three megawatts

watwat(kwo) bat (flying mammal)

wau(exklami) wow (expresses excitement or amazement)

wauki(zwo) bark (about dogs)
wauka(kwo) bark, barking, bay, yap

waxa(kwo) wax (but not cerumen) cf. aurganda

waxakapra(kwo) oilcloth

way(kwesti) why
Way yu bu jawabi? – Why don’t you answer?
waynik(kwo) why-boy, why-girl

web(kwo) the World Wide Web cf. internet

weba(kwo) web (cobweb)
webi(zwo) web
weben bay dine hema-vasa – webbed by thin blood vessels

weiti(zwo) wait, wait for
weiti ba til ke me lai – wait until I come
longem-weiten – long-awaited
weita, weiting(kwo) waiting, wait
weitisala(kwo) waiting room (as in a railroad station)
weitishamba(kwo) waiting room (as in a physician's office)
tilweiti(zwo) wait until, live to see, get at last

wek – 1) (loko-komo) away, off
Gowek! – Go away!
May tren es yo wek. – My train is away already.
mah-wek(zwo) get rid of, do away with, expel, drive away
fa-wek(zwo) vanish
2) (exklami) "Start! Go!"
Un, dwa, tri, wek! – One, two, three, go!
wekika(kwo) refuse, waste, trash

wekgoni(zwo) chase away, drive away

weklansi(zwo) throw away, throw out

weklasi(zwo) let go, let off, release see: wek, lasi

weksreki(zwo) cross out, strike out

weksheiki(zwo) shake off (remove by shaking)

wektaimi(zwo) become outdated, obsolete see: wek, taim
wektaimen (wektaimi-ney)(kwel) outdated, obsolete

wekturni(zwo) turn away (avert)

wel(exklami) well, now then
Wel, e poy? – Well, what next?
Wel, wel … me bu jan kwo shwo. – Well, well … I don't know what to say.

wen(kwesti) when
Wen yu lai? – When are you coming?

westa(kwo) west see also: esta, norda, suda
weste (westa-ney)(kwel) west(ern), westerly; occidental
weste feng – west wind
westen(konekti-komo) to the west, west of
urba es westen – the town is to the west
westen urba ye shulin – forest is west of the town

widuwa(kwo) widow/widower
widuwo(kwo) widower
widuwina(kwo) widow

wik(kwo) week
kada wik – every week
lai-she wik – next week
wikfin – weekend

wincha(kwo) winch, hoist

winda(kwo) window
windakin(kwo) small window; small opening window pane
winda-planka(kwo) windowsill

wiski(kwo) whisky, whiskey

wisli(zwo) whistle
wisla(kwo) whistle (act; sound)
wislika(kwo) whistle (device)

wit(kwo) wheat
witfarina – wheat flour

wo(kwesti) where
Wo yu es? Me bu vidi yu. – Where are you? I don't see you.
a wo – where, which way
A wo yu go? – Where are you going?
fon wo – where from
Fon wo yu lai? – Where are you coming from?

wolba(kwo) vault

worda(kwo) word
pa otre worda – in other words
wordi(zwo) word
wordamenga(kwo) verbiage, verbosity

woshi(zwo) wash
woshi bartan – wash up (to clean the utensils, dishes etc.)
woshi swa(zwo) wash oneself
woshing(kwo) wash, washing, laundering
woshi-mashina, wosher(kwo) washing machine, washer
woshi-stanka(kwo) washstand

wud(gramatika) would (conditional marker)
me wud yao – I’d like to
ta wud zwo to si ta wud mog – he/she would do it if he/she could
abbr.: 'd   ⇒   Me'd yao. = Me wud yao.

wulfa(kwo) wolf
wulfa wuli an luna – wolf howls at the moon
wulfo(kwo) he-wolf
wulfina(kwo) she-wolf
yunwulfa(kwo) wolf cub

wulfajen(kwo) werewolf

wuli(zwo) howl
wula(kwo) howl

wunda(kwo) wound, injury
wundi(zwo) wound, injure

wurma(kwo) worm

wuya(kwo) crow (bird)


xilofon(kwo) xylophone (mus.)


ya – 1) (exklami) yes
oo ya! – oh yes!
2) (gramatika) "you see", "really" (emphatic particle)
Ela es ya muy jamile. – She is so beautiful.
Me es ya rega! – I am the king, after all!
Lu es ya experta. – He is an expert, you see.
Yu jan ya ke me bu pri fish. – But you know that I don't like fish.
Ya munda es gro-jamile! – What a beautiful world!
Es ya gro-gao baum! – This tree is so big!

yabla(kwo) apple

yachta(kwo) yacht
yachti(zwo) yacht

yaguar(kwo) jaguar

yak(kwo) yak

yama(kwo) pit (a hole in the ground); cavity
ta he kavi un yama – he/she dug a pit
yamakin(kwo) dimple

yamsa(kwo) yam

yan(kwo) sheep
man-yan(kwo) ram
gin-yan(kwo) ewe
yunyan(kwo) lamb
yanmasu(kwo) mutton
yangurta(kwo) herd of sheep

yanmay(kwo) oats

yanza(kwo) swallow (bird)

yao(sta) want, wish cf. tamani, voli
Kwo yu yao? – What do you want?
Me yao aiskrem. – I want ice-cream.
Me wud yao safari kun yu. – I would like to go to the trip with you.
sin yao, sin yaosa – unwillingly
al yao – at will
yaosa(kwo) desire, wish
yao-shem(komo) willingly
noyao-shem(komo) unwillingly, reluctantly

yar(kwo) year
Hao nove yar! – Happy New Year!
muchoyar-ney(kwel) multiyear
yar-ney, kadayar-ney(kwel) annual, yearly
yardey(kwo) anniversary

yarda(kwo) yard (unit of length or volume)

yarke(kwel) bright; vivid cf. klare
yarke sonja – vivid dream
yarkem(komo) brightly; vividly
yarkitaa(kwo) brightness; vividness

yaruga(kwo) ravine

yasen(kwo) ash-tree

yash(kwo) age (stage/time or duration of life)
zuy yash-ney brata – senior brother
yashi(zwo) age (intr.)
yashing(kwo) ageing
yashen (yashi-ney)(kwel) aged, elderly

yashma(kwo) jasper

yasmin(kwo) jasmine

yatima(kwo) orphan

ye – 1) (gramatika) there is/are available ant.: yok
Hir ye mucho flor. – There is a lot of flowers here.
Mani ye? – Is there any money available? Do you have money?
Kwo ye? – What's up? What is the matter?
Bu ye toy yash. – No longer of that age.
2) the name of the letter Y

yedoh(komo) however, nevertheless, yet

yehudi(kwo) Jew (adherent of Judaism) see also: ivri
yehudisma(kwo) Judaism

yel(kwo) spruce

yema(kwo) bud, gemma

-yen(gramatika) "-ing" (verbal adverb marker)
Lu zai sidi kan-yen ela e audi-yen to ke ela shwo. – He is sitting looking at her and listening to what she says.

yeri(taim-komo) yesterday
Yeri me bu lekti, me lekti manya. – I didn't read yesterday, I shall read tomorrow.
preyeri(taim-komo) the day before yesterday

yeroshi(zwo) tousle, dishevel, ruffle
yeroshi-ney – dishevelled, tousled

yo(taim-komo) already
Me es yo pa dom. – I am already at home.
Se bin klare yo yeri. – It's been clear already yesterday.

yoda(kwo) iodine

yogur(kwo) yoghurt

yoja(kwo) hedgehog (small mammal with spiny back)

yok(gramatika) there is no, not available, no ant.: ye
Oni bu mog buli makaron: kukipot yok, agni yok; pa fakta, makaron toshi yok. – One can't boil macaroni: there is no saucepan, no fire; in fact, there is no macaroni either.
Problema yok! – No problem!
fa-yok(zwo) disappear, vanish
yoksa(kwo) absence, lack
mani-yoksa – want of money, penury

yoksuni(zwo) deprive, bereave
yoksuni koywan de koysa – bereave smb of smth
fa-yoksuni(zwo) lose, be deprived
fa-yoksuni de koysa – lose/be deprived of smth

yorsi(zwo) fidget, move restlessly

yoshi(komo) in addition, also, moreover cf. haishi, iven, toshi
Me pri gani e dansi. Yoshi me pri rasmi. – I like to sing and dance. Also I like to draw.
Yoshi treba shwo ke … – Also, one should say that …
Yu mog lekti e yoshi kan pikturas. – You can read and also look at the pictures.
yoshi pyu – still more
yoshi pyu gao – still/even higher
yoshi un ves – once again
Yoshi! – Oh yes, by the way!

yota(kwo) iota, jot

yu(inplas-kwo) you (sg., pl.) see also: me, lu, ela, it, ta, nu, li
Me inviti yu oli. – I invite all of you.
yur (yu-ney)(inplas-kwel) your (sg., pl.)
Walaa yur kalam. – Here is your pen.
Sey kalam es yu-ney, bu lu-ney. – This pen is yours, not his.

yuan, …yuan – 1) (kwo) employee, worker, staff member; member (a part of a whole; one who belongs to a group or organization) cf. memba
yuantot(kwo) personnel
2) (syao) "member of"; "staff member performing a function connected with"
armeeyuan(kwo) military man, serviceman
bankayuan(kwo) bank clerk
domyuan(kwo) member of household
dwaryuan(kwo) doorkeeper, doorman
gardiyuan(kwo) guard (a person who guards)
gasyuan(kwo) gasman
kafeeyuan(kwo) coffee house worker
partiayuan(kwo) party member
polisyuan(kwo) policeman
preiyuan(kwo) priest
radioyuan(kwo) radio/wireless operator
trenyuan(kwo) conductor (in a train)
ko-yuan(kwo) fellow member, fellow worker

yubila(kwo) jubilee, anniversary
yubiler(kwo) person whose anniversary / jubilee is celebrated

yul(kwo) Yule syn.: kristajanma

yuli(kwo) July also: mes-sem

yuma(kwo) humour
yuma senta – sense of humour
yumanik(kwo) humourist
yuma-rakonta(kwo) humorous story

yunda(kwo) (smoothing) iron cf. fer
yundi(zwo) iron, press

yunge(kwel) young
yungitaa(kwo) youth (period, condition or quality)
yunga(kwo) young man/woman
yungo(kwo) young man see also: boy
yungina(kwo) young woman see also: gela
yunge jenta(kwo) young people, youth
yungifi (fa-yunge)(zwo) become younger
yungisi (mah-yunge)(zwo) make (look) younger

yuni(kwo) June also: mes-sit

yur(inplas-kwel) your (sg., pl.) short form of yu-ney

yurta(kwo) yurta, yurt, ger

yus – 1) (komo) just (precisely, exactly)
yus kontra-nem – just the other way round
yus tanto kwanto treba – just as much as needed
yus to ke me nidi – just what I need
yus pa sey plasa – at this very place
2) (gramatika) "just, only a moment ago" (immediate past marker)
Lu yus he lopi wek. – He has just run away.