Short grammar


LdP-English dictionary

Preliminary notes

1. This is a Lidepla-English dictionary of the Edition 1.2.

2. Word etymologies are given sparingly, usually only one source language is indicated. However one should bear in mind that roots widely spread across languages are basically taken. E.g. the word "kitaba" is originally from Arabic, but the root is present also in Turkish, Hindi, and a lot of other languages. Moreover, the etymology indicated is often not the earliest one. Thus, you'll see "Turkish" under the words "banka" and "dolar" not because they are originally Turkish words but because in Turkish they have the same form as in Lidepla.

3. There is significance to whether several English equivalents are separated by a comma or a semicolon. If there is a comma, only a related/common meaning is implied; if there is a semicolon, meanings should be regarded independently. E.g.

fila — kwo row, line; queue, file

"Row" and "line" are separated by a comma, which makes it clear that in this case "row" does not mean either "quarrel" or "travel in a rowboat". Similarly "queue" and "file" specify each other mutually, implying the meaning "a line of waiting people or vehicles".


Grammatical abbreviations

exklami                       exklami-partikla (≈interjection)

gramatika                    gramatika-partikla (grammatical particle)

gramatika-komo          gramatika-partikla (grammatical particle) or komo-worda (adverb)

inplas-komo                inplas-komo-worda (the word that substitutes an adverb)

inplas-kwanto             inplas-kwanto-worda (the word that substitutes a numeral)

inplas-kwel                  inplas-kwel-worda (the word that substitutes an adjective)

inplas-kwo                  inplas-kwo-worda (the word that substitutes an noun)

komo                           komo-worda (adverb)

konekti                        konekti-partikla (preposition)

konekti-komo              konekti-partikla (preposition) or komo-worda (adverb)

konekti-syao               konekti-partikla (preposition) or syao-worda (affix)

kwanto                        kwanto-worda (numeral)

kwel                            kwel-worda (adjective)

kwesti                          kwesti-worda (question word)

kwo                             kwo-worda (noun)

loko-komo                   loko-komo-worda (adverb of place)

modus-komo                modus-komo-worda (adverb of manner)

sta                               sta-worda (words describing state, e.g., modal verbs)

syao                            syao-worda (affix)

syao-gramatika           syao-worda (affix) or gramatika-partikla (grammatical particle)

syao-komo                   syao-worda (affix) or komo-worda (adverb)

taim-komo                   taim-komo-worda (adverb of time)

uniti                             uniti-partikla (conjunction)

zwo                              zwo-worda (verb)




a — (konekti) 1) to (aim, direction)
go a shop — go to the shop
lai a dom — come home
returni a
janmalanda — return to one's native land
a oli taraf — in/to all directions
to (dative case)
a yu — to you
a may amiga — to my friend
shwo a swa — say to oneself
me ve rakonti a yu om to — I'll tell you about that
(cf. "versu")

aa — (exklami) ah, oh (an exclamation of understanding, recognition)
Aa, es yu! –  Ah, it's you!
Aa, me samaji. — Oh, I see.
Written with two letters for distinction from the conjunction "a" (but pronounced the same way)
See also: ah

abat — (kwo) abbot

abisma — (kwo) abyss

abnegi — (zwo) abnegate, deny oneself; renounce
lu abnegi-te fuming — he gave up smoking
abnega — (kwo) abnegation, self-denial

aboli — (zwo) abolish
abola —
(kwo) abolishment

abrevi — (zwo) abbreviate (words); abridge (a book), curtail (a narrative)
abreva —
(kwo) abbreviation
abrevi-ney —
(kwel) abbreviated, abridged
abrevi-nem (abrevem) —
(komo) in abbreviated form
abrevitura —
(kwo) acronym

abrupte — (kwel) precipitous, abrupt; brusque; sudden, abrupt

absente — (kwel) absent, not present
absensia —
(kwo) absence

abses — (kwo) abscess

absolute — (kwel) absolute
absolutem —
(komo) absolutely
absoluta —
(kwo) (the) absolute

absorbi — (zwo) absorb
Gunsa absorbi ta. — His work absorbed him.
absorba — (kwo) absorption

abstrakti — (zwo) abstract
abstrakta —
(kwo) abstraction
abstrakta-ney (abstrakte) —
(kwel) abstract

absurde — (kwel) absurd
absurda —
(kwo) absurd
absurditaa —
(kwo) absurdity

abundante — (kwel) abundant
abundantem —
(komo) abundantly, amply, generously
abundansia —
(kwo) abundance

abyas — (kwo) habit, custom
pa abyas — through habit
hev abyas —
to be accustomed, to be wont, to be in the habit of
abyas-ney — (kwel) habitual
abyas-nem —
(komo) habitually (see also "pinchan")
abyasi —
(zwo) get accustomed/used (a koysa — to smth), get into the habit of
mah koywan abyasi a koysa — to accustom smb to smth
abyasi-ney (abyasen) — (kwel) accustomed, used (a koysa — to smth)
abyasen a mushkila — accustomed to difficulties

acha — (kwo) axe

adapti — (zwo) adapt, adapt oneself
adapta —
(kwo) adaptation
adapter —
(kwo) adapter
adaptibile —
(kwel) adaptable
adaptibilitaa —
(kwo) adaptability

adar — (loko-komo) thither, there, that way
bu go adar — don’t go there
(Origin: a+dar)
Syn.: dar

adi — (zwo) add
ada —
(kwo) addition
adiwat —
(kwo) additive, addition (smth added)
adike —
(kwel) additional
(cf. “aditi”)

aditi — (zwo) add (math.), add up, tot up
adita —
(kwo) addition (math.)

administri — (zwo) administer (manage, conduct)
administra —
(kwo) administration (administering)
administrasion —
(kwo) administration (managers)

admiral — (kwo) admiral

admiri — (zwo) admire
admira —
(kwo) admiration
admirival —
(kwel) admirable
admirer, admiri-sha —
(kwo) admirer

admiti — (zwo) admit (grant entrance, whether into a place or into the mind)
admita —
(kwo) admission, admittance
noadmitibile —
(kwel) inadmissible

adopti — (zwo) adopt
adopta —
(kwo) adoption

adres — (kwo) address (location or its description)
adresi — (zwo) address, accost
adresing —
(kwo) addressing, address (act)

adulte — (kwel) adult
adulta —
(kwo) adult
adulto —
(kwo) adult male
adultina —
(kwo) adult female

adyoo — (exklami) Goodbye! Adieu!
shwo adyoo, fai adyoo – to say goodbye
al fai adyoo — at parting
(kwo) farewell

adyutanta — (kwo) aide de camp, adjutant

aflui — (zwo) flow towards, rush towards, stream towards
afluisa —
(kwo) flow, flood (of tide), rising tide; influx, inflow
afluisa e defluisa — flow and ebb
(Origin: a+flui)

afsos — (kwo) regret, pity
pa afsos — regrettably, sadly, unfortunately
afsosi — (zwo) regret, be sorry about
afsos! —
(exklami) alas! it is a pity!
afsos-ney, afsosival —
(kwel) regrettable, sad, unfortunate

afte — (konekti) after; in (at the end of)
afte yu — after you
afte to — after that
un afte otre — one after another
afte vidi — having seen
afte tri dey — in three days
afte un ora — in one hour
aften — (taim-komo) afterwards, later on, subsequently
Nu nadi ke aften ve ye meno gwer in munda. — We hope that afterwards (in future) there will be fewer wars in the world.
Nu he diskusi se olo aften. — We have discussed this all later on.

aftechi — (zwo) eat with, eat smth after drinking
Ta pi un glasakin vodka e aftechi bay marinaden gurka. — He had a glass of vodka with pickled cucumber.
(Origin: afte+chi)

agenda — (kwo) agenda

agiti — (zwo) agitate (also to stir up public interest in a cause)
agiti-ney (agiten) —
(kwel) agitated, excited
agita —
(kwo) agitation (for the meaning “stirring up of public interest” one can use also “agitasion”)

agni — (kwo) fire
agnibeda — fire (occurrence of fire in a certain place)
agnibrigada — fire-brigade
agninka — (kwo) spark
fai agninka — (zwo) spark
— (kwel) aflame; fiery
agnisi —
(zwo) burn up, fire up; sear
agni-luma —
(kwo) blaze, glow
agni-ston —
(kwo) flint; gunflint

agra — (kwo) (ploughed) field, tillage
agralanda —
(kwo) countryside
agrajen —
(kwo) peasant (also “kisan”)
agrare — (kwel) agrarian

agravi — (zwo) aggravate (cf. “vexi”)
agrava —
(kwo) aggravation

agresi — (zwo) aggress; feel aggression
agresa —
(kwo) aggression
agresive —
(kwel) aggressive
agreser —
(kwo) aggressor

agude — (kwel) sharp, acute
agudisi —
(zwo) sharpen

ah — (exklami) ah (expresses strong emotions)
fai ah — (zwo) gasp with surprise

ahaa — (exklami) aha

ahak — (kwo) lime

ahfi — (zwo) hide, conceal
ahfi swa — hide oneself
ahfi-geim — hide-and-seek

ahfilok —
(kwo) hiding-place
ahfi-shem (ahfem) —
(komo) hidingly, in a hiding way
ahfishil —
(kwel) reserved, reticent, secretive
buahfi-ney (buahfen) —
(kwel) unconcealed, undisguised
ahfi-go —
(zwo) slink, sneak, steal
ahfi-kan —
(zwo) peep, watch furtively

ahir — (loko-komo) hither, here, this way
Lai ahir. — Come here.
(Origin: a+hir)
Syn.: hir

ahmak — (kwo) fool
Syn.: stupida

ahuki — (zwo) hitch, hook, couple, link, catch
May palto ahuki a naga e tori. — My coat caught on a nail and tore.

aida — (exklami) let's go, come along (invitation to go somewhere)
Aida a riva! — Let’s go to the river!
Aida fo yabla! — Let’s go to get some apples!
Turkish, Slavic

aika — (modus-komo) quite, rather
aika hao — quite well

aira — (kwo) air
aira kastela — castles in the air
airaportu — (kwo) airport

ais — (kwo) ice
ais-lenge — ice-cold
— (kwel) ice, icy,
aiskrem —
(kwo) ice cream
aisifa —
(kwo) icing up

aivi — (kwo) ivy

ajibe — (kwel) queer, weird, odd
Syn.: strane, astoni-she, nopinchan

ajile — (kwel) agile, alert, brisk
do peda ajile — swift-footed, light-footed
do menta ajile — with agile mind, quick-witted
ajilitaa — (kwo) agility, alertness, swiftness, legerity
ajilisi —
(zwo) brisk up

ajorni — (zwo) adjourn, put off, defer (cf. "deri")
ajorna —
(kwo) adjournment, postponement, reprieve

ajusti — (zwo) adjust, regulate, set
ajusti kloka, ajusti radio — adjust the clock/watch, adjust the radio

akademia — (kwo) academy
akademiayuan —
(kwo) academician

akauda — (kwo) the sign "@"
(Origin: "a"+kauda)

akaunta — (kwo) account (a registry of pecuniary transactions; a subscription to a service)

aklami — (zwo) acclaim, praise enthusiastically, cheer
aklama —
(kwo) acclaim, acclamation

akompani — (zwo) accompany
Ob yu akompani me a dom? – Will you see me home?
akompana — (kwo) accompaniment

akorda — (kwo) chord (combination of pitches sounded simultaneously)

akre — (kwel) acrid, caustic, pungent

akseleri — (zwo) accelerate
akselera —
(kwo) acceleration
Syn.: mah-kway, fa-kway

aksenta — (kwo) accent
aksenti —
(zwo) accent, accentuate
See also: emfasi

aksepti — (zwo) accept
aksepta —
(kwo) acceptance
aksepter —
(kwo) acceptor

akses — (kwo) access
aksesi —
(zwo) access, have access to
aksesibile —
(kwel) accessible

aksham — (kwo) evening
klok pet de aksham — (at) five o’clock in the evening
sey aksham — this evening, tonight
manya aksham — tomorrow evening
akshamfan — (kwo) evening meal; supper

aksia — (kwo) share (finance)

aksidenta — (kwo) accident (in an ill sense), mishap
 aksidenta-ney (aksidente) —
(kwel) accident-related

akti — (zwo) act
akta —
(kwo) act; action (smth done)
fai akta fo/kontra koysa — take action for/against smth
akting — (kwo) action (functioning; effect)
aktive — (kwel) active
aktivenesa —
(kwo) activity (the state or quality of being active)
aktivitaa —
(kwo) activity
aktivisi —
(zwo) activate
aktivisa —
(kwo) activation
aktivista —
(kwo) activist

aktor — (kwo) actor
aktoro —
(kwo) male actor
aktorina —
(kwo) actress

aktuale — (kwel) actual  (acting at the present moment — cf. “reale”)
aktualisi —
(zwo) actualize

aktum — (kwo) act (theater; legal document)

akumuli — (zwo) accumulate
akumula —
(kwo) accumulation

akusi — (zwo) accuse, inculpate, charge with, indict
akusa —
(kwo) accusation

akwa — (kwo) water
akwa(-ney) —
(kwel) water; aqueous
akwish —
(kwel) watery

akwalwo — (kwo) waterfall
(Origin: akwa+lwo)

akwarium — (kwo) aquarium

akwiri — (zwo) acquire
akwira —
(kwo) acquisition

al — (konekti) when doing smth, while, at, under (simultaneity, circumstances)
al suryachu — at dawn
al ke me kuki — while I’m cooking
al bakdao — on the way back
al klosi-ney dwar — behind closed doors, with doors closed
al sey halat — under these circumstances
al un-ney kansa — at first sight
al shwo om se — when speaking about it
«Hao», ela shwo al smaili. — «OK», she said smiling.
al nau — currently, at the present moment

ala — (kwo) wing

alarma — (kwo) alarm
aira-alarma — air-raid warning
— (zwo) alarm
alarmifi —
(zwo) get alarmed, uneasy
alarmi-ney —
(kwel) alarmed

alauda — (kwo) lark, skylark

albatros — (kwo) albatross (sea bird)

album — (kwo) album

alee — (kwo) lane, walk, path (in a garden, park, etc., generally between rows of trees)

alegre — (kwel) merry; cheerful; lighthearted; lively
alegritaa —
(kwo) merriment; mirth; gaiety; liveliness

alfabet — (kwo) alphabet
segun alfabet — alphabetically

alga — (kwo) alga(e): see-weed, kelp, dulse, etc.

algebra — (kwo) algebra

algoritma — (kwo) algorithm

aliansa — (kwo) alliance
politike aliansa — political alliance
alianser —
(kwo) ally

alibi — (kwo) alibi

alif — (kwel) tame

aligi — (kwo) attach, append
aligi fail a leta — attach a file to the letter
(Origin: a+ligi)

alkali — (kwo) alkali
— (kwel) alkaline

alkohol — (kwo) alcohol

almu — (kwo) alms

along — (konekti) along
go along gata — go along the street
along riva — along the river

also — (unisi)  therefore, so, then; accordingly; consequently

altaimi — (zwo)  update
(Origin: al+taim+i)

alternative — (kwel) alternative
alternativa —
(kwo) alternative

alterni — (zwo) alternate, take turns
alterna —
(kwo) alternation

amasi — (zwo) knead

amator — (kwo) amateur
amator-ney —
(kwel) amateur

amaxi — (modus-komo) at most, not more than
to ve duri amaxi un ora — that will last one hour at most

amba — (kwo) amber

ambi — (inplas-kwo, kwel) both
Nu ambi pri sey kitaba. —We both like this book.
Ambi sista pri plei kun doga. — Both sisters like to play with the dog.

ambigue — (kwel) ambiguous, equivocal
ambiguitaa —
(kwo) ambiguity

ambision — (kwo) ambition
ambisionful —
(kwel) ambitious, full of ambition

ambrela — (kwo) umbrella
Tok Pisin

ambulansia — (kwo) ambulance

ambush — (kwo) ambush
fai ambush — make/lay an ambush

amen — (exklami) amen

Amerika — (kwo)America (continent)
Amerika-ney —
(kwel) American (of or pertaining to the Americas)
Amerika-jen —
(kwo) American (an inhabitant of the Americas; cf. “USA-jen”)
Norda Amerika — North America

amerikan — (kwel, kwo) American (of or pertaining to the USA or the American culture; American man)
fama-ney amerikan poeta — famous American poet

amiga — (kwo) friend
amigo —
(kwo) male friend
(kwo) female friend
amiga-ney (amige), amigalik —
(kwel) amiable, affable, friendly
amigitaa —
(kwo) friendship, amity

amini — (modus-komo) at least
to ve duri amini un ora — that will last one hour at least

amper — (kwo) ampere
sto amper — 100 amperes
shi mikroamper — 10 microamperes

amplituda — (kwo) amplitude

amusi — (zwo) amuse, entertain
amusi swa — amuse oneself
amusa — (kwo) amusement
amusi-she —
(kwel) amusing

an — (konekti) indicates object of action
fai gola an koysa – take aim at smth
darba an tabla – a strike on the table
wuli an luna — howl at the moon
kansa an dwar — a glance at the door
lopi kun sikin an koywan — to run at someone with a knife

analis — (kwo) analysis
analisi —
(zwo) analize

analoge — (kwel) analogous
analogem — (komo) analogously
analoga — (kwo) analogue
analogitaa — (kwo) analogy, analogousness

ananas — (kwo) pineapple

anar — (kwo) pomegranate (fruit)
anarbaum —
(kwo) pomegranate (tree)

anarkia — (kwo) anarchy
anarkike —
(kwo) anarchic
anarkista —
(kwo) anarchist

anchun — (kwel) safe, secure
anchuntaa —
(kwo) safety, security

anekdot — (kwo) anecdote, joke, funny story

anglosaxon — (kwo, kwel) Anglo-Saxon

angula — (kwo) angle; corner
agude angula — acute angle
tupe angula — obtuse angle
rekte angula — right angle
triangula — triangle
rektangula — rectangle
turni angula — turn (round) the corner

animal — (kwo) animal

animi — (zwo) animate, endow with life; enliven, give animation to
animi-ney —
(kwel) animated
anima —
(kwo) animation
shwo kun anima — speak with animation
animasion — (kwo) animation ((making) cartoon)

anis — (kwo) anise

anjel — (kwo) angel
anjellik —
(kwel) angel-like, angelic

anka — (kwo) anchor
fai anka —
(zwo) anchor
mah-lwo anka — cast/drop anchor

ankur — (kwo) sprout, shoot
ankuri —
(zwo) sprout, spring up

anonime — (kwel) anonymous

ansambla — (kwo) ensemble

anshi — (zwo) hint
ansha — (kwo) hint

antena — (kwo) antenna

antilopa — (kwo) antelope

antonim — (kwo) antonym

antra — (kwo) gut
antratot —
(kwo) intestine

anubav — (kwo) experience
anubav-ney jen — experienced person, man of experience
anubavi — (zwo) experience (cf. "trajivi")

anunsi — (zwo) announce; give notice of
anunsa —
(kwo) announcement

anus — (kwo) anus

aparat — (kwo) apparatus

apari — (zwo) appear (come into existence; to become visible — cf. “sembli”)
apara —
(kwo) appearance

aparte — (kwel) separate, detached, apart (from others)
apartem —
(komo) apart
apartem fon otres — apart from the others

apeli — (zwo) appeal (but not “to be attractive”)
apela —
(kwo) appeal

apena — (komo) hardly, scarcely, barely

apetit — (kwo) appetite

apliki — (zwo) apply (put on, upon, or to; put to or adapt for a special use; put into action)
aplika —
(kwo) application
apliki-ney (apliken) —
(kwel) applied
apliken fisika — applied physics

aplodi — (zwo) applaud
aploda —
(kwo) applause, clapping

apoga — (kwo) support, prop, rest
apogi —
(zwo) prop, lean, rest
apogi on tabla — lean agaist the table

april — (kwo) April (also mes-char)

aprobi — (zwo) approve, give approbation to
aproba —
(kwo) approbation

apropoo — (konekti-komo) apropos; by the way
Apropoo, me haishi bu he lekti sey kitaba. — By the way, I have not yet read this book.
Apropoo sey kitaba, it es ya muy interes-ney. — Apropos of this book, it is really interesting.

arabeska — (kwo) arabesque

arabi — (kwel, kwo) Arab; Arabic; Arabic language

aranji — (zwo) arrange (plan or prerare for; bring about or come to an agreement; settle)
aranji mita — make an appointment

aranja —
(kwo) arrangement

arda — (kwo) earth
ardagloba —
(kwo) globe (the planet Earth)

ardanuta — (kwo) peanut
(Origin: arda+nuta)

arena — (kwo) arena

arendi — (zwo) lease, rent, charter
arenda — (kwo) lease
arendaguan —
(kwo) rental agency

aresti — (zwo) arrest, make a prisoner
aresta — (kwo) arrest, custody

argenta — (kwo) silver

argumenta — (kwo) argument (statement put forth as proof, reason)

arhiduka — (kwo) archduke

arigatoo — (kwo) thanks, thank you
Syn.:  danke, shukran

arivi — (zwo) arrive (at destination, at a certain place)
ariva —
(kwo) arrival
Ant.: departi

arka — (kwo) arc; arch (cf. “raduga”)

arkaike — (kwel) archaic

arkitekter — (kwo) architect
arkitektura — (kwo) architecture

arku — (kwo) bow (weapon)
Arkuman —
(kwo) Sagittarius

arma — (kwo) weapon
stal-arma — cold steel
agni-arma — fire-arms
armas — (kwo) arms, armament
armisi —
(zwo) arm
armisa —
(kwo) arming
arma-dun —
(kwo) loophole, embrasure

armee — (kwo) army
armeeyuan —
(kwo) military man, serviceman

aroma — (kwo) aroma
aroma-herba — aromatic herbs
— (kwel) full of aroma, aromatic, fragrant or sweet-smelling
aromike —
(kwel) aromatic (chem.)

arosi — (zwo) moisten, wet, water (with any liquid)
aroser — (kwo) watering-pot

arpa — (kwo) harp

arsenal — (kwo) arsenal

arta — (kwo) art
(kwo) artist

artifisiale — (kwel) artificial (man-made; false; unnatural — cf. “jengun-ney”)

artikla — (kwo) article (a part of speech in some languages)
(cf. “makala”)

artileria — (kwo) artillery

asada — (kwo) siege
asadi — (zwo) siege, besiege

asembli — (zwo) assemble: collect, bring together (people, materials, etc.)
asembla — (kwo) assemblage, assembly; meeting, gathering
generale asembla — general meeting/assembly
desasembli — (zwo) disassemble, take to pieces
Syn.: jami

asendi — (zwo) go up, ascend, mount
asendi sulam — mount a ladder/stairway
avion oltaim asendi-te — the plane kept ascending
prais asendi — prices come up
asenda — (kwo) ascension
Syn.: go uupar
Ant.: desendi

aserti — (zwo) assert, aver, claim, state
aserta —
(kwo) assertion, claim, statement

asfalta — (kwo) asphalt

asilum — (kwo) asylum, sanctuary
Syn.: refuja

asimili — (zwo) assimilate (physiol. and fig. — cf. "similisi")
asimila — (kwo) assimilation

asimut — (kwo) azimuth

asla — (kwo) donkey, ass

aspekti — (zwo) look, appear
aspekti fatigi-ney — look tired
aspekta — (kwo) aspect, view, sight, look, appearance
fai aspekta — pretend, affect, feign

aspiri — (zwo) aspire, desire eagerly, long for, aim at, seek after
aspira —
(kwo) aspiration, striving

asteroida — (kwo) asteroid (astron.)

astoni — (zwo) astonish, amaze
fa-astoni —
(zwo) be amazed, be astonished, marvel, wonder
astoni-she, astonival —
(kwel) astonishing, marvelous
astoni-shem —
(komo) astonishingly
astoni-shem jamile gela — astonishingly beautiful girl
astona —
(kwo) amazement, astonishment

astronomia — (kwo) astronomy
astronomier —
(kwo) astronomer
astronomike —
(kwel) astronomical

ataki — (zwo) attack, assail, assault
(kwo) attack, assault
chu-ataka —
(kwo) sally, sortie

atarafi — (kwo) move aside, draw aside; step aside
(Origin: a+taraf+i)

ateni — (zwo) attain, reach, achieve
ateni e sobrepasi — catch up and overtake
lopi-ateni — catch up by running
raki-ateni — catch up by car (or other vehicle)
atena — (kwo) achievement, attainment, accomplishment

atenta — (kwo) attention
fai nul atenta om koysa — pay no attention to smth
atenti — (zwo) be attentive to, heed, mind, pay attention to
atenta-ney (atente) —
(kwel) attentive, alert
atenta-nem (atentem) —
(komo) attentively, closely, carefully.
(cf. “chauke”)

atlas — (kwo) (anat., geog.) atlas

atletika — (kwo) athletics
— (kwel) athletic

atma — (kwo) soul
atma-ney —
(kwel) of soul
dusatma-ney —
(kwel) bad souled, base

atmosfera — (kwo) atmosphere

atom — (kwo) atom
atom-ney —
(kwel) atomic

atrakti — (zwo) attract
atrakta —
(kwo) attraction
atraktive —
(kwel) attractive

audi — (zwo) hear; listen
Me bu audi nixa. — I don’t hear anything.
Audi ba! — Listen!
hao-audi-ke musika — a music that is good to hear
bu-gwo-audi-ke — unheard-of
auda — (kwo) hearing (auditory faculty)
auding —
(kwo) listening; audition
audibile —
(kwel) audible
audike —
(kwel) auditory
audibilitaa —
(kwo) audibility
audisens —
(kwo) sense of hearing
audimogsa —
(kwo) hearing ability
fa-audi —
(zwo) be heard, be audible
finaudi —
(zwo) listen to the end
auder —
(kwo) (telephone) receiver
See also: slu

audio — (kwo, kwel) audio
rekordi audio — record audio

augusto — (kwo) August (also mes-ot)
in augusto — in August

aur — (kwo) ear
aurganda —
(kwo) cerumen

aus — (konekti-komo) 1) out (of) (outward movement)
pren kalam aus posh — take a pencil out of the pocket
Lai aus! — Come out!
(made) of (material), out of
botela aus glas — bottle made of glass, glass bottle
Me he zwo palas aus shamba. — I made a palace out of the room.

ausen —
(konekti-komo) outside of, on the outside, beyond the limits of
ausen dom — outside the house
Me jivi ausen urba. — I live out of town.
Sedey ye frosta ausen. — It freezes outdoors.
Sey dwar bu ofni fon ausen, sol fon inen. — This door does not open from outside, only from within.
ausen-ney — (kwel) outer, external
(kwo) overclothes
ausen-taraf —
(kwo) the outside
ausen-munda —
(kwo) the outer world

ausjivi — (zwo) survive, remain alive
ausjiving —
(kwo) survival, surviving

auskati — (zwo) cut out, carve out

auskavi — (zwo) dig out, dig up

auskupi — (zwo) redeem; ransom
auskupa —
(kwo) redemption, redeeming; ransom

auslanda — (kwo) foreign countries
in auslanda — abroad
auslanda-ney — (kwel) foreign, of foreign countries
auslandajen, auslander —
(kwo) foreigner, a person from a foreign country (cf. "gariba")

ausmorti — (zwo) die out, become extinct
(Origin: aus+morti)

auspren — (zwo) take out, pull out, extract
(Origin: aus+pren)

ausspiri — (zwo) exhale, breathe out
ausspira —
(kwo) exhalation, outward breath
Ant.: inuspiri

ausyusi — (zwo) wear out
ausyusa — (kwo) wear and tear
(Origin: aus+yusi)

autentike — (kwel) authentic (genuine, real)
autentikitaa — (kwo) authenticity

auto — (kwo) automobile, car, motor-car

automat — (kwo) automatic machine, automaton, automat
automatike —
(kwel) automatic
automatikem —
(komo) automatically
automatisi —
(zwo) automatize
automatisa —
(kwo) automatization

autor — (kwo) author

autoritaa — (kwo) authority (power to influence or persuade resulting from knowledge or experience — cf. "mahta")

autostop — (kwo) hitch-hiking
fai autostop — hitch-hike

avan — (komo)  forward, ahead (in space or time)
Avan, sempre avan! — Forward, always forward!
Kan avan, bu kan bak. — Look forward, don't look back.
Go avan, bu turni. — Go ahead, don't turn.
Treba mah kloka un ora avan. — One should set the clock one hour ahead.
avanen — (konekti-komo) ahead (of) (at what place?)
avanen oli — ahead of everybody
avanen kolona — ahead of the column
Lu es yo dalem avanen. — He is already far ahead.
May kloka es pet minuta avanen. — My watch is 5 minutes fast.

avane — (kwel) front, fore
avanpatas — forelegs
avana — (kwo) front, facing side (also “avantaraf”)

avanpasi — (zwo) pass ahead of, outstrip

avansi — (zwo) advance, go forward; further, promote
avansa —
(kwo) advance, advancement

avantaja — (kwo) advantage

avare — (kwel) avaricious, miserly, greedy
avaritaa —
(kwo) avarice, greed
avarnik —
(kwo) miser, niggard

aventura — (kwo) adventure

avenu — (kwo) avenue (broad street)

avide — (kwel) greedy, avid
aviditaa —
(kwo) greed, avidity
avida (avido, avidina) —
(kwo) greedy person

avion — (kwo) airplane

avos — (komo) hopefully, maybe, perhaps, with luck we may
pa avos — on the off-chance, at random, in a hit-or-miss fashion

axa — (kwo) axis, axle
axike —
(kwel) axial

ay — (exklami) ouch

azure — (kwel) azure

ba — gramatika marks imperative
Nu go ba! — Let us go!
Manya yu hev skola. Tayari ba yur leson! — Tomorrow you have classes. Prepare your lesson!
Ta lai ba! — Let him come!
(cf. "hay")

badal — (kwo) cloud
gro-badal — big cloud
swate badal — black cloud
badal-ney dey — cloudy day

bade — (kwel) bad; evil (cf. “dushte”)
bu bade — not bad
baditaa — (kwo) evil
lucha de haotaa e baditaa — struggle of the good and the evil
badifi (fa-bade) — (zwo) become worse, deteriorate

bagaja — (kwo) luggage
Crimean Tatar

bagula — (kwo) heron

bahana — (kwo) pretext, excuse
bahani —
(zwo) pretext
bahani-yen ke — under the pretext of

bahmal — (kwo) velvet

bait — (kwo) byte

baji — (zwo) ring, resound; play (a musical instrument); strike (about the clock)
baji pa dwar — ring at the door
Hu-ney fon zai baji? — Whose phone is ringing?
baji piano  — play piano
baji gana pa gitara — play a song on the guitar
baja — (kwo) ring, ringing
Me audi-te baja pa dwar.  — I heard a ring at the door.
bajika — (kwo) doorbell, buzzer

bak — (komo) 1) back (in space or time), backwards
Go avan, bu go bak. — Go ahead, don't go back.
Mata wud yao ke suy kindas lai bak a ela. — The mother would like her children to come back to her.
Gai pon bak olo ke yu pren. — You should put back everything that you take.
al bakdao — on the way back
bakmuvi — move back
dai bak — give back
Treba mah kloka un ora bak. —
One should set the clock one hour back.
2) ago
dwa yar bak — two years ago
Gro-longtaim bak ye rega. — Once upon a time (long ago) there lived a king.
baken — (konekti-komo) behind (at what place?)
baken dom — behind the house
Me bu vidi surya nau: it es baken badal. — Now I don't see the sun: it is behind the cloud.
Wen me lai a shulin, me bu dumi om problema. Me lyu li oli baken in urba. — When coming to the forest, I do not think about problems. I leave them all behind in the town.
May kloka es pet minuta baken. — My watch is 5 minutes slow.
fon baken dom — from behind the house

bakak — (kwo) frog

bake — (kwel) rear, back, hind
bakpatas — hind legs
baka — (kwo) the back (back side, reverse side, or area behind) (also “baktaraf”)

bakra — (kwo) goat
gin-bakra (bakrina) — female goat
man-bakra (bakro) — male goat

bakshish — (kwo) baksheesh

bakteria — (kwo) bacterium

bal — (kwo) ball (dance)

balada — (kwo) ballad

balansa — (kwo) balance, equilibrium (cf. "vaka")
balansi —
(zwo) balance, maintain equilibrium; counterpoise, counterbalance
balansing —
(kwo) equilibration, balancing
balansi-ney (balansen) —
(kwel) balanced

balbati — (zwo) gurgle
ruchey balbati — brook gurgles

baldakin — (kwo) baldaquin

balena — (kwo) whale

balet — (kwo) ballet

balja — (kwo) bulge
balji —
(zwo) bulge

balka — (kwo) log, beam; rafter, balk
balka-dom — loghouse

balkon — (kwo) balcony

balon — (kwo) balloon

balsam — (kwo) balsam, balm

bambu — (kwo) bamboo

banana — (kwo) banana
bananaplanta —
(kwo) banana-plant

banda — (kwo) 1) band (strip; a part of spectrum); ribbon;
2) band
banda de frekwensa — frequency band

bandaja — (kwo) bandage
bandaji —
(zwo) bandage

bandana — (kwo) bandana

bandita — (kwo) bandit

banduk — (kwo) rifle

bangi — (zwo) burst

bani — (zwo) bathe
bani swa — bathe oneself
baning — (kwo) bath (bathing)
banidom (baniguan) —
(kwo) bath-house, baths
banishamba —
(kwo) bathroom
banipen — bathtub

banka — (kwo) bank (financial institution)
banker —
(kwo) banker
bankayuan —
(kwo) bank clerk

banket — (kwo) banquet (ceremonial dinner)

bao — (kwo) bag
beybao —
(kwo) rucksack
(kwo) handbag

baobaba — (kwo) baobab

bar — (kwo) bar (pub, tavern)

barak — (kwo) barrack

barana — (kwo) fence

barba — (kwo) beard
barba-ney man — bearded man

barbare — (kwel) barbarian, barbarous
barbara — (kwo) barbarian
barbaritaa —
(kwo) barbarism; barbarity

barela — (kwo) barrel
barelakin —
(kwo) keg, small barrel / cask

bari — (zwo) bar, block, obstruct
daobarika —
(kwo) road barrier
barilok —
(kwo) enclosured place

bariera — (kwo) barrier

barometra — (kwo) barometer

baron — (kwo) baron / baroness
— (kwo) baron
— (kwo) baroness

barsuk — (kwo) badger

bartan — (kwo) household vessel; tableware
woshi bartan — wash the dishes
bartanlemar — (kwo) dresser (cupboard or set of shelves for dishes or kitchen utensils)

barut — (kwo) gunpowder
barut-depo — powder magazine

basa — (kwo) base
basi —
(zwo) base
basike —
(kwel) basic
basikem —
(komo)  basically
sinbasa-ney —
(kwel) groundless, unfounded

basar — (kwo) market, marketplace, bazaar; fair
basar-ekonomia — market economy
basar-teatra — a fair theatre

bashan — (kwo) speech (oration)
bashani —
(zwo) orate, give a speech

basina — (kwo) basin (geog., geol.)

basketa — (kwo) basket
basketabol —
(kwo) basketball

basta — (komo) enough
nu hev basta pan — we have enough bread
sauna bu es haishi basta garme — it is not yet hot enough in the sauna
(exklami)  that will do! enough!
Me bu yao audi nixa om to. — Enough of that! I do not want to hear anything about it.
See also: sufi-shem

baston — (kwo) staff, stick; crosier

basu — (kwo) bass (low sound)
shwo pa basu — speak/say in low voice
basu-ney — (kwel) bass
basu-ney vos — bass voice

bat — (unisi)  but
Me hev kitaba bat me bu yao lekti. — I have the book but I don't want to read.

batali — (zwo) fight, battle
batala —
(kwo) fight, battle
handa-batala — hand-to-hand fighting
batalakin — (kwo) skirmish

batalion — (kwo) battalion

bataria — (kwo) battery

batata — (kwo) sweet potato

bati — (zwo) beat (hit or strike repeatedly)
bater —
(kwo) bat (club); beater
(cf. “darbi”)

baum — (kwo) tree

bavul — (kwo) suitcase

bay — (konekti) 1) by, with, by means of (a means or tool)
skribi bay kalam — write with a pencil
lai bay avion — come by airplane
bay forsa — by force
bay to ke yu zwo — by what you do
ofensi bay bu shwo danke — to offend by not thanking
2) by (doer or author)
se es zwo-ney bay me — this is done by me
kitaba bay Mark Twen — book by Mark Twain

baya — (kwo) bay (nautical)

bayonet — (kwo) bayonet

bebi — (kwo) baby
bebi gari — perambulator, baby carriage

beda — (kwo) misfortune, distress, trouble, disaster (cf. "disasta")

bedlam — (kwo) bedlam

beduin — (kwo) bedouin

begin — (zwo) begin, commence
Nu begin ba! — Let’s begin!
beginsa — (kwo) beginning
in beginsa — at the beginning
ribegin — (zwo) recommence
Syn.: starti

beje — (kwel) beige

bekon — (kwo) bacon

belka — (kwo) squirrel

belta — (kwo) belt (band)
piga belta — leather belt

bencha — (kwo) bench; pew

bensin — (kwo) benzine, petrol, gasoline

bereta — (kwo) beret

beri — (kwo) berry

berna — (kwo) bear

bes — (kwo) devil (as a half-animal creature, not Satan, not the chief one)
See also: diabla

besbol — (kwo) baseball

bestia — (kwo) beast
bestialik — (kwel) bestial, brutish
Syn.: animal

beton — (kwo) concrete (building material)

bey — (kwo) back (the rear of body); backrest
stula bey — back of chair
stan al bey versu koywan — stand with one's back to smb
beybao — (kwo) rucksack

Bharat — India (also "India")

bi — (zwo) be (is — es, was — bin, will be — ve bi)
Gai bi honeste. —
One should be honest.
Bi hao! — 1) You are welcome! (a reply to thanking); 2) Bless you! (after smb's sneezing); 3) Good luck! (when parting)
bia — (kwo) being

bichi — (zwo) despise, disdain, disparage, scorn
bicha —
(kwo) contempt, scorn, disdain

bifoo — (konekti) before (in space or time)
bifoo dom — before the house
bifoo festa — before the holiday
bifoo ke lu en-somni — before he fell asleep
bifoo olo — first of all
Woshi handas bifoo chifan! — Wash your hands before eating!
En-stan ba bifoo me. — Stand up before me!
bifoo-ney — (kwel) former, previous, one-time
pa bifoo-ney taim — once, in former times
bifooen — (taim-komo) formerly, previously, before
Laojen oftem shwo ke bifooen olo bin pyu hao kem nau. — Old people often say that formerly everything was better than now.
Bifooen nu jivi in otre urba. — Previously we lived in another town.
pa bifooen — in advance, beforehand

biftek — (kwo) beefsteak

bigari — (zwo) spoil
bigara —
(kwo) spoiling, spoilage

bigudi — (kwo) hair-roller

bik — (kwo) beak
biki —
(zwo) peck
bika —
(kwo) peck
biking —
(kwo) pecking

bikam — (zwo) become
Ob yu yao bikam leker? — Do you want to become a physician?
Lu bikam-te fama-ney kway. — He quickly became famous.
Sun e
la bikam mata. — She will become a mother soon.

bikini — (kwo) bikini

bikos — (unisi)  because

bil — (kwo) bill, invoice

bildi — (zwo) build
bildi dom — build a house
bilda, bilding — (kwo) building (act)
bildura —
(kwo) building (structure)
bildilok — (kwo) building site

bileta — (kwo) ticket

biliar — (kwo) billiards

bilion — (kwo) billion, a million millions, 1012

bin — was, were (past tense from "bi")
 Me bin dar pluri ves. — I have been there several times.

biologia — (kwo) biology
— (kwel) biological
— (kwo) biologist

bira — (kwo) beer
biraguan —
(kwo) beerhouse

birka — (kwo) birch

bisikla — (kwo) bicycle (also "baik")

biskwit — (kwo) biscuit, cookie

bisnes — (kwo) business (commercial activity)

bit — (kwo) bit (computing)

bitum — (kwo) bitumen

blada — (kwo) blade (of a knife, sword; of an oar, propeller)

blage — (kwel) blessed, connected with God's grace; beneficial
(kwo) grace (religion); beneficence

blami — (zwo) blame, condemn, censure
blama —
(kwo) blame, censure
(cf. "shatami")

blan — (kwel) white
blantaa — whiteness

blesi — (zwo) bless
blesa —
(kwo) blessing, benediction

bli — (konekti-komo) near, nearby, beside, close to
bli may dom — near my house
bli klok char — around 4 o'clock
Ela zai sidi-te bli. — She was sitting beside.
bli-ney — (kwel) near, nearby, neighbouring
See also: sirke

blik — (kwo) catchlight, flare (reflection of light)

blin — (kwo) pancake

blinde — (kwel) blind
blinditaa —
(kwo) blindness
blinda —
(kwo) a blind person
blindisi —
(zwo) blind; dazzle
(kwel) blinding

blise — (kwel) close, near, nearby
blisem —
(komo) closely
(kwo) closeness, nearness, proximity; affinity
blisejen —
(kwo) one’s near and dear
blislok — hereabouts
blisifi (fa-blise) —
(zwo) approach, come closer
blisifi a koysa — approach smth, come close to smth
blisisi (mah-blise) — (zwo) draw/bring nearer
blisi —
(zwo) approach/bring nearer

bliza — (kwo) lightning

blog — (kwo) blog

blok — (kwo) block; unit (a part of a mechanism)

bloki — (zwo) block, blockade
fa-bloki — (zwo) become blocked; get stuck
debloki —
(zwo) unblock, deblock

blu — (kwel) blue
blutaa —
(kwo) blue
klarblu —
(kwel) light blue, sky blue

blusa — (kwo) blouse

boa — (kwo) boa

bobina — (kwo) bobbin, spool, reel

bobra — (kwo) beaver

boh — (kwo) god
bohina —
(kwo) goddess
boh-ney, bohlik —
(kwel) divine
bohmata —
(kwo) mother of god
boh-blama —
(kwo) blasphemy
fai boh-blama — commit blasphemy

bol — (kwo) ball
snegabol —
(kwo) snowball
bolkalam —
(kwo) ballpoint pen

bolta — (kwo) bolt (metal fastener)

bomba — (kwo) bomb
bombi —
(zwo) bomb, bombard
bombing —
(kwo) bombardment, bombing
bombiavion, bomber —
(kwo) bomber (aircraft)
bombi-sha — (kwo) bomber (person)

bona — (kwo) bean

bonbon — (kwo) bonbon, candy, sweet

borda — (kwo) border (outer edge; frontier), brink; edge; board (of ship)
pa borda de abisma — at the brink of the abyss
bay pamaborda — with edge of one’s hand
lingwa borda inter jenmin — language borders between peoples

stata borda — the state border
fule til borda —
full to the brim
bordi — (zwo) border (on), adjoin
bordi-she —
(zwo) adjoining, next, adjacent

bori — (zwo) bore, drill
boring —
(kwo) boring
borer, boritul —
(kwo) borer (tool)
trabori —
(zwo) drill through, perforate

borsta — (kwo) bristle, stubble
borsti —
(zwo) bristle

borya — (kwo) woven mat

bota — (kwo) boat
botajen —
(kwo) boatman

botela — (kwo) bottle

boxa — (kwo) box (container)

boxi — (zwo) box (strike with fists)
boxing —
(kwo) boxing
boxer —
(kwo) boxer

boy — (kwo) boy

boyar — (kwo) boyar(d)
— (kwo) boyarynia, boyar’s wife

bracha — (kwo) arm

brai — (zwo) roar, bellow
braisa —
(kwo) roar, bellow

brancha — (kwo) branch

brandi — (kwo) brandy

brash — (kwo) brush (tool)
brashi —
(zwo) brush
brashing — (kwo) brushing

brata — (kwo) brother
bratalik —
(kwel) brotherly
May ko-bratas do kalam. — My co-brethren of the quill.

bratason — (kwo) nephew (brother's son)
(Origin: brata+son)

brave — (kwel) brave, gallant, stalwart, dashing
bravnik —
(kwo) bold fellow, daring fellow, dare-devil

bravo — (exklami) bravo
Bravo gro! — Bravissimo!

brecha — (kwo) breach (opening, gap, tear, rupture)

brein — (kwo) brain

brek — (kwo) brake
breki —
(zwo) brake, apply a brake
breking — (kwo) braking

breve — (kwel) brief, concise
brevem —
(komo) briefly, in a few words

brida — (kwo) bridle
bridi —
(zwo) bridle
nobridi-ney —
(kwel) unbridled, unruly
nobridibile —
(kwel) indomitable

brig — (kwo) brig

brigada — (kwo) brigade
agnibrigada — fire-brigade

brij — (kwo) bridge (card game)

brik — (kwo) brick

brili — (zwo) shine, glitter, glow
brili-she —
(kwel) brilliant, shining, shiny
brila —
(kwo) shining, glitter, brilliance
brilika —
(kwo) spangle
debrilifi —
(zwo) lose its lustre, grow dim

briliante — (kwel) brilliant (glorious, superb, wonderful)
Syn.: gro-hao, magnifike

bringi — (zwo) bring
go bringi koysa — go to fetch smth
lopi bringi koysa — run for smth, run to fetch smth

brisa — (kwo) breeze (of wind)

brova — (kwo) eye-brow, brow

bru — (zwo) brew (prepare liquor)
bruing — (kwo) brewing

brum — (kwo) broom
brumi —
(zwo) sweep (with a broom)
— (kwo) sweeping

brun — (kwel) brown

brutale — (kwel) brutal
brutalitaa —
(kwo) brutality
Syn.: kruele (cruel), ferose (fierce, ferocious)

bu — (syao-gramatika)  not (negation)
Me bu yao go adar. — I don't want to go there.
Tak, bu kontra-nem. — So, not otherwise.
Se es buevitibile. —
This is inevitable.
Bu go adar! — Don't go there!
See also: non, bye

Buda — (kwo) Buddha
budisma —
(kwo) Buddhism

bufal — (kwo) buffalo

bufeta — (kwo) buffet (a counter or sideboard from which food and drink are served or may be bought)

bugundey — (kwo) day free from work, day off, rest-day
(Origin: bu+gun+dey)

buhao — (kwel, komo) not good, bad; badly
sta buhao — feel unwell
(Origin: bu+hao)

bujeta — (kwo) budget

buketa — (kwo) bouquet (bunch of flowers; specific scent)

bulba — (kwo) bulb

bulbul — (kwo) nightingale

bulevar — (kwo) boulevard

buli — (zwo) boil
buli-she akwa — boiling water
buli-ney milka — boiled milk
buling — (kwo) boiling

bulyon — (kwo) broth, bouillon

bumbar — (kwo) bumblebee

bunte — (kwel) variegated, many-coloured, motley

bure — (kwel) gray-brown

burjua — (kwo) bourgeois
burjua-ney —
(kwel) bourgeois

burnus — (kwo) burnous

burokratia — (kwo) bureaucracy
— (kwel) bureaucratic

buroo — (kwo) bureau

bursa — (kwo) exchange (a place for trading, such as a stock exchange)

bus — (kwo) bus (coach)
bus-stopika —
(kwo) bus stop
busyuan —
(kwo) ticket collector (in bus)

bush — (kwo) bush, shrub

bushel — (kwo) bushel (unit of volume)

busta — (kwo) bust (head and shoulders of body; woman's bosom)

buta — (kwo) boot
tasmi (fai) butas — lace up one’s boots
gaobuta — (kwo) high boot
rolibutas —
(kwo) roller skates/blades

buton — (kwo) button (fastener; device meant to be pressed; bud)
florbuton — flower bud
presi buton — press the button
buton de jaketa — button of jacket
mausbuton — a mouse button

butoni — (zwo) button
butondun —
(kwo) buttonhole

buy — (kwo) buoy

bye — (gramatika)  negative imperative particle
Bye go adar! — Don't go there!
Boh bye lasi! — God forbid!
Syn.: bu,

byen — (kwel) convenient; comfortable; handy, easy-to use; opportune
es muy byen — it's very opportune, it comes in handy
nobyen-taim-ney — ill-timed
byentaa — (kwo) convenience; ease, handiness
flat do oli byentaa — apartment with all conveniences

chabi — (zwo) chew
chabing —
(kwo) chewing, mastication
chabiguma, chabika —
(kwo) chewing gum

chapa — (kwo) hoe, mattock

chapta — (kwo) chapter (section in a book)

char — (kwanto)  four (4)
un (de) charfen — one forth
tri (de) charfen — three fourths
charfen(ka) — (kwo) quarter
charple —
(kwel) quadruple
charshi — forty
charsto — four hundred
char-ney — the fourth
char-nem — fourthly

chardi — (kwo) Thursday

charma — (kwo) charm (appeal, attraction — cf. "jadu", "talisman")
charmi —
(zwo) charm (seduce, fascinate)
charmaful —
(kwel) charming

chati — (zwo) chat, babble, chatter
chata —
(kwo) chat, babble, chatter

chauki — (zwo) beware (of), be on one’s guard against, take care
chauki doga! — beware of dogs!
— (kwo) caution, wariness, vigilance
chauka-stepa — precautionary measures
(chauke) — (kwel) cautious, watchful, wary, vigilant
chauka-nem (chaukem) —
(komo)  cautiously, warily, vigilantly
buchauke —
(kwel) incautious, imprudent
nochauke —
(kwel) foolhardy, reckless, desperate

chaure — (kwel) wide, broad
chaurem —
(komo)  broadly, widely, wide
chauritaa —
(kwo) breadth, width
chaurifi (fa-chaure) —
(zwo) widen (become wide or wider), broaden
chaurisi (mah-chaure) —
(zwo) widen (make wide or wider), broaden
chauri —
(zwo) widen (tr./intr.)

chay — (kwo) tea
(kwo) tea room, tea house
chayvati —
(zwo) tea
chayvati koywan — to take smb to tea

chek — (kwo) cheque, (bank-) check, receipt (written acknowledgement)

cheki — (zwo) check (verify; inspect)
cheka —
(kwo) check (inspection; verifying)

cherpi — (zwo) draw liquids, scoop (out); (fig.) to take, borrow
cherpika —
(kwo) scoop

chi — (zwo) eat
chi masu — eat meat
hao-chi-ke fan — a tasty food
chi sabahfan — have breakfast
chi deyfan — have a midday meal
chi akshamfan — have evening meal/supper
chibile —
(kwel) edible
chia —
(kwo) eating
syao chia — snack
chiwat — (kwo) eats, food
chifan —
(zwo) meal, have a meal
chifanshamba — dining room
chifansa — (kwo) meal
mah-chi —
(zwo) feed
jen-chier —
(kwo) cannibal, man-eater
chitul —
(kwo) eating tool (e.g. fork, spoon, knife, chopsticks)

chibuk — (kwo) chin

chihi — (zwo) sneeze
chiha —
(kwo) sneeze
laute ek-chiha — a violent sneeze
chihing — (kwo) sneezing; catarrh
mah-chihi-she —
(kwel) sternutatory

chinara — (kwo) plane (tree of the genus Platanus)

chipe — (kwel) cheap
chipenesa —
(kwo) cheapness, low prices
Ant.: guy

chiriki — (zwo) twitter, chirp
chiriking —
(kwo) twitter, chirp, chirping

chitan — (kwo) pond

chiza — (kwo) spoon
chaychiza —
(kwo) teaspoon

chokolat — (kwo) chocolate

chori — (zwo) steal, thieve
bechori koywan —  to rob smb
— (kwo) theft
chori-sha, chorer —
(kwo) thief
chorishil —
(kwel) thievish

Chosen — (kwo) North Korea

chou — (kwel) stinking, foul, fetid

chu — (zwo) go out, leave, exit; issue (from); ooze out; come out, be issued
lu chu shamba — he left the room
sudor chu on luy fas — the sweat stood out on his face
chu dwar — go out of the door
chusa — (kwo) going out, leaving, withdrawal; exit, way out; outlet
chudao —
(kwo) way out
otre chudao yok — there is no other way out
chudwar — (kwo) exit door
chuwat —
(kwo) issue (smth issued)
mah-chu —
(zwo) issue (smth); utter
ta mah-chu un strane suon — she uttered a strange sound

chuf — (kwo) tuft (cluster of elongated strands, as of yarn, hair, or grass)

chukanda — (kwo) beet, beetroot
chukandasup —
(kwo) beet soup, borscht

chunauta — (kwo) challenge, defiance
chunauta-ney (chunaute)  —
(kwo) defiant
chunauta-nem (chunautem) —
(kwo) defiantly

chuyshu — (zwo) boast, brag
chuyshu-ke, chuyshushil —
(kwel) boastful, vainglorious

chyen — (kwel) shallow
chyenlok —
(kwo) ford, wade; shoal, sandbank

dabe — (unisi)  in order to, in order that, so that
Me shwo a yu dabe yu mog samaji me. — I speak to you in order that you can understand me.

dacha — (kwo) dacha, summer house

dadu — (kwo) bet, wager
fai dadu —
(zwo) bet, wager
fai dadu kun koywan— bet with smb
fai dadu om koysa — make a bet about smth
fai dadu pa shi dolar — make a bet of 10 dollars


dafni — (zwo) inter, bury
dafna —
(kwo) interment, burial, funeral

dafta — (kwo) exercise book, notebook

dai — (zwo) give
daisa —
(kwo) giving
dai bak —
(zwo) give back

daklis — (kwo) threshold

dale — (kwel) far, distant, remote
dalem —
(komo)  afar
fon dalem — from afar
dalitaa — (kwo) distance (a considerable amount of space), expanse, remoteness
fa-dale (dalifi) —
(zwo) become more remote
mah-dale (dalisi) —
(zwo) distance, move away from

dalta — (kwo) chisel

dalwa — (kwo) bucket, pail

dam — (kwo) dam, dike

dama — (kwo) married or widowed woman; dame; lady; (in cards, chess, checkers) a queen

damaja — (kwo) damage
damaji —
(zwo) damage

damay — (kwo) barley

damni — (zwo) damn (cf. "shatami")
damna —
(kwo) damnation

dan1 — (taim-komo) 1) then (at that time)
Dan me bin haishi yunge. — I was still young then.
depos dan — since then
2) then (in that case)
 si...dan... — if...then...
See also: poy

dan2 — (syao)  suffix for container
chaydan — (kwo) teapot
nayudan —
(kwo) butterdish
milkadan —
(kwo) milk can
flordan —
(kwo) flowerpot
kalamdan —
(kwo) pencil-box
kahwa-dan —
(kwo) coffee-pot
manidan —
(kwo) wallet

dandi — (kwo) dandy, fop
dandivati —
(zwo) behave foppishly

danja — (kwo) danger, peril
danja-ney, danjaful —
(kwel) dangerous, perilous

dank a — (konekti) thanks to, owing to
dank a lu — thanks to him
dank a to ke yu he zwo — thanks to what you have done

danke — (exklami)  thank you, thanks
Danke! - Es nixa. Bi hao! — Thank you! - Don't mention it. You are welcome
Danke gro! — Thank you very much!
danki — (zwo) thank
me danki yu por helpi — I thank you for your help
danka — (kwo) gratitude
dankaful —
(kwel) thankful, grateful

dansa — (kwo) dance
dansi —
(zwo) dance
danser —
(kwo) dancer
dansilok —
(kwo) dance floor, dance hall

dao — (kwo) way (path; method)
sirkum-dao — roundabout way
pa sey dao — by this way
pa nul dao — in no way, by no means
Milkadao — Milky way
daojen — (kwo) wayfarer, traveller; wanderer
(kwo) path (trail), pathway
daokrosa —
(kwo) crossroads, crossing

dar — (loko-komo) there
May sista es dar. — My sister is there.
Dar ye may sista. — There is my sister there.
Dar es garme. — It's hot there.
Bu go dar! — Don't go there!
See also: adar, hir

darbi — (zwo) strike (hit)
darba — (kwo) blow, stroke

darfi — (sta)  have permission, be allowed, (one) may
Lu darfi gun kom leker. — He is allowed to work as a doctor.
darfi zin ku? — May I come in?
bu darfi — is not allowed
hir bu darfi fumi — smoking is not allowed here

dashat — (kwo) horror, terror
dashatfilma — thriller, horror film
— (kwel) awful, frightful, dreadful (Syn.: terible)
dashati —
(zwo) dread, be terrified/horrified
dashatisi —
(zwo) terrify, horrify

dashi — (kwo) ambassador
dashiguan —
(kwo) embassy

dasin — (kwo) virtue (moral excellence, an example or kind of it — cf. "merita")
dasin-ney —
(kwel) virtuous

dasta — (kwo) detachment, party
avan-dasta — advanced detachment, vanguard

data — (kwo) data

datsan — (kwo) datsan (Buddhist monastery)

datum — (kwo) date (day, month and year)

dave — (kwel) bygone, distant in time, ancient, old
davem —
(komo)  long ago
yo fon davem — long since, for a long time
nodave —
(kwel) recent
nodavem —
(komo)  recently, not long ago, lately

de — (konekti) 1) of (genitive)
kitaba de toy boy — the book of that boy
jamilitaa de munda — beauty of the world
lingwa de planeta — language of the planet
raita de elekti e gei elekti —
the right to elect and be elected
of (partialness — optional)
pes (de) sukra — a piece of sugar
tasa (de) chay — a cup of tea

de(s) — (syao) "opposite action" ("des" if before a vowel)
desharji — discharge
delodi — unload
desorganisi — disorganize

deba — (kwo) debt, duty (obligation)
zwo swa-ney deba — do one's duty
debi — (zwo) owe, be obliged to
Ta debi a me dwashi dolar. — He owes me $20.
Me debi a ta may jiva.
— I owe my life to him.

debati — (zwo) debate
debata —
(kwo) debate
See also: diskusi

debuti — (zwo) debut
— (kwo) debut, début

dediki — (zwo) dedicate (address or inscribe to another — cf. “devoti”)
dedika —
(kwo) dedication

defekta — (kwo) defect, flaw, impairment
defekta-ney (defekte) —
(kwel) flawed, imperfect, defective

defensi — (zwo) defend
defensa —
(kwo) defence
defensa-ney (defense) —
(kwel) defensive

defini — (zwo) define, give the definition of
defina —
(kwo) definition

deflui — (zwo) flow away, rush from
defluisa —
(kwo) ebb, reflux
afluisa e defluisa — flow and ebb
(Origin: de(s)+flui)

deformi — (zwo) deform, put out of shape
pa deformi-ney inglish — in broken English
deforma, deformitura — (kwo) deformation; deformity

degami — (zwo) divorce
degama —
(kwo) divorce
(Origin: de(s)+gami)

degradi — (zwo) degrade, debase
degrada —
(kwo) degradation

dek — (kwo) deck (ship’s)

dekadi — (zwo) be decadent, be in state of decay, decline (physically or morally)
dekada —
(kwo) decadence, decline

dekapisi — (zwo) decapitate
dekapisa — (kwo) decapitation
(Origin: de(s)+kapa+isi)

deklami — (zwo) declaim
deklama —
(kwo) declamation

deklari — (zwo) declare
deklara —
(kwo) declaration

deklini — (zwo) decline (gram., fis., astr.)
deklina —
(kwo) declination

dekori — (zwo) decorate, make decor
dekora — (kwo) decoration; decor
Syn.: orni

dela — (kwo) affair, business, case, issue, matter
bu es may dela — that is none of my business
dela go hao — the affair goes well
prave dela — just/righteous cause
fai dela kun — deal with, have to do with

delfin — (kwo) dolphin

delikate — (kwel) delicate, fine

delir — (kwo) delirium, ravings
— (zwo) be delirious, rave
— (kwel) delirious

demandi — (zwo) demand (claim, request or ask forcefully)
demanda — (kwo) demand (claim; desire to purchase goods; request for some product)

demision — (kwo) resignation, retirement
demisioni —
(zwo) resign, retire

demokratia — (kwo) democracy
— (kwel) democratic
— (zwo) democratize
— (kwo) democratization
demokratier (demokrat)
— (kwo) democrat

demon — (kwo) demon (evil spirit)

demonstri — (zwo) demonstrate
— (kwo) demonstration
demonstra-ney (demonstre)
— (kwo) demonstrative
— (kwo) demonstration (public display of group opinion)

den — (gramatika) optional accusative particle
Den se me he zwo yo. — This I have done already.

denadi — (zwo) despair
denada — (kwo) despair
(Origin: de(s)+nadi)

dense — (kwel) dense
dense shulin — dense forest
dense tuman — dense fog
fa-dense (densifi) — (zwo) become dense
mah-dense (densisi) —
(zwo) make dense, condense
densitaa —
(kwo) density
densika —
(kwo) thicket
(kwel) thin, sparse, rarefied
nodensifa —
(kwo) rarefaction

denta — (kwo) tooth; prong
diki denta — show/bare one's teeth
shwo tra denta — say between one's teeth
dentista — (kwo) dentist
dentagron —
(kwo) tusk

departi — (zwo) depart, leave (a koysa — for smth)
me departi a Rusia — I am leaving for Russia
departa — (kwo) departure
Ant.: arivi

depatmen — (kwo)  department

dependi — (zwo) depend (fon koysa/koywan — on smth/smb)
Fon hu se dependi? — On whom does it depend?
dependa — (kwo) dependence
nodependa —
(kwo) independence
rekoni nodependa — to recognize the independence
nodependa-ney (nodepende) — (kwel) independent

depo — (kwo) depot, store, storehouse
depo-shamba —
(kwo) storeroom; pantry

depon — (zwo) take off, lay off, put off
Depon ba palto! — Take off the coat!
(Origin: de(s)+pon)

depos — (konekti) since, starting from
depos toy dey — since that day
me es hir depos klok shi — I have been here since ten o'clock
depos dan — since then
depos nau — from now on, henceforth
depos longtaim — long since
Syn.: fon

deri — (zwo) delay; linger
deri spira — hold one's breath
dera — (kwo) delay

derivi — (zwo) derive
deriva —
(kwo) derivation
derivi-ney —
(kwel) derivative, derived
derivitura —
(kwo) derivative

derma — (kwo) skin, hide
tumderma-ney —
(kwel) swarthy, dark-skinned
dedermisi —
(zwo) skin, flay, excoriate

desapari — (zwo) disappear, vanish
desapara —
(kwo) disappearance
(Origin: de(s)+apari)

desemba — (kwo) December (also mes-shi-dwa)

desendi — (zwo) descend, go down
desendi sulam — go downstairs
kamina desendi a riva — the road descends to the river
desenda — (kwo) descent
Syn.: go nich
Ant.: asendi

deser — (kwo) dessert

deserti — (zwo) desert (abandon, withdraw)
deserter — (kwo) deserter

desidi — (zwo) decide
desida —
(kwo) decision

deskovri — (zwo) discover
deskovra —
(kwo) discovery

deskribi — (zwo) describe
deskriba —
(kwo) description

desne — (kwel) right (not left)
desna —
(kwo) right, right side
desna — (loko-komo) (to the) right
Kan a desna! — Look right!
Hir treba turni a desna. — Here one should turn right.
desnen — (konekti-komo) at the right (of)
May dom es desnen. — My house is at the right.
Desnen dom ye garden. — There is a garden to the right of the house. 

despota — (kwo) despot

destini — (zwo) destine
destina —
(kwo) destination (ultimate purpose for which smth is created or intended — cf. “safara-gola”)

destrukti — (zwo) destroy
destrukta —
(kwo) destruction
destruktive —
(kwel) destructive, disruptive
Syn.: nihilisi

detal — (kwo) detail
detal-ney —
(kwel) detailed
detal-nem —
(komo)  in detail
detalisi —
(zwo) detail
detalisa —
(kwo) detailing

detekti — (zwo) detect
detekta —
(kwo) detection
detekter —
(kwo) detector

detektif — (kwo) detective

determini — (zwo) determine (establish or ascertain definitely, give direction to, fix the limits of)
determina —
(kwo) determination (but not resolution — cf. “resolutitaa”)

developi — (zwo) develop
developa —
(kwo) development

devisa — (kwo) motto

devori — (zwo) devour

devoti — (zwo) devote
devoti swa a koysa/koywan —  to devote oneself to smth/smb
devoti-ney — (kwel) devoted
devota —
(kwo) devotion (act of devoting or the state of being devoted)

dey — (kwo) day (in all meanings)
deyfan —
(kwo) midday meal; dinner
lumadey —
(kwo) daylight, daytime
bugundey —
(kwo) day free from work, day off, rest-day
festadey —
(kwo) holiday, day of celebration
(kwo) working day, workday
janmadey —
(kwo) birthday
hao dey! — good day!
fa-dey — it is dawning, day is breaking
fa-deysa —
(kwo) dawn, daybreak

diabla — (kwo) devil, fiend (Satan or demon)
Pa diabla! — What the devil!
See also: bes, satan

diagnos — (kwo) diagnosis
— (zwo) diagnose

diagonale — (kwel) diagonal
diagonala —
(kwo) diagonal

diagrama — (kwo) diagram

dialekta — (kwo) dialect

dialoga — (kwo) dialogue

diamanta — (kwo) diamond

diarea — (kwo) diarrhoea

diba — (kwo) bottom (the lowest part — cf. "popa")
mar diba — sea bottom

difusi — (zwo) diffuse
difusa —
(kwo) diffusion (but not prolixity)

digesti — (zwo) digest (physiol.)
digesta —
(kwo) digestion

digne — (kwel) dignified, stately
dignitaa — (kwo) dignity

diki — (zwo) show, display
diki lisan a leker — show one's tongue to the doctor
diki suy joisa — show one's joy
dikifinga — (kwo) index finger
dika —
(kwo) showing, demonstration
diker —
(kwo) pointer, indicator
oradiker — hour hand
minutadiker — minute hand

diki-winda — (kwo) shop window

diktat — (kwo) diktat, dictate (command)
— (zwo) dictate (impose, order)
diktater —
(kwo) dictator
diktatura —
(kwo) dictatorship

dikti — (zwo) dictate (say or read aloud)
— (kwo) announcer

dilim — (kwo) slice, clove
luna-dilim —
(kwo) crescent

dimension — (kwo) dimension

dinamika — (kwo) dynamics
dinamike —
(kwel) dynamic

dine — (kwel) thin (about size — cf. “nodense”)
Ant.: grose

diploma — (kwo) diploma

diplomatia — (kwo) diplomacy
diplomatike —
(kwel) diplomatic

direksion — (kwo) direction (path, course — cf. "diriging")

direkte — (kwel) direct (not indirect — cf. "rekte")
direkte kontakta — direct contact
direktem — (komo) directly; straightforwardly

direktor — (kwo) director (person chosen to control or govern the affairs of an institution or corporation)
direktor de skola — director of a school

dirigi — (zwo) direct (aim at; manage, control)
fa-dirigi —
(zwo) make one’s way (to), direct one’s steps, head
diriging —
(kwo) directing; direction (guidance; the skill of directing a film, play etc.)

disain — (kwo) design (shape, appearance, plan for the structure and functions)
disaini —
(zwo) design, lay out, make a design
disainer —
(kwo) designer

disasta — (kwo) disaster, calamity, catastrophe (cf. "beda")

disertasion — (kwo) dissertation

dish — (kwo) dish (the vessel or its contents)
Syn.: pyata

disipi — (zwo) dissipate, squander, waste
disipa —
(kwo) dissipation, squander, waste
Ant.: spari, ekonomi

disipla — (kwo) disciple
Ant.: guru, talimer

disiplina — (kwo) discipline (behaviour control)

diska — (kwo) disk

diskrete — (kwel) discrete, discontinuous

diskusi — (zwo) discuss
diskusa —
(kwo) discussion

disposi — (zwo) dispose (arrange; have at one’s disposal)
disposa —
(kwo) disposition, disposal (positioning; control)

disputi — (zwo) argue, spar, bicker
disputa —
(kwo) dispute, controversy
disputibile —
(kwel) disputable, arguable
disputnik —
(kwo) debater, squabbler
prais-disputnik — haggler

distansia — (kwo) distance (cf. "dalitaa")

distili — (zwo) distil
distila —
(kwo) distillation
distiler —
(kwo) distiller

distinti — (zwo) distinguish
fa-distinti in batala — distinguish oneself in action
distinta —
(kwo) distinction
fai distinta inter koysa e koysa — make difference between smth and smth
distinta-ney (distinte) — (kwel) distinct
distintive —
(kwel) distinctive

distrati — (zwo) distract, divert
distrata —
(kwo) distraction, diversion; (fig.) absence of mind
distrati-ney (distraten), distratishil —
(kwel) absent-minded

distribu — (zwo) distribute
distribusa —
(kwo) distribution

disturbi — (zwo) disturb, trouble, bother, unsettle, put out of order
disturba —
(kwo) disturbance

diva — (kwo) miracle, marvel, wonder
diva yok — no wonder
diva-ney — (kwel) marvellous, wonderful
divi — (zwo) wonder, marvel, look with amazement

divan — (kwo) divan (sofa)

diverse — (kwel) diverse, sundry, several, various
diversitaa —
(kwo) diversity, variety, multiplicity

dividi — (zwo) divide
shi-dwa dividi bay char es tri — twelve divided by four is three
divida — (kwo) dividing, division (act)

division — (kwo) division (military formation)
(cf. "divida")

do — (konekti) precedes a specific characteristic, distinctive feature, or destination of object
gela do grin okos — green-eyed girl
jen do lignagamba — a man with a wooden leg
sikin do kalam — penknife
okula do surya — sun spectacles
bota do parus — sailing boat
auto do mil dolar — a car for 1000 dollars
es kosa do ridi — this is ridiculous

docha — (kwo) daughter

doga — (kwo) dog
man-doga (dogo) —
(kwo) male dog
gin-doga (dogina) —
(kwo) bitch, female dog
yundoga —
(kwo) pup, puppy

doh — (exklami)  (in response to a negative question or statement) yes; oh yes; on the contrary, quite the contrary
Also yu bu lai? - Doh! — So you won't come? - Oh, yes, I will!
Syn.: kontrem

doiche — (kwel, kwo) German (relating to ethnicity, language or country); German (person of German ethnicity); German language

Doichland — (kwo) Germany
Doichland-jen —
(kwo) inhabitant/citizen of Germany

do-janma-ney — (kwel) innate, inborn, inherent, native

dok — (kwo) dock (in port)
doker — (kwo) docker
doki —
(kwo) dock

doktor — (kwo) doctor (holder of a doctorate; physician)
See also: leker

doktrina — (kwo) doctrine

dokumenta — (kwo) document
dokumenti —
(zwo) document
dokumentale —
(kwel) documental

dol — (kwo) dale, vale

dolar — (kwo) dollar
auto do mil dolar — a car for 1000 dollars

dolche — (kwel) sweet
dolchevos-ney — having a sweet voice
dolchitaa — (kwo) sweetness, sweet (basic taste sensation)
dolcha, dolchika —
(kwo) sweet (smth sweet)

dom — (kwo) house; home
me es pa dom — I am at home
chu dom — to leave home
treba go a dom — we should go home
domlik — (kwel) home, cozy
domyuan —
(kwo) member of household
dom-masta —
(kwo) householder
banidom —
(kwo) bath-house
forjidom —
(kwo) smithy, forge
grendom —
(kwo) granary, barn
melidom —
(kwo) mill
mifendom —
(kwo) hive
furmidom —
(kwo) anthill

domen — (kwo) domain, sphere; domain (computing)

domini — (zwo) dominate
domini-she —
(kwel) dominant, dominating
domina —
(kwo) domination

domino — (kwo) domino

domisi — (zwo) domesticate

doni — (zwo) give as a gift; donate; make a present (cf. “dai”)
dona —
(kwo) gift, present; donation
dona de shwosa — gift of speech
donakin —
(kwo) sop; tip
donishil —
(kwel) generous, unstinting
donishiltaa —
(kwo) generosity

dosa — (kwo) dose

dosh — (kwo) vice, defect, flaw
Ant.: merita

dosile — (kwel) docile

doti — (zwo) endow; furnish a dowry
dota —
(kwo) dowry, endowment; gift, talent, endowment
dotika —
(kwo) dowry (payment or property)
sindotnik — (kwo) person without talent

dragon — (kwo) dragon (cf. «lung»)

draka — (kwo) scuffle, tussle, fight

drama — (kwo) drama

dranga — (kwo) pressure, stress, force, push, dash; urge, drive
por dranga de halat — through force of circumstances
dranga fo libritaa — drive for freedom
drangi — (zwo) urge, hustle, press, force
fa-drangi —
(zwo) jostle, hustle, crowd
fa-drangi tra jenmenga — thrust one’s way through the crowd
dranging — (kwo) crush, jam, squash

drastike — (kwel) drastic
drastike shanja — drastic alterations
drastike meja — drastic measures

dreni — (zwo) drain, draw off liquid
dreni-tuba — drain, drain pipe
drena, drenaja — (kwo) drainage

drimi — (zwo) dream (hope, wish, daydream)
drima —
(kwo) dream (hope, wish, cherished desire), daydream
drimnik —
(kwo) (day)dreamer
drima-ney (drime) —
(komo) dreamy, pensive
drima-nem (drimem) —
(komo) dreamily, musingly
 (cf. "sonja")

drir — (kwel) uncompromising, steadfast, firm, unflinching, inflexible, unbending

drole — (kwel) funny, amusing

droni — (zwo) drown; sink
droni-ney jen, dronijen — drowned man
mah-droni — (zwo) drown (deprive of life)
mah swa droni — drown oneself

dros — (kwo) thrush (bird)
gana-dros —
(kwo) song-thrush

duan — (kwo) segment, section, piece
laste daoduan — last section/length of road
taimduan — space of time

dubi — (zwo) doubt, question
duba —
(kwo) doubt
dubival —
(kwel) doubtful, dubious, questionable
sin duba, duba yok — undoubtedly, no doubt

dubli — (zwo) dub (a film)

duda — (kwo) pipe (music — cf. “pipa”)
dudi —
(zwo) play the pipe

duel — (kwo) duel
dueli — (zwo) duel

duhi — (zwo) anguish
duha —
(kwo) anguish, misery, distress
duhaful —
(kwel) agonizing, distressing, trying

duka — (kwo) duke / duchess
— (kwo) duke
— (kwo) duchess

dukan — boutique, shop

dukti — (zwo) lead (guide or conduct), conduct (manage, carry on — cf. "kondukti")
dukti kinda bay handa — lead a child by the hand
dukti auto — drive/steer a car

baum-alee dukti a dom — alley of trees leads to the house
se mog dukti a bade sekwitura — this may lead to bad consequences
dukti leson — conduct a lesson
dukti elekti-kampania — conduct an election campaign

dulari — (zwo) coddle, pamper, fondle

dule — (kwel) tender (affectionate)
dulitaa —
(kwo) tenderness

dulha — (kwo) fiancée/bride or fiancé/bridegroom
dulho —
(kwo) fiancé/bridegroom
dulhina —
(kwo) fiancée/bride
Syn.: gamer

dumi — (zwo) think
me dumi ke… — I think that...
en-dumi — (zwo) begin to think
duma —
(kwo) thought, idea
dumishil —
(kwel) thoughtful
duming —
(kwo) thinking
dumi-shem —
(komo) thoughtfully, meditatively

dun — (kwo) hole (opening; hollow)
baum dun — tree hollow
dun-ney — (kwel) having a hole; full of holes
duni —
(zwo) hole
duner —
(kwo) puncher; holer
butondun —
(kwo) buttonhole
nosdun —
(kwo) nostril
dunbartan —
(kwo) colander
dunmuh —
(kwo) mouth of hole

duna — (kwo) dune

duran — (konekti) during
duran laste dwa yar — in the course of the last two years
duran leksia — during the lecture
duran to, duranem — (taim-komo) meanwhile
duran ke —
(konekti) while

duri — (zwo) last (continue, endure)
dura —
(kwo) duration

durte — (kwel) sly, cunning, wily
durtitaa —
(kwo) cunning; slyness
nodurte —
(kwel) artless, simple-hearted, ingenuous; naive
durta (durto, durtina) —
(kwo) cunning person (man, woman)

dus — (syao)  "bad, mal-, ill-"
fauha smell – dusfauha fetor, stench
trati to treat – dustrati to maltreat
dusfama-ney ill-famed
dustaim bad times
dussigna-ney (dussigne) ill-omened, sinister
pa dusfortuna by ill luck

dusha — (kwo) shower (bath)
fai dusha — take a shower

dushman — (kwo) enemy
dushman-ney, dushmanlik —
(kwel) hostile, inimical
dushmantaa —
(kwo) enmity, hostility

dushte — (kwel) malicious, spiteful
dushtitaa —
(kwo) malice, spite

dusproba — (kwo) trial, ordeal
subi dusproba — undergo an ordeal
(Origin: dus+proba)

duyfu — (zwo) cope with, manage, overcome, deal effectively
duyfu gunsa — cope with work
nu ve duyfu se — we'll cope with that
duyfu sin koysa — do without smth, manage without smth

duza — (kwo) belly, abdomen

dwa — (kwanto)  two (2)
li dwa jen — the two of them, they both
nu toki ba pa dwa jen — let the two of us have a talk

mah-dwa —
(zwo) bisect, divide into two
fa-dwa —
(zwo) become double; bifurcate
un (de) dwafen — one half
dwaple — (kwel) double, dual; twofold
dwaplem —
(komo) doubly
dwaplem santush — doubly glad
dwapla — (kwo) double (twice the number, amount, etc.)
dwashi — twenty
dwasto — two hundred
dwa-ney — second
dwa-nem — secondly
dwanik —
(kwo) (smb's) double
dwaka —
(kwo) two
Skribi dwaka. — Write the figure two.

dwadi — (kwo) Tuesday

dwapunta — (kwo) colon (punctuation mark)

dwar — (kwo) door
klefi dwar — lock the door
bakdwar — (kwo) back door
dwaryuan —
(kwo) doorkeeper, doorman

e — (unisi)  and
Me pri rasmi e gani. —
I like to draw and sing.
Me pri rasmi e lu pri gani. — I like to draw, and he likes to sing.
See also: i

edikta — (kwo) edict, decree, ukase

editi — (zwo) publish (a book, a paper), print (cf. “redakti”)
edita — (kwo) edition
un-ney edita — the first edition

eduki — (zwo) bring up, educate, breed
hao eduki-ney — well-bred, well-mannered, well brought up
eduka — (kwo) upbringing

efekta — (kwo) effect
efektive —
(kwel) efficacious, effective
efektivitaa —
(kwo) effectiveness, efficacy, efficaciousness

eforti — (zwo) make/exert effort
— (kwo) effort

egale — (kwel) equal
es egale a me — it's all the same to me, it doesn't matter to me
egale geim — draw (game)
egalem — (komo)  equally
egalitaa —
(kwo) equality
egalisi —
(zwo) equalize
egalsenta-ney —
(kwel) indifferent, not caring

ego — (kwo) ego
egoisma —
(kwo) egoism
egoista —
(kwo) egoist
egoistike —
(kwo) egoistic

eho — (kwo) echo

ejekti — (zwo) eject
ejekta — (kwo) ejection

ek- — (syao)  "one time or suddenly" (single or momentary action)
tuki "to knock" — ek-tuki "to give a knock"
salti "to jump" — ek-salti "to jump up"

ekinoxa — (kwo) equinox
oton-ekinoxa — autumnal equinox
vesna-ekinoxa — vernal equinox

ekipi — (zwo) equip
ekipa —
(kwo) equipment
ekiping —
(kwo) equipping

eklipsa — (kwo) eclipse

ekonomi — (zwo) economize
ekonoming —
(kwo) economizing, economization
ekonoma —
(kwo) economy (sparing use or example/result of it)
ekonoma-ney — (kwel) economical (prudent; intended to save money), economy (economical or inexpensive to buy or use)
Syn.: spari
Ant.: disipi

ekonomia — (kwo) economics; economy (management; system of production)
ekonomike —
(kwel) economic
ekonomista —
(kwo) economist

ekran — (kwo) screen (viewing area) (cf. "shirma")

eksiti — (zwo) excite (arouse, incite, rouse, provoke)
eksita —
(kwo) excitation

ekwator — (kwo) equator

ela — (inplas-kwo) she, her
Ela es jamile. — She is handsome.
Lu lubi ela. — He loves her.
Lu doni flor a ela. — He gives flowers to her.
ela-ney, elay — (inplas-kwel) her
Lu pri elay smaila. — He likes her smile.

elabori — (zwo) elaborate (work out with care and detail)
elabora —
(kwo) elaboration

Elada — (kwo) Greece

elastike — (kwel) elastic
See also: upruge

elefanta — (kwo) elefant
elefanto —
(kwo) male elefant
elefantina —
(kwo) female elefant

elegante — (kwel) elegant
elegansia —
(komo) elegance

elekti — (zwo) elect, select by vote
elekta —
(kwo) election

elektre — (kwel) electric, electrical
May be shortened to el-:
el-ketla — electric kettle
elektritaa — (kwo) electricity
elektrisi —
(zwo) electrify
elektriser —
(kwo) electrizer
elektrifi —
(zwo) electrify (intr.), become electric
elektrisa/elektrifa —
(kwo) electrization

elektronika — (kwo) electronics
elektronike —
(kwel) electronic

elementa — (kwo) element
elementare —
(kwel) elementary

elin — (kwel, kwo) Greek (relating to ethnicity, language or country); Greek (person of Greek ethnicity); the Greek language

elita — (kwo) elite
elita-ney — (kwel) elite

elixir — (kwo) elixir

eludi — (zwo) elude, evade
eludive —
(kwel) elusive
eluda —
(kwo) evasion, elusion
See also: eviti

embrasi — (zwo) embrace, hug
embrasa —
(kwo) embrace, hug

embrio — (kwo) embryo

emerji — (zwo) emerge (from a liquid); (fig.) rise into view
emerja —
(kwo) emersion, emergence

emfasi — (zwo) emphasize, stress, single out as important
emfasa —
(kwo) emphasis
See also: aksenti

eminente — (kwel) eminent, distinguished, notable

emisi — (zwo) emit
emisa —
(kwo) emission

emosion — (kwo) emotion

emploi — (zwo) employ (give work/job)
emploier —
(kwo) employer
emploiyuan (
or simply yuan) — (kwo) employee
emploisa —
(kwo) employment
noemploisa —
(kwo) unemployment

en- — (syao)  "begin" (beginning of action)
somni "to sleep" — en-somni "to fall asleep"
lubi "to love" — en-lubi "to fall in love"
jan "to know" — en-jan "to get to know, find out"
(cf. "ek-")

energetika — (kwo) energetics

energia — (kwo) energy
energike —
(kwel) energetic, energy

eni — (inplas-kwel) any
Eni kinda mog zwo se. — Any child can do this.
in eni kasu (enikas) — in any case
enikomo —  (inplas-komo) in any way, anyhow
Yu mog zwo se kom yu yao.
Yu mog zwo se enikomo. — You may do it as you like. You may do it in any way.
Yu mus zwo se enikomo. — You must do it anyhow.

enilok —
(inplas-komo) anywhere, at any place
Me bu remembi a wo me he pon may kalam.
It mog bi enilok. — I don't remember where I've put my pencil. It may be anywhere.
Yu mog pon yur bao a enilok. — You may put your bag wherever you like.
enisa —
(inplas-kwo) anything
Yu mog kuki enisa ke yu yao. — You can cook whatever you like.

enitaim —
(inplas-komo) anytime
Yu mog lai enitaim.
Me sempre joi al vidi yu. — You may come anytime. I am always glad to see you.
enives — (taim-komo) ever (at any time)
Ob yu enives lekti sey kitaba? — Have you ever read this book?
eniwan — (inplas-kwo) anyone
Kada jen yao bi felise.
Kwesti ba eniwan. — Every person wants to be happy. Ask anyone.

enoi — (zwo) be bored, feel dull, have a tedious time (cf. “tedi”)
enoisa —
(kwo) boredom, ennui
enoisaful —
(kwel) boring, dull

ensiklopedia — (kwo) encyclopedia
— (kwel) encyclopedic

envi — (zwo) envy
envi koywan — to envy smb
enva — (kwo) envy
envishil —
(kwel) envious
envival —
(kwel) enviable

episoda — (kwo) episode
episodike —
(kwel) episodic; occasional

epoka — (kwo) epoch
Mide Epoka — Middle Ages

era — (kwo) era

ergo — (unisi)  consequently
See also: also

ermina — (kwo) ermine

erupti — (zwo) erupt
erupta —
(kwo) eruption
erupta de vulkan — the eruption of a volcano

es — (zwo) is, are, am (the present tense of "bi")
Ela es jamile. —
She is handsome.
(Se) es kitaba. —
This is a book.
Se es yo zwo-ney. — This is already done.

esensia — (kwo) essence (phys. and metaphys.)
esensiale —
(kwel) essential (showing essence; of high importance; also biochem.)

eskadra — (kwo) squadron

eskapi — (zwo) escape
eskapa —
(kwo) escape

eskorta — (kwo) escort
— (zwo) escort

Espania — (kwo) Spain
Espania-jen —
(kwo) inhabitant/citizen of Spain

espaniol — (kwel, kwo) Spanish (relating to ethnicity, language or country); Spanish (person of Spanish ethnicity); Spanish language

esperanto — (kwo) Esperanto
esperanto(-ney) —
(kwel) Esperantist (of, relating to, or characteristic of Esperanto)
esperantista —
(kwo) Esperantist (speaker of/specialist in Esperanto)

esta — (kwo) east
esta(-ney) —
(kwel) east, eastern; oriental
esta feng — east wind
esten — (konekti-komo) to the east, east of
urba es esten — the town is to the east
esten urba ye shulin — forest is east of the town

establi — (zwo) establish (set up, bring into force, settle)
Syn.: fundi

estriba — (kwo) stirrup
Syn.: raidi-pedika

etaja — (kwo) storey
uuparetaja — upper floor
char-etaja-ney dom — four-storey house

eter — (kwo) ether

eterne — (kwel) eternal, everlasting

etiket — (kwo) etiquette

etna — (kwo) ethnic group
etnike —
(kwel) ethnic

eureka — (exklami) eureka

euro — (kwo) euro
tri euro petshi sentu — three euros fifty cents

Europa — (kwo) Europe
Europa(-ney) —
(kwel) European
europajen —
(kwo) European (person living or originating from Europe)

evalu — (zwo) evaluate, estimate
evalusa —
(kwo) evaluation, estimate

eventi — (zwo) happen, occur, take place
Kwo eventi? — What's happened?
Kwo eventi-te a lu? — What has happened to him?
— (kwo) event, occurrence

eversi — (zwo) evert, turn inside out
eversa —
(kwo) evertion

evidente — (kwel) evident, obvious
evidentem —
(komo)  evidently
evidentisi —
(zwo)  show with obviousness, be eloquent of

eviti — (zwo) avoid
evita —
(kwo) avoiding, avoidance
evitival —
(kwel) which is better to avoid
buevitibile —
(kwel) unavoidable, inevitable
buevitibilitaa —
(kwo) inevitability

evolusion — (kwo) evolution
evolusioni —
(zwo) evolve

ewalaa — (unisi)  (coordinating conjunction introducing new, often little expected circumstances)
Ta en-chi ewalaa tro mucho pepa ye. — As he began to eat, he felt that there is too much pepper added.
Me zin shop ewalaa may amiga zai kupi pan. — When I entered the shop, I saw that my friend was buying bread.
Pa un dey saja zai prei, ewalaa orla pasi, mah-lwo maus inu saja-ney handas. Saja ofni okos, ewalaa ye maus in handas. —
One day when the sage was praying, an eagle happened to pass by and the eagle dropped a mouse in the hands of the sage. The sage opened his eyes, and there was a mouse in his hands.
(Origin: e+walaa)

ex- — (syao)  "former"
ex-mursha — ex-husband
ex-molya — ex-wife
ex-presidenta — ex-president

exakte — (kwel) exact, precise
exaktem —
(komo)  exactly, precisely
exaktitaa —
(kwo) exactness, precision, accuracy

examen — (kwo) exam, examination (test)
fai examen — take/have an examination
exameni — (zwo) examine (determine the qualifications by means of questions or exercises)
examener — (kwo) examiner

examini — (zwo) examine (inspect, scrutinize, study, check the condition or health of)
examina —
(kwo) examination (cf. “examen”)

exampla — (kwo) example
fo exampla — for example

exepte — (konekti) except
oli exepte me — everyone except me
exepti — (zwo) except (specify as being an exception)
exepta —
(kwo) exeption
fai exepta = exepti

exes — (kwo) excess
pa exes — to excess
— (kwel) excess

exili — (zwo) exile, banish
exila —
(kwo) exile, banishment

existi — (zwo) exist
exista —
(kwo) existence
(zwo) arise, start to exist, spring up
en-exista —
(kwo) coming into existence

exklami — (zwo) exclaim
exklama —
(kwo) exclamation
exklami-signa —
(kwo) exclamation mark

exklusi — (zwo) exclude
exklusa —
(kwo) exclusion
exklusive —
(kwel) exclusive

exosti — (zwo) exhaust
exosta —
(kwo) exhaustion
Ant.: restori

exotika — (kwo) exotics, exotica
exotike — (kwel) exotic

expansi — (zwo) expand (to develop in volume or surface, spread, widen, also fig.)
Al fa-warme, aira expansi e fa-leve.— When air warms it expands and becomes lighter.
Nuy komersa kun Jungwo expansi stay. — Our trade with China is steadily expanding.

expansa —
(kwo) expansion
expansive —
(kwel) expansive
Ant.: simti

expekti — (zwo) expect
me bu he expekti vidi yu — I did not expect to see you
expekta — (kwo) expectation
sobre expekta — beyond expectation

experimenta — (kwo) experiment
experimentale —
(kwel) experimental
experimenti —
(zwo) experiment

experta — (kwo) expert
experta-ney (experte) —
(kwel) expert

expiri — (zwo) expire (to come to an end (of time), terminate)
expira —
(kwo) expiration (coming to a close, termination)

expliki — (zwo) explain, explicate
explika —
(kwo) explanation, explication

explori — (zwo) explore; reconnoiter, scout
explora —
(kwo) exploration; reconnaissance
explorer —
(kwo) explorer; scout

explosi — (zwo) explode, detonate
explosa —
(kwo) esplosion
explosive —
(kwel) explosive
explosika —
(kwo) explosives

exploti — (zwo) exploit (to get the value out of; to employ to the greatest possible advantage; to make use of selfishly or unethically)
explota —
(kwo) exploitation

exponenta — (kwo) exponent (math.)

exporti — (zwo) export
exporta —
(kwo) export, exportation
Ant.: importi

exposi — (zwo) expose (to subject or allow to be subjected; to set in public view, introduce to, exhibit)
exposi a riska — expose to risk

exposa —
(kwo) exposition (act or example of exposing; a public exhibition or show, as of artistic or industrial developments)

expres — (kwo) express (smth quick, e.g. a means of transport, such as a train, that travels rapidly)
expres-kursa — an express course

expresi — (zwo) express (convey meaning)
expresa —
(kwo) expression

extas — (kwo) ecstasy, rapture

extendi — (zwo) extend, spread, stretch (cf. “stiri”)
lu extendi-te gambas — he stretched out his legs
extendi nayu on pan — spread bread with butter
extendi tel inter dwa stolba — stretch the wire between two posts
extenda — (kwo) extension, spread

externe — (kwel) external
Syn.: ausen-ney
Ant.: interne

extirpi — (zwo) extirpate, uproot; destroy wholly, eradicate, weed out

extrakti — (zwo) extract, draw from/out
extrakta —
(kwo) extract

extreme — (kwel) extreme, extremal
extremem —
(komo) extremely

fa — (syao-gramatika)  1) "to get, to become"
tume "dark" — fa-tume "grow/get dark, darken"
"red" — fa-rude "redden"
"big" — fa-gran "get bigger, enlarge"
fa-nocha — the night is coming
fa-dey — it dawns
 2) optional marker of intransitivity
astoni "to astonish" — fa-astoni "to be (become) astonished"

fabrika — (kwo) factory, plant, works
fabriki —
(zwo) fabricate, manufacture

fabula — (kwo) fable; fairy-tale
fabula(-ney) —
(kwel) fabulous (of the nature of a fable; unhistorical)
fabulalik —
(kwel) fabulous (incredible)

fadi — (zwo) fade
fading —
(kwo) fading

fah — (kwo) field of knowledge, province, speciality
samaji swa-ney fah — understand one's business
bu es suy fah — that is out of his province, that's not in his line

lu es master de suy fah — he is an artist/virtuoso
lernifah —
(kwo) subject (course of study)
forjifah — (kwo) blacksmithing

fai — (zwo) "to do, to perform action connected with" (only in combination with nouns or adverbs)
fai interes om koysa — to take an interest in smth
en-fai interes om koysa — to become interested in smth
defai interes om koysa — to lose interest in smth
fai kasam — to make (take) a vow
fai sukses — to succeed

fail — (kwo) file (computer)
faildan —
(kwo) folder (computer)

faine — (kwel) fine (very small in size, weight, or thickness; refined; subtle)
faine gusta — a fine taste

fakir — (kwo) fakir

fakta — (kwo) fact
fakta-ney (fakte) —
(kwel) factual, actual
fakta-nem (faktem) —
(komo)  in fact, actually
pa fakta = faktem

fali — (zwo) fail, miscarry, not to succeed
fali-ney — failed, unsuccessful
fala —
(kwo) failure; fiasco
sin fala — without fail, surely (syn.: zaruu)
pistola fai fala — pistol misfired
nofalibile — certain, definite to happen
(kwo) unlucky fellow/person

falkon — (kwo) falcon

false — (kwel) false; fake
falsitaa —
(kwo) falseness; falsity

falsifiki — (zwo) falsify, counterfeit, forge
falsifika —
(kwo) falsification, forgery, counterfeit

falta — (kwo) lack, shortage
falti —
(zwo) lack
ta falti kuraja — he/she lacks courage

fama — (kwo) fame, renown; repute
fama-ney —
(kwel) famous, renowned

familia — (kwo) family
familianam —
(kwo) family name

fan — (kwo) food
akshamfan —
(kwo) evening meal; supper
deyfan —
(kwo) midday meal; dinner
fanshop —
(kwo) food store, grocery
fantabla —
(kwo) dinner table
sabahfan —
(kwo) morning meal, breakfast

fanata — (kwo) fan; fanatic, zealot
fanatike —
(kwel) fanatical
fanatisma —
(kwo) fanatism

fantasia — (kwo) fantasy (creative imagination; imagined event, fiction)

fantastike — (kwel) fantastic
fantastika —
(kwo) fiction

fantom — (kwo) phantom (ghost, apparition; illusion)
fantom-ney tunga — phantom pain

fanus — (kwo) lantern, light
el-fanus — electric torch
fanusyuan — (kwo) lamplighter

fara — (kwo) headlight

farad — (kwo) farad

farfari — (zwo) snort, sniff

farina — (kwo) flour

farka — (kwo) difference
gro-farka — great or obvious difference, contrast
farka-ney (farke) — (kwel) different
farka-nem (farkem) —
(komo) differently
farki —
(zwo) differ

farmak — (kwo) medicine, medicament, drug, pharmaceutical preparation
farmakguan —
(kwo) pharmacy, drugstore
farmakista, farmakyuan —
(kwo) pharmacist

farna — (kwo) fern

farwa — (kwo) fur
farwaklaida — fur clothes
farwapalto — fur coat

fas — (kwo) face

fasa — (kwo) phase

fasada — (kwo) facade, front

faseta — (kwo) facet

fasia — (kwo) 1) sheaf, bundle
luma-fasia — shaft of light
ray-fasia — sheaf of rays
kula-fasia — cone of bullets
2) fascia (connective tissue)

fasile — (kwel) easy, taking little effort
bu es mushkile, es ga fasile — it is not difficult, it is quite easy
fasilem — (komo)  easily
fasilitaa —
(kwo) easiness
mah-fasile —
(zwo) facilitate, make easy or easier

fasol — (kwo) haricot (plant or its bean)

fata — (kwo) fate, doom (cf. “kisma”, one’s lot, destiny)

fatale — (kwel) fatal

fatigi — (zwo) get tired; make weary
fatiga —
(kwo) tiredness, weariness, fatigue
fatiga-ney (fatige) —
(kwel) weary, tired
fatigi-ney (fatigen) —
(kwel) tired, fatigued
fatigi-she —
(kwel) tiresome
sinfatiga-ney (sinfatige) —
(kwel) tireless, indefatigable

fauha — (kwo) smell, odour
fauhi —
(zwo) smell (to have a smell; to sense a smell)
, fauhisens — (kwo) sense of smell
(kwo) fetor, stench, stink
dusfauhi —
(zwo) stink, reek

faula — (kwo) bird
yunfaula —
(kwo) baby bird

favor — (kwo) favour (an approving attitude, good will; an act performed out of good will, generosity, or mercy)
pregi koywan om favor — ask someone for a favour

favori —
(zwo) favour (treat or regard with kindness, befriend)
— (kwel) favourable

favorite — (kwel) favourite
favorita —
(kwo)  favourite

fax — (kwo) fax
faxi (fai fax) —
(zwo) fax

feble — (kwel) weak, feeble
feblem —
(komo)  weakly
mah-feble (feblisi) —
(zwo) weaken, enfeeble, make weaker
fa-feble (feblifi) —
(zwo) weaken, become weaker
febli —
(zwo) weaken (tr./intr.)
feblitaa —
(kwo) weakness

febra — (kwo) fever
febra-ney —
(kwel) feverish, febrile

februar — (kwo) February (also mes-dwa)

fek — (kwo) feces, excrement
fekale —
(kwel) fecal
feki —
(zwo) defecate
feking —
(kwo) defecation
Syn.: kaka

felda — (kwo) field
felda de akting — field of action
magnetfelda — magnetic field
feldakin — glade, clearing
(cf. "agra")

felise — (kwel) happy
mah-felise —
(zwo) make happy
felisitaa —
(kwo) happiness

felta — (kwo) felt

femina — (kwo) female
femina-ney (femine) —
(kwel) female
feminasexu —
(kwo) female sex
feminum —
(kwo) feminine gender (gramm.)
feminisma —
(kwo) feminism
feminista —
(kwo) feminist

fen — (gramatika) forms fractions
un (de) trifen — one third
sem shifen — seven tenths
tri stofen — three hundredths
pet otfen — five eighths
charfen(ka) — quarter
charfen (de) ora — a quarter of an hour

fendi — (zwo) split (lengthwise), slit, cleave

feng — (kwo) wind
gro-feng —
(kwo) strong wind, gale
fengi —
(zwo) blow (about wind)
sedey fengi gro — there is a strong wind today
fenging — (kwo) air current, draught

fenomen — (kwo) phenomenon
fenomenale —
(kwel) phenomenal

fenshan — (kwo) customs, manners, morals

fenshu — (kwo)  mark, grade (assessment)

fer — (kwo) iron
ferka —
(kwo) an iron thing; piece of iron
ferdao —
(kwo) railway
(cf. “yunda”)

ferma — (kwo) farm

fermenta — (kwo) ferment (as yeast, leaven)
fermenti —
(zwo) ferment
fermenting —
(kwo) fermentation

ferose — (kwel) fierce, ferocious

festa — (kwo) holiday, celebration, festivities
festi —
(zwo) celebrate
festike —
(kwel) celebratory
festing —
(kwo) celebration
festachia —
(kwo) feast

festival — (kwo) festival

fet — (kwo) fat; grease
fet-ney —
(kwel) fat; fatty; greasy
swina-fet —
(kwo) lard
fet-baka —
(kwo) fat(ty) tail (of certain breeds of sheep)
feti — (zwo) fatten

feya — (kwo) fairy

fiasko — (kwo) fiasco, complete failure
fai fiasko — have a fiasco
Syn.: fala

fibra — (kwo) fibre, fiber

fidele — (kwel) faithful, staunch, loyal
fidelitaa —
(kwo) fidelity, loyalty, staunchness

fidi — (zwo) trust, confide in, have faith in; rely on
fidi sol a swa selfa — rely only on oneself
fida — (kwo) confidence, trust, faith
nofida —
(kwo) distrust
nofida-nem (nofidem) —
(komo) with distrust, distrustfully, mistrustfully
fidival —
(kwel) trustworthy, reliable, dependable
fidishil —
(kwel) trusting, trustful

figa — (kwo) fig (bot.)
figabaum —
(kwo) fig-tree

figura — (kwo) figure (outside form, shape of a body; appearance, representation; also geom.)
figuri —
(zwo) figure (to be pertinent or involved, appear — cf. “kalkuli, konti”)

fiktia — (kwo) fiction (imaginative creation, fabrication, invention)
fiktike — (kwel) fictitious; fake, sham

fila — (kwo) row, line; queue, file (a line of persons or things)
fai fila — stand in line (in a queue)

filma — (kwo) film (medium used to capture images; motion picture)
filmi — (zwo) film, shoot (record)
filming —
(kwo) shooting
See also: kino

filosofia — (kwo) philosophy
fai filosofia — philosophize
filosofike — (kwel) philosophical
filosofier —
(kwo) philosopher

filu — (kwo) thread

fin — 1) (kwo) end
al fin — at the end
pa fin — finally, in the end
til fin — up to the end
ob es fin? — is that all?
fin-ney — (kwel) final; finite
fin-nem —
(komo)  finally
nofin-ney —
(kwel) endless, infinite
nofintaa —
(kwo) infinity, endlessness
(zwo) end, be over; finish
olo kel fini hao es hao — all is well that ends well
finika — (kwo) ending (gram.)
(syao)  "to the end"
lekti "read" — finlekti "read to the end"
chi "eat" — finchi "eat to the end"
zwo "do" — finzwo "finish doing, complete"

final — (kwo) final (last contest), finale

finansa — (kwo) finance, finances
finansa-ney — (kwel) financial
finansi — (zwo) finance
finansing — (kwo) financing

findi — (zwo) find
findi swa —
(zwo) find oneself
ta he findi swa sole — he found himself alone
finda — (kwo) find

finga — (kwo) finger; toe; digit
bay finga nok — by fingertips
granfinga — (kwo) thumb
dikifinga —
(kwo) forefinger
midfinga —
(kwo) middle finger
halkafinga —
(kwo) ring-finger
syaofinga —
(kwo) little finger
pedafinga —
(kwo) toe
on pedafinga — on tiptoe
fingadan — (kwo) thimble

firma — (kwo) firm (business or company)

fish — (kwo) fish
fish-sup — fish soup
fishi — (zwo) fish
fisher —
(kwo) fisherman
fishing —
(kwo) fishing
fishistik —
(kwo) fishing rod
fishika —
(kwo) fishing tackle
fishala —
(kwo) fin

fisika — (kwo) physics
fisike —
(kwel) physical
fisiker —
(kwo) physicist

fiti — (zwo) fit, be of the right size; suit (to accord with — see also "godi")
palto fiti hao — the coat fits well
mah-fiti — (zwo) make fit, adjust

fitil — (kwo) wick, fuse

fixi — (zwo) fix, fasten
fixing —
(kwo) fixation
fixika —
(kwo) fastener
fixi-ney —
(kwel) fixed, fastened
fixi-nem (fixem) —
(komo) fixedly, steadfastly
kan fixem — stare

flaga — (kwo) flag
lifti (fai uupar) flaga — hoist/raise a flag
flagastanga — (kwo) flagstaff
flagakin —
(kwo) small flag, pennon, pennant, bannerette

flai — (zwo) fly
flaisa —
(kwo) flight
al flaisa — in flight, in the air, on the wing
en-flai — (zwo) fly up, take off
en-flaisa —
(kwo) take-off

flama — (kwo) flame, blaze
flama-lisan — tongues of flame
flama-ney — (kwel) fiery
flami —
(zwo) flame, blaze
flami-she —
(kwel) flaming
flaming —
(kwo) flaming, blazing
flamisi (mah-flami) —
(zwo) kindle, ignite, blaze up, produce flame
flamifi (fa-flami) —
(zwo) ignite, catch fire, burst into flames, take fire, blaze up
flamiser —
(kwo) igniter

flani — (zwo) hang around; loaf, loiter about
flaner —
(kwo) loafer

flanke — (kwel) side, flank, lateral
flanka —
(kwo) flank, side
montaflanka — mountainside
a flanka — sideways
flanken — (konekti-komo) at the flank or side (of)
es flanken — it's at the flank
es flanken dom — it's at the side of the house

flasha — (kwo) flash (blaze)
foto-flasha — photo flash
bliza-flasha — a flash of lightning
flashi — (zwo) flash, flare

flat — (kwo) flat, apartment

flecha — (kwo) arrow
arku e flechas — bow and arrows
indikiflecha — pointer index
flechadan — (kwo) quiver (container for arrows)

flesh — (kwo) flesh (the soft parts of the body; the physical being)

flexi — (zwo) bend, curve, flex
flexa —
(kwo) bending; bend; flexion
flexitura —
(kwo) bend, curve (result of bending)
flexibile —
(kwel) flexible

fliti — (zwo) whisk, flit, dart, slip (expresses a sudden quick movement)

flor — (kwo) flower
flori —
(zwo) flower, bloom, blossom
floring —
(kwo) flowering, florescence, blossoming, blooming
flordan —
(kwo) flowerpot

flora — (kwo) flora

flot — (kwo) fleet

floti — (zwo) float (be afloat; drift)
flotika — (kwo) float (something that floats)

flotilia — (kwo) flotilla

flui — (zwo) flow
fluisa —
(kwo) flow
hwan lif floti nich fluisa — yellow leaves floated down
flui-she — (kwel) flowing, fluent
flui-shem —
(komo) fluently

fo — (konekti) 1) for (the object, aim, or purpose)
Es fo yu. — This is for you.
Me ve lai fo vidi ela. — I shall come to see her.
fo ke — in order to (see also "dabe")
2) for (duration or a specific time)
Ob me mog pren yur kitaba fo kelke taim? —
May I take your book for some time?
Nu he aranji sey mita fo klok dwa. — We have
arranged this meeting for two o'clock.
fo manya — for tomorrow

fobi — (zwo) fear, be afraid
foba —
(kwo) fear, fright
prefoba —
(kwo) misgiving, apprehension
fobisi —
(zwo) frighten, scare, intimidate
rasfobisi — scare/frighten away
fobisa — (kwo) intimidation
en-fobi —
(zwo) take fright, get frightened
(kwel) terrible, frightful
fobisi-she —
(kwel) frightening
fobishil —
(kwel) timid, timorous
fobnik —
(kwo) coward
sinfoba-ney —
(kwel) fearless, intrepid
-fobista — -phobe

fogeti — (zwo) forget
fogeta —
(kwo) oblivion
fogetishil —
(kwel) forgetful

fok — (kwo) seal (animal — cf. “sigla”)

fon1 — (konekti) from; of (from among)
Me zai go fon teatra — I am going from the theatre.
Me he resivi se fon lu. — I have received this from him.
fon kapa til peda — from head to foot
fon sabah til aksham — from morning till evening
un fon nu — one of us

fon2 — (kwo) phone, telephone (shortening of "telefon")
Hu-ney fon zai baji? — Whose phone is ringing?

fonda — (kwo) background (but not person's experience, training, or education)

fonetika — (kwo) phonetics
fonetike — (kwel) phonetic

fonologia — (kwo) phonology
fonologike — (kwel) phonological

fontan — (kwo) fountain, jet, spout
fontani —
(zwo) fountain

for — (syao-komo) further, on (continuing an action)
fai for — continue, go on 
Treba gun for! — One should work on! 
Hao for-gunsa! — I wish you good luck on your further work.
Me bu yao resti hir, me sal go for. — I don't want to stay here, I am going to go on.
e tak for (etf) — and so on

for-ney —
(kwel) further, following
lo for — what goes further
in lo for — in what follows

fora — (kwo) furrow
See also: ruga

forji — (zwo) forge (metals)
forjer — (kwo) forger, smith
forjidom —
(kwo) smithy, forge

forma — (kwo) form, shape
formi —
(zwo) form, shape
forming —
(kwo) forming, formation (act or process)
formitura —
(kwo) formation (result)

formale — (kwel) formal

format — (kwo) format (of publication; of data)
formati — (zwo) format
formati-ney (formaten) —
(kwel) formatted

formula — (kwo) formula
formuli —
(zwo) formulate
formiling —
(kwo) formulation

forna — (kwo) stove, furnace, kiln

forsa — (kwo) force
forsi —
(zwo) force; compel
forsi-ofni dwar — force a door open
forsi-ney (forsen) — (kwel) forced
forsen smaila — strained smile

forte — (kwel) strong
mah-forte (fortisi) —
(zwo) strengthen, make strong or stronger
fa-forte (fortifi) —
(zwo) grow strong or stronger
fortitaa —
(kwo) strength

fortesa — (kwo) fortress

fortuna — (kwo) good fortune, good luck
pa fortuna — fortunately, luckily
fai fortuna — have luck, be in luck
Hao fortuna! — Good luck!
nofortuna — (kwo) misfortune
pa nofortuna — unfortunately, unluckily
fortuna-ney (fortune) — (kwel) fortunate, lucky
fortunnik —
(kwo) lucky one
nofortunnik —
(kwo) unlucky one, luckless

foto — (kwo) photo
foti (fai foto) —
(zwo) photograph, take a photo
foting —
(kwo) photographing
fotoaparat, fotika —
(kwo) photo camera
fotoguan —
(kwo) photographer's (studio)

foxa — (kwo) fox
yunfoxa —
(kwo) fox cub

fragile — (kwel) fragile, frail

fragmenta — (kwo) fragment

frai — (zwo) fry
fraier —
(kwo) fryer; frying pan

frak — (kwo) (evening) dress coat, swallow-tailed coat

frama — (kwo) frame (framework as of a machine, as of a picture; context)
in frama de koysa — within the framework of smth
windaframa — (kwo) window-frame

franja — (kwo) fringe (decorative border)

franke — (kwel) frank (open in expression, straightforward; manifest)

franko — (kwo) franc (unit of currency)

Frans — (kwo) France
Frans-jen — inhabitant/citizen of France

franse — (kwel, kwo) French (relating to ethnicity, language or country); French (person of French ethnicity); French language

frasa — (kwo) phrase; clause, sentence (gramm.)

fraula — (kwo) strawberry

frekwensa — (kwo) frequency
banda de frekwensa — frequency band

frenta — (kwo) forehead
frentahar —
(kwo) fringe (part of the hair that hangs down over the forehead)

freshe — (kwel) fresh
freshenesa —
(kwo) freshness
rifreshisi (rimah-freshe) —
(zwo) refresh, freshen up

frikasee — (kwo) fricassee

frikti — (zwo) undergo friction
frikta —
(kwo) friction
(cf. "froti")

frima — (kwo) hoar-frost, rime

frisi — (zwo) dress the hair
friser —
(kwo) hairdresser, barber, coiffeur
frisiguan —
(kwo) hairdressing saloon, barber's (shop), hairdresser's

frivole — (kwel) frivolous, light-headed

fronta — (kwo) front (battlefront; field of activity; group or movement — cf. "avana", "frenta")

frosta — (kwo) frost (intensely cold weather)
frosta-ney (froste) —
(kwel) frosty (cold, chilly)
frosti —
(zwo) freeze
sedey frosti — it is freezing today
frosti-ney (frosten) — (kwel) frozen
Me sta frosten. — I am freezing.
defrosti — (zwo) defrost, unfreeze
froster —
(kwo) freezer

froti — (zwo) rub
froti okos — rub one's eyes
froti handas — rub one's hands

— (kwo) rubbing, rub
(cf. "frikti")

fruni — (zwo) frown (wrinkle the brow, as in thought or displeasure); wrinkle (the brow)
ta zai fruni — he is frowning
fruni brovas — to knit one's brows
Ant.: smaili

fruta — (kwo) fruit
fruti —
(zwo) fruit, bear fruit
fruting —
(kwo) fructification (process of producing fruit)
fruti-she —
(kwel) fruit-bearing, fructiferous; fruitful
frutishil —
(kwel) fecund

fugi — (zwo) flee, run away
fuga — (kwo) flight, escape
fuger —
(kwo) fugitive, runaway

fujur — (kwo) depravity
fai fujur — indulge in debauch(ery), lead a depraved/loose/dissolute life

fuki — (zwo) blow (produce an air current)
fuka — (kwo) waft, whiff, puff, breath
fukiflor — (kwo) dandelion

fule — (kwel) full
fulitaa —
(kwo) fullness, plenitude
fulem —
(komo)  fully
fulifi (fa-fule) —
(zwo) become filled
fulisi (mah-fule) —
(zwo) fill
fuli —
(zwo) fill (tr./intr.)

fulfil — (zwo) fulfill (carry out, bring to completion, satisfy), come true
hay may yaosa fulfil! — may my wish come true!
fulfilsa — (kwo) fulfillment

fum — (kwo) smoke
fumi —
(zwo) smoke
fuming —
(kwo) smoking
fumilok —
(kwo) smoking-room
fumtuba —
(kwo) chimney

fundamenta — (kwo) foundation (that on which anything rests; groundwork, underpinnings; (fig.) basis, ground)
fundamentale — (kwel) fundamental

fundi — (zwo) found (establish, base)
funda, funding —
(kwo) foundation, establishing (cf. "fundamenta")

fundu — (kwo) fund, foundation

funduk — (kwo) hazelnut

funga — (kwo) mushroom

funksion — (kwo) function
funksioni —
(zwo) function
funksioning —
(kwo) functioning

fupi — (kwo) bran

furaja — (kwo) forage, fodder

furgon — (kwo) van, wagon

furia — (kwo) fury, rage, frenzy
sta pa furia — be furious
furia-ney — (kwel) furious, frantic, frenetic
furisi —
(zwo) infuriate, enrage

furka — (kwo) fork
senufurka — pitchfork
daofurka — road fork

furmi — (kwo) ant
furmidom —
(kwo) anthill

furni — (zwo) furnish, supply
furna, furning —
(kwo) supply, furnishing

fusi — (zwo) melt, fuse, smelt
fusi-nayu — melted butter
fusa, fusing — (kwo) melting, fusion
fusika —
(kwo) fuse (electric safety device)

fut — (kwo) foot (unit of measure)

futbol — (kwo) football
futbol pleier, futbolista —
(kwo) football-player

futur — (kwo) future
in futur — in future
futur(-ney) — (kwel) future

fuy — (exklami, syao) fie (disgust, repugnance)
fuy-jen, fuynik — a nasty person
fuyka — ugly thing

ga — (komo)  quite, entirely, completely
ga hao — quite good
ga fogeti — quite forget

Yu es ga gande! — You are completely dirty!
German (ganz, gar)

gadari — (zwo) betray, give away
gadara —
(kwo) betrayal, treason
gadarnik —
(kwo) betrayer, traitor
gadara-ney (gadare), gadaralik —
(kwel) treacherous, perfidious, traitorous

gadle — (kwel) turbid, muddy (not bright or pure, not clear, cloudy; lacking luster, dull)
gadle akwa — turbid water
fa-gadle — (zwo) grow turbid/dull

gaf — (kwo) gaffe, lapse
fai gaf — to make a gaffe

gai — (sta)  (one) should, (one) ought, supposed to; befit, become
Gai bi honeste. — One should be honest.
Yu bu gai lanfai. — You should not be lazy.
Sempre gai zwo olo tak kom gai. — One should always do everything as needed.
Gai sempre tayari leson bifoo skola. — One should always prepare one's lesson before the classes.
gai-ke — (kwel) proper, due, appropriate
gai-ke — (kwel) improper, inappropriate
nogaitaa — (kwo) outrage, disgraceful goings-on
Es nogaitaa! — It's simply a disgrace / a scandal!

galga — (kwo) gallows, gibbet
Syn.: pendi-kilika

galopi — (zwo) gallop
galopa —
(kwo) gallop

galsa — (kwo) neck
galsahar —
(kwo) mane
galsatasma —
(kwo) collar (band around an animal’s neck — cf. “kolar”)

galta — (kwo) error, mistake
galti —
(zwo) err, be wrong, make a mistake
galta-ney (galte) —
(kwel) erroneous, mistaken

gamande — (kwel) haughty, supercilious; conceited
gamanditaa —
(kwo) haughtiness, superciliousness; conceit

gamba — (kwo) leg
stula gamba — chair's leg

gambir — (kwo) serious
Syn.: seriose

gami — (zwo) marry (intr./tr.)
gamifi — (zwo) marry (intr.)
gamer, gamifer — (kwo) fiance/fiancee (also dulho, dulhina)
gaming —
(kwo) marriage (wedding)
gamifesta — (kwo) wedding
gamisi —
(zwo) marry (tr.)
gami-ney — (kwel) married
gama, gam
itura — (kwo) wedlock, marriage (the state of being married)
gamijen — (kwo) spouse, wife/husband
gamiman —
(kwo) male spouse, husband (also mursha)
gamigina —
(kwo) female spouse, wife (also molya)
bugamnik —
(kwo) bachelor
ausengama-ney —
(kwel) extramarital

gamusa — (kwo) chamois, suede, shammy

gana — (kwo) song
statagana — national anthem
gani —
(zwo) sing
gani-ki —
(zwo) hum; sing quietly
ganer —
(kwo) singer

gande — (kwel) dirty, impure; indecent, nasty
mah-gande (gandisi) —
(zwo) dirty, soil; pollute
fa-gande (gandifi) —
(zwo) get/become dirty
gandi —
(zwo) make/become dirty
ganditaa —
(kwo) impurity, filth, dirt
gandenik —
(kwo) slovenly/untidy person

gansa — (kwo) goose
gin-gansa (gansina) —
(kwo) female goose
man-gansa (ganso) —
(kwo) gander, male goose
yungansa —
(kwo) gosling
gansamasu —
(kwo) goose meat
See also: hansa

ganta — (kwo) glove
piga ganta — leather gloves
dwa para ganta — two pairs of gloves

gao — (kwel, komo) high
mah-gao —
(zwo) make high, raise higher, elevate
fa-gao —
(zwo) become higher, heighten
gaotaa —
(kwo) height
gaoley —
(kwel) higher (advanced in complexity or elaboration; of education beyond the secondary level)
gaoley talim — higher education


gap — (kwo) gap
gapi —
(zwo) gape (open wide — cf. "guapi")

garabel — (kwo) sparrow
Sambahsa, Albanian

garaja — (kwo) garage (place to store a car)

garantia — (kwo) guarantee (anything that assures a certain outcome; a written declaration)
pet-yar-ney garantia — a 5-year guarantee

garanti —
(zwo) guarantee
garanter —
(kwo) guarantor

garbar — (kwo) turmoil, bustle, fuss

garden — (kwo) garden
kindagarden —
(kwo) kindergarten
legumgarden —
(kwo) kitchen garden
zoo-garden —
(kwo) zoological garden

gardi — (zwo) guard, safeguard
garda —
(kwo) guarding, safeguarding
gardiyuan —
(kwo) guard (a person who guards)
gardika — (kwo) guard(s)

gargari — (zwo) gargle

gari — (kwo) carriage, cart, wagon, chariot
bebi gari — baby carriage
garijen — (kwo) coachman

garibe — (kwel) alien, extraneous, foreign
gariba —
(kwo) alien, stranger

garja — (kwo) thunderstorm

garma — (kwo) heat
garma-ney (garme) —
(kwel) hot
es garme — it is hot
me sta garme — I am hot
garmitaa — (kwo) hotness
garmi —
(zwo) heat up (intr./tr.)
garmifi (fa-garme) —
(zwo) become hot
garmisi (mah-garme) —
(zwo) heat up
garming —
(kwo) heating
garmiser —
(kwo) heater (device)

garoba — (kwo) carob
garoba-baum — carob tree

garson — (kwo) waiter

garwe — (kwel) proud
garwi, garwefai —
(zwo) be proud, take pride
garwi por koysa — be proud of smth
garwitaa — (kwo) pride

gas — (kwo) gas
gas(-ney) —
(kwel) gas
gasisi —
(zwo) gasify; aerate
gasisa —
(kwo) gasification; aeration
gasyuan —
(kwo) gasman
gaspiwat, gaska —
(kwo) fizzy drink

gasela — (kwo) gazelle

gaseta — (kwo) newspaper

gason — (kwo) lawn, grassplot

gasta — (kwo) guest
gasti —
(zwo) be a guest, be on a visit, stay
gasti she amiga — stay at a friend's
gastaguan — (kwo) hotel, guesthouse
gastashamba —
(kwo) drawing room, sitting room, living room

gata — (kwo) street
fai gata — be outdoors; stroll
— (kwo) bystreet

gaurawe — (kwel) considerable, substantial; influential, imposing

gavahi — (zwo) witness, testify
gavaha —
(kwo) testimony, witness
(kwo) witness, eyewitness
oko-gavaher —
(kwo) eyewitness

gayar — (kwo) lad, guy, fellow, chap, bloke

gaza — (kwo) gauze (thin fabric)

ge — 1) (kwo) piece (single item)
pet dolar per ge — five dollars apiece
2) (gramatika) optional marker of the singular
auto-ge — one car
jen-ge — one person

geda — (kwo) spike (fish)

gei — (gramatika)  marks "passive of becoming"
gunsa gei zwo — the work is being done
kitaba gei lekti — this book is being read

geim — (kwo) game (a kind of game; a stage of game — cf. “pleisa”)
video-geim — (kwo) video game
worda-geim —
(kwo) word game
hima (saif) geimes —
(kwo) winter (summer) games

geit — (kwo) gate

gela — (kwo) girl
See also: yungina

gemi — (zwo) groan, moan
gema —
(kwo) groan, moan

gen — (kwo) gene

general — (kwo) general (commander)

generale — (kwel) general (not particular — cf. «sarwe»)
generalem —
(komo)  in general
generalisi —
(zwo) generalize
generalisa —
(kwo) generalization

generasion — (kwo) generation (people of same period)

generati — (zwo) generate (bring into existence; engender, procreate; produce)
generati elektritaa — to generate electricity

generative —
(kwel) generative
generata —
(kwo) generation (act or process of generating; origination, production, or procreation)

genetika — (kwo) genetics
genetike —
(kwel) genetical

genia — (kwo) genius
geniale — (kwel) of genius, ingenious, genial
genialem — (komo) ingeniously, genially
genialitaa — (kwo) ingeniousness, ingenuity
genialnik — (kwo) genius (about a person)

genra — (kwo) genus, genre

genta — (kwo) clan, ethnic group, family, kin, stock

genu — (kwo) knee
genu jor — knee joint
genukapak — kneecap, patella
genui — (kwo) kneel
lwo-genui — fall to one's knees

geografia — (kwo) geography
geografier —
(kwo) geographer

gerania — (kwo) geranium

gerbila — (kwo) gerbil

gesi — (zwo) guess
gesa —
(kwo) guess
gesing —
(kwo) guessing

geti — (zwo) get (to somewhere, into smth); fall (into a situation)
geti a dom — get home
geti inu kaptika — fall into a trap
geti aus koylok — get out of somewhere

gida — (kwo) guide (person or thing)
gidi —
(zwo) guide (serve as a guide; exert control or influence over)
gei gidi bay koysa — to be guided by smth

giganta — (kwo) giant
giganta-ney (gigante) — (kwel) giant

gimnastika — (kwo) gymnastics
gimnastike —
(kwel) gymnastic

gin- — (syao)  "feminine"
gin-studenta — female student
ΰ — bitch

gina — (kwo) woman (also ginjen)
ginalik —
(kwel) womanly
ginaliknesa —
(kwo) womanliness
ko-gina —
(kwo) female companion; wife
ginnik —
(kwo) womanizer

girlanda — (kwo) garland

gitara — (kwo) guitar

gladi — (zwo) stroke (move the hand over the surface of smth in one direction)

glan — (zwo) be glossy, shine
glan-she —
(kwel) glossy, shiny, sleek
glansa —
(kwo) gloss, shine, lustre
mah-glan —
(zwo) gloss, give a gloss or sheen to

glas — (kwo) glass (substance)
glas(-ney) —
(kwel) glass, of glass
glas bartan — glass utensil
glaslik — (kwel) glassy
glaska —
(kwo) smth made of glass; jar
jemglaska — jam-jar

glasa — (kwo) glass (vessel)
glasakin —
(kwo) small drinking glass

glate — (kwel) smooth (not rough)
fa-glate (glatifi) —
(zwo) become smooth
mah-glate (glatisi) —
(zwo) smooth
Ant.: karke

glidi — (zwo) slide, glide
gliding —
(kwo) sliding, slip
(kwel) slippery, sliding

glimi — (zwo) glimmer (emit or reflect a dim, intermittent light)
stara glimi — stars glimmer

glina — (kwo) argil; clay

globa — (kwo) globe
globale —
(kwel) global
(cf. “globus”)

globus — (kwo) globe (a spherical model of Earth or any planet)

glodi — (zwo) gnaw

glok — (kwo) bell
gloki —
(zwo) ring a bell, toll

gloria — (kwo) glory
gloria-ney —
(kwel) glorious
glorisi —
(zwo) glorify
glorisa —
(zwo) glorification

gloti — (zwo) swallow
glota —
(kwo) a swallow
(kwo) swallowing
misgloti —
(zwo) choke (with)

glu — (kwo) glue
glui —
(zwo) glue
gluing —
(kwo) gluing
See also: lipi

glube — (kwel) deep, profound
glubitaa —
(kwo) depth
fa-glube (glubifi) —
(zwo) become deeper
mah-glube (glubisi) —
(zwo) deepen, make deep or deeper
glubefai in akwa — to be deep in water, to draw much water
Ant.: chyen

gluhe — (kwel) deaf; dull, muffled, toneless
gluhitaa —
(kwo) deafness
gluhe-mute —
(kwel) deaf-mute
gluhisi-she —
(kwel) deafening

glume — (kwel) gloomy, sulky, sullen, morose

go — (zwo) go (move; leave; proceed)
go a leker — go to the doctor
dela go hao — the thing goes good
go-she — (kwel) current
go-she wik — the current week
go-she dela — the current affairs
going — (kwo) going; course (onward movement, progress)
going de eventas — the course of events

godi — (zwo) serve (to be convenient or favourable), suit (answer a purpose, be of use)
It godi fo kwo? — What does it serve for?
godi-she — (kwel) suitable, good
godinesa —
(kwo) suitability, aptitude

gol — (kwo) goal (point scored)
gol-geit — (kwo) goal (zone)
gol-geityuan — (kwo) goalkeeper

gola — (kwo) aim, goal, end, purpose, target
goli —
(zwo) aim
goli banduk an koysa – to aim the gun at smth
fai gola an koysa – take aim at smth

golda — (kwo) gold
golda(-ney) —
(kwel) gold, golden
goldika —
(kwo) smth gold
goldisi —
(zwo) gild

golfa — (kwo) golf

gonga — (kwo) gong

goni — (zwo) drive (cause to move; chase)
goni gurta a pilok — drive a herd to the watering place
goni afte koywan — pursue / chase smb
gona — (kwo) drive, chase, pursuit
See also: persekwi

gorba — (kwo) hump, hunch (deformity of the back in humans; the fleshy structure on the back of a camel)
gorba-ney (gorbe) — (kwel) hunchbacked
gorbe jen —
(kwo) hunchback
gorbi —
(zwo) hump, hunch, stoop
gorbi-ney —
(kwel) stooping, stooped

gorila — (kwo) gorilla (ape)

gorla — (kwo) throat
gorla de botela — throat (neck) of the bottle

gosip — (kwo) gossip, scuttlebutt, tittle-tattle
fai gosip, gosipi —
(zwo) gossip, tittle-tattle, tell tales
gosiper —
(kwo) talebearer, gossiper

gova — (kwo) cow/bull
gin-gova (govina) —
(kwo) cow
man-gova (govo) —
(kwo) bull
yungova —
(kwo) heifer/calf
govamasu —
(kwo) beef
yungovamasu —
(kwo) veal

grada — (kwo) degree, extent (cf. “gradus”)
in sertene grada — to a certain extent
gaograd — (komo)  in a high degree
koygrad —
(komo)  to some degree
kwelgrad —
(komo)  to what extent
nulgrad —
(komo)  not at all, to no extent
syaograd —
(komo)  to a small extent
talgrad ke — to such an extent that

gradina — (kwo) a single stair, step, footstep; rung (step of a ladder)

graduale — (kwel) gradual
gradualem —
(komo)  gradually

gradus — (kwo) degree (a unit of measurement)
pet gradus sobre nol — five degrees above zero
dwashi gradus de frosta (garmitaa) — 20 degrees of frost (heat)

graf — (kwo) graph

grafika — (kwo) graphic
grafike —
(kwel) graphic

gram — (kwo) gram
sto gram — one hundred grams

gramatika — (kwo) grammar

gran — (kwel) big, large, great
gro-gran —
(kwel) huge, enormous
granfinga —
(kwo) thumb
grantaa —
(kwo) size, magnitude
stara do un-ney grantaa — star of the first magnitude
fa-gran (granifi) — (zwo) increase, become bigger/larger
mah-gran (granisi) —
(zwo) increase, make bigger/larger, magnify
granisa/granifa —
(kwo) increase
Ant.: syao

grandiose — (kwel) grandiose

granit — (kwo) granite

grapa — (kwo) cluster, bunch, a number of fruits or flowers growing along a common stalk
vingrapa — cluster/bunch of grapes

grasile — (kwel) gracile

graspi — (zwo) grasp (to take hold of or seize firmly; comprehend), grip
fa-graspi pa koysa — snatch at smth

graspika —
(kwo) handle (haft, knob, bail, etc.)
dwar graspika — door-handle, door-knob
Syn.: samaji

grata — (kwo) grating, grate, lattice

gratis — (komo) gratis, free of charge

gratuli — (zwo) congratulate
gratula —
(kwo) congratulation

grauli — (zwo) growl, snarl
graula —
(kwo) growl, snarl

grave — (kwel) heavy, ponderous; (fig.) weighty, momentous, grave
gravitaa —
(kwo) heaviness, gravity

gravela — (kwo) gravel

gravide — (kwel) pregnant, with child
gravida —
(kwo) a pregnant woman

graviti — (zwo) (phys. and fig.) gravitate, be attracted, tend to a center
gravita —
(kwo) gravitation
kanun de gravita — the law of gravitation

gren — (kwo) grain (seeds of crops; crops)
greninka —
(kwo) a single seed of grain
grendom —
(kwo) granary, barn

grey — (kwel) gray
grey-har-ney — grey-haired

grif — (kwo) vulture

grimasa — (kwo) grimace
grimasi, fai grimasa —
(kwo) grimace, make a grimace, contort the face, make a wry face

grin — (kwel) green
grinka —
(kwo) greenery, verdure

grip — (kwo) flu, grippe, influenza
faula-grip — bird flu

grivi — (zwo) grieve (feel sorrow or distress); mourn (om koysa — for smth)
grivi-plaki — lament, deplore
— (kwo) grief, woe, sorrow
griva-ney (grive) —
(kwel) sorrowful, mournful, sad
mah-grivi —
(zwo) grieve (make unhappy)
Ant.: joi

gro — (syao, komo, kwel) "very much, strongly" (augmentative/intensifying particle)
kitaba "a book" — gro-kitaba "a big volume, tome, folio"
hao "good, well" — gro-hao "great, excellent"
interes-ney "interesting" — gro-interes-ney "gripping, exciting"
pri "to like" — gro-pri "to adore, to like greatly"
Me lubi yu gro. — I love you deeply.
Suy luba bu es gro. — His love is not very deep.
Lu en-mediti gro. — He became lost in thoughts.

grog — (kwo) grog

grose — (kwel) thick
grositaa —
(kwo) thickness
Ant.: dine

grugru, fai grugru — (zwo) grunt, utter a grunt

grumbli — (zwo) grumble

grunta — (kwo) soil, ground

grupa — (kwo) group
grupi —
(zwo) group

gual — (kwo) coal
gual-muver —
(kwo) poker
Scottish Gaelic

guan — (kwo) institution, establishment
fanguan —
(kwo) dining rooms
frisiguan —
(kwo) hairdresser's
kitabaguan —
(kwo) library
printiguan —
(kwo) printing house

guapi — (zwo) yawn
(kwo) yawn

gubra — (kwo) dung, manure, muck
gubrajuk —
(kwo) dung-beetle

gudi — (zwo) honk, hoot, toot
See also: zumbi

guha — (kwo) cavern, cave

gukan — (kwo) chaff

gulam — (kwo) slave
gulamtaa —
(kwo) slavery

gulao — (kwel) ancient, antique

guma — (kwo) gum; rubber; eraser
chabiguma —
(kwo) chewing gum
gumabanda —
(kwo) elastic (band), rubber band

gun — (zwo) work
gunjen —
(kwo) worker
gunsa —
(kwo) work, labour
treba go a gunsa — one must go to work
guntura — (kwo) work (product of working)
gundey —
(kwo) working day, workday
guntaim —
(kwo) working time
gunpaga —
(kwo) salary, wage
gunshamba —
(kwo) study (room)

gunah — (kwo) sin
gunahi, fai gunah —
(zwo) sin

guran — (kwo) crane (bird)

gurka — (kwo) cucumber

gurta — (kwo) herd, flock, drove
gurti —
(zwo) herd, flock
See also: trupa

guru — (kwo) spiritual teacher

guruhi — (zwo) thunder
shuta ek-guruhi — a shot burst out
guruha — (kwo) thunder

gusli — (kwo) gusli
baji gusli — play gusli
guslier — (kwo) guslar

gusta — (kwo) taste
gusti —
(zwo) taste (have a taste; sample the flavour of smth orally)
— (kwel) gustatory
hao-gusta-ney —
(kwel) tasty

guta — (kwo) drop (of liquid)
guti —
(zwo) drip, fall in drops
guting —
(kwo) dripping

guverna — (kwo) government
guverni —
(zwo) govern (exercise authority over)
guverner —
(kwo) governor

guy — (kwel) expensive, costly
guytaa —
(kwo) expensiveness, costliness

gwansi — (zwo) concern (have to do with, relate to, be of importance to)
sey dela bu gwansi me — it is no concern of me
gwansi-yen — (konekti) concerning, regarding
gwansa —
(kwo) relation, connection, anything to do (with)
hev/fai nul gwansa a koysa — have no connection with smth, bear no relation to smth
bugwansa-ney (bugwanse) — (kwel) irrelevant, out of place, having nothing to do with
bugwansa-nem (bugwansem) —
(komo) malapropos, not to the point

gwer — (kwo) war
gwership — warship
gwer akta — military action
gwer e salam — war and peace
gwer-stopa, gwer-pausa — armistice, truce
gweri, fai gwer — (zwo) make/wage war
gwerjen —
(kwo) warrior
gwerlik —
(kwel) warlike

gwin — (zwo) gain, earn, win
gwin anubav — gain in experience
gwinsa — (kwo) gain; income, earnings
Syn.: akwiri

gwo — (gramatika)  "some time ago, at one time, earlier in life"
me gwo bi in Moskva — I have been to Moscow

Me gwo dansi hao wen me bin syao gela. — I danced well when I was a little girl.
Lu gwo zun sporta. — He used to go in for sports.

habar — (kwo) (piece of) news

habiti — (zwo) inhabit; dwell, live
nu habiti in toy gata — we live in that street
habita — (kwo) habitation
habitilok —
(kwo) habitation (place) (apartment is “flat”)
habitibile —
(kwel) habitable
buhabiti-ney (buhabiten) —
(kwel) uninhabited

haf — (kwo, syao) half
pa haf — by half, in half
haf-dey — (kwo) half a day
haf-ora —
(kwo) half an hour
haf-luma —
(kwo) twilight
mah-haf —
(zwo) halve

ha-ha — (exklami, kwo) ha-ha, a sound made in imitation of laughter
fai ha-ha — laugh
See also: ridi, hi-hi

haifen — (kwo) hyphen

haili — (zwo) heal, cure

haishi — (taim-komo) still, as yet, so far
Me haishi bu he zwo se. — I have not done this yet.
Lu haishi safari. — He still travels.
Me es haishi ausen urba. — I am still out of town.
(cf. "yoshi")

haki — (zwo) hew, hack, chop, cut
haki ligna — chop wood
haki bay zian — cut with a sword
hakimarka — (kwo) notch

hakmi — (zwo) try (examine by judicial process)
hakma —
(kwo) (court) trial
hakmiwat —
(kwo) defendant, the accused, prisoner at the bar

halat — (kwo) circumstance; circumstances
al tal halat — under such circumstances

halka — (kwo) ring (a circumscribing object)
aurhalka —
(kwo) earring
harhalka —
(kwo) lock, curl, ringlet
halka-ney —
(kwel) annular, ring-shaped
halkafinga —
(kwo) ring finger (finger between middle finger and little finger)
halka-dansa — (kwo) round danse
fai halka-dansa — to sing and dance in a ring

haloo (halo) — (kwo) hallo (used also over the telephone)

halwa — (kwo) halva

ham — (kwo) ham (food)

hamak — (kwo) hammock

hampi — (komo)  almost
Me jan hampi olo om to. — I know almost everything about it.
Li es hir, hampi oli. — They are here, almost everyone.

hamra — (kwo) hammer
hamri —
(zwo) hammer

hamsi — (zwo) whisper
(kwo) whisper

hamsta — (kwo) hamster

han — 1) (kwel, kwo) Chinese (relating to ethnicity, language or country)
hanjen —
(kwo) Chinese (person of Chinese ethnicity)
hanlingwa —
(kwo) Chinese language (syn.: putunhua)
2) khan
See also: Jungwo

handa — (kwo) hand
handagunsa — handwork
handi — (zwo) hand (to give or pass with the hands)

handak — (kwo) ditch, trench

Hanguk — (kwo) South Korea

hansa — (kwo) swan

hanzi — (kwo) Chinese characters, Hanzi

hao — (kwel, komo) good; well
Me sta hao. — I am OK.
Hao!— Good, OK!
Es hao. — That's good.
haotaa — (kwo) good
fo haotaa de jenley — for the welfare of mankind
lucha de haotaa e baditaa — struggle of the good and the evil
Bi hao! — 1) You are welcome! (a reply to thanking); 2) Bless you! (after smb's sneezing); 3) Good luck! (when parting)
Hao aksham! — Good evening!
Hao dey! — Good day!
Hao fortuna! — Good luck!
Hao nocha! — Good night!
Hao sabah! — Good morning!
Hao safara! — Have a good trip!

haohunten — (kwel) coherent
(Origin: hao+hunti+ney)

har — (kwo) hair, hairs (chevelure)
harinka —
(kwo) a single hair
harhalka —
(kwo) lock, curl, ringlet
frentahar —
(kwo) fringe (part of the hair that hangs down over the forehead)
galsahar —
(kwo) mane
(cf. "mao")

harem — (kwo) harem

harhari — (zwo) expectorate

harmonia — (kwo) harmony
harmoni —
(zwo) harmonize (be in agreement, be harmonious)
harmonike — (kwel) harmonious
harmonisi —
(zwo) harmonize (

hashish — (kwo) hashish

hasima — (kwo) defeat, loss
fai hasima — to be defeated

hasti — (zwo) be in a hurry
hasti-muvi — bustle, move hastily
hasta — (kwo) hurry, haste
pa hasta — hastily, in haste, hurriedly
hasta-ney (haste) — (kwel) hasty, hurried

hata — (kwo) peasant house (esp. in Ukraine and Russia)

hay!1 — (exklami)  hi!

hay2 — (gramatika)  let, may (wish; leave)
Hay Forsa bi kun yu! — May the force be with you!
Hay oni shwo to ke oni yao. — Let them say what they like.
(cf. "ba")

he — (gramatika)  past tense marker
Me he yo lekti sey kitaba. — I have already read this book.
Yu bu he audi ku? — Haven't you heard?

hek — (kwo) pick, hack

helikopta — (kwo) helicopter

helma — (kwo) helmet

helpi — (zwo) help
helpa —
(kwo) help
helpi koywan — to help smb
kun helpa de — with the help of
voki helpa — call for help
helpike — (kwel) auxiliary
helpalingwa —
(kwo) auxiliary language

hema — (kwo) blood
hema-vasa — blood vessel
hema-sosis — blood sausage, blood pudding
hema-pyasa-ney — blood-thirsty
hema-ney, hemaful — (kwel) bloody
hemi —
(zwo) bleed
heming —
(kwo) bleeding, haemorrhage

heni — (zwo) hate
hena —
(kwo) hatred
henival —
(kwel) odious

henri — (kwo) henry
sto milihenri — one hundred millihenries

hepata — (kwo) liver (organ)

herba — (kwo) grass; herb
lekiherba —
(kwo) medicinal herb(s)
herbinka —
(kwo) a blade of grass

heredi — (zwo) inherit, be the heir to; succeed (to)
heredi koysa fon koywan — inherit smth from smb
hereda — (kwo) heritage; inheritance
hereder —
(kwo) heir

hermete — (kwel) hermetic, sealed, airtight
hermetem —
(komo) hermetically
hermetisi —
(zwo) make hermetic
dehermeta —
(kwo) depressurization

hero — (kwo) hero
herolik —
(kwel) heroic
heroisma —
(kwo) heroism

hesiti — (zwo) hesitate, falter
hesita —
(kwo) hesitation

hev — (sta)  have
Me hev dwa kitaba. — I have two books.
en-hev — (zwo) come to possess
hevsa —
(kwo) possession; property, belongings

hey! — (exklami)  hey! (used to attract attention)

hi — (gramatika)  "exactly, it's...that" (emphasizes the previous word)
nau hi — right now
Den s
e hi me yao shwo. — This exactly I want to say.
Me hi zwo-te se. — It's me who did it.
Sey rasma bu es jamile. – Es jamile hi! — This drawing is not beautiful. – Yes it is!
Non hi! — No, no way!
Ya hi. — Yes, to be sure. Certainly.
Es toy hi jen. — It's that very person.
Me bu jan wen ta lai e ob ta lai hi. — I don’t know when he comes and if he comes at all.
Bu hi go! — Mind you, don't go!

hieroglif — (kwo) hieroglyph
hieroglifike —
(kwo) hieroglyphic
hieroglifike skriba — hieroglyphic writing
See also: hanzi

hi-hi, hi-hi-hi — (exklami, kwo) tee-hee
fai hi-hi —
(zwo) chuckle, giggle, titter, snigger

hili — (zwo) stagger, be unsteady, sway, reel
dushman en-hili — the enemy wavered

hima — (kwo) winter
hima geimes — the winter games

hina — (kwo) henna

hindi — (kwel, kwo) Indian (relating to Indians [of India], their language and country); Indian (person of Indian ethnicity); Hindi

hipotesa — (kwo) hypothesis

hir — (loko-komo) here
Lu es hir. — He is here.
Hir es hao. — It's good here.
Lai hir. — Come here.
Figaro hir, Figaro dar. — Figaro's here, Figaro's there
(kwel) of this place, local

hiran — (kwo) deer
yunhiran —
(kwo) young deer, fawn
gin-hiran —
(kwo) doe, female deer
man-hiran —
(kwo) buck, male deer
hiranmasu —
(kwo) venison

hisi — (zwo) hiss
hisa, hising —
(kwo) hissing

histeria — (kwo) hysteria
histerike — (kwel) hysterical

histo — (kwo) tissue (anat., biol.)

historia — (kwo) history (the aggregate of past events; science; record or narrative description)
historike —
(kwel) historic
historier —
(kwo) historian

hm — (exklami) hm, ahem

hobi — (kwo) hobby (activity that one enjoys doing in one's spare time)

hok — (kwo) hawk (predatory bird)

hokey — (kwo) hockey
hokey pleier, hokeista —
(kwo) hockey player

hole — (kwel) hollow (having an empty space or cavity inside)
holika —
(kwo) hollow
holisi —
(zwo) hollow (out)
holifi —
(zwo) become hollow
wangas holifi — the cheeks became hollow

hom — (kwo) home (habitual abode, birthplace, native land, asylum)
Syn.: dom

honeste — (kwel) honest (fair and straightforward in conduct, thought, etc., free from deceit or fraud, upright)

honor — (kwo) honour
pa honor de — in honour of
fai honor a koywan — give/pay honour to smb
honor-ney — (kwel) honorary (guard, etc.)
nohonor — (kwo) dishonour

hopak — (kwo) hopak (Ukrainian folk dance)

hor — (kwo) choir, chorus

horal — (kwo) choral

horisonta — (kwo) horizon
horisontale —
(kwel) horizontal
horisontala —
(kwo) horizontal (line)

hospital — (kwo) hospital

hosta — (kwo) host
hostina —
(kwo) hostess
hosti —
(zwo) host

hostel — (kwo) hostel (lodging house)

hotel — (kwo) hotel, inn

hovi — (zwo) hover (float in the air)

hu — (kwesti)  who
Hu lai? — Who comes?
Hu zwo-te se? — Who did it?
hu-ney — whose

huanmi — (kwo) millet

huf — (kwo) hoof

huk — (kwo) hook
huki —
(zwo) hook (catch, suspend, or connect with a hook)
See also: ahuki

huligan — (kwo) hooligan
huligani — (zwo) behave like a hooligan, engage in hooliganism
huliganing — (kwo) hooliganism

humane — (kwel) humane
humanitaa —
(kwo) humaneness, humanity (the quality of being humane, benevolence — cf. “jenley”)

humanisma — (kwo) humanism (system of thought)
humanista —
(kwo) humanist
humanistike —
(kwel) humanistic, humanist

humel — (kwo) hop (plant)

humide — (kwel) humid, damp, moist
(kwo) humidity, dampness
Syn.: mokre

hunga — (kwo) hunger
fai hunga — be hungry
defai hunga — satisfy/appease one's hunger
hunga-ney (hunge) — (kwel) hungry
hunga-nem (hungem) —
(komo) hungrily
hungi —
(zwo) hunger, starve
al haf-hungi — half-starving

hunti — (zwo) join; come together; pool
suti-hunti — sew together
hunti a koywan — to join smb
hunta — (kwo) joining, junction
ferdao hunta — railway junction
(hunte) — (kwel) joint, combined
pa hunta, hunta-nem (huntem) —
(komo)  together, jointly

huraa — (exklami) hurrah, hurray

husar — (kwo) hussar

huta — (kwo) hut (crude or makeshift dwelling or shelter; a shack)

hwan — (kwel) yellow
fa-hwan —
(zwo) grow/turn yellow
mah-hwan —
(zwo) make yellow
hwanka —
(kwo) yolk

hwei — (zwo) repent, rue
hweisa —
(kwo) repentance, penitence

i — (unisi)  i...i... — both...and...
i lu i ela — both he and she
i sey-las i toy-las — these as well as those
(komo)  too, also (relates to the following word)
I me koni lu. — I too know him.
Me jan i ela. — I know also her.

idea — (kwo) idea
idea-ney —
(kwel) of idea, conceptual

ideal — (kwo) ideal
ideal-ney —
(kwel) ideal

idente — (kwel) identical
identitaa —
(kwo) identity, sameness
identisi —
(zwo) identify (tr.)
identifi —
(zwo) identify (intr.)

ideologia — (kwo) ideology
ideologike —
(kwel) ideological

idiota — (kwo) idiot

idola — (kwo) idol (also fig.)

idris — (kwo) bird cherry

idyen — (komo)  a little, a bit
idyen pyu hao — a bit better
Dai a me idyen akwa, plis. — Give me a little water, please.

igla — (kwo) needle

ignori — (zwo) ignore, disregard

igo — (kwo) yoke (also fig.)

ikra — (kwo) calf (of leg)

ilusion — (kwo) illusion, delusion
fai ilusion om koysa — cherish/harbor an illusion about smth
defai ilusion (desilusioni) — (zwo) become disillusioned/disappointed
desilusiona —
(kwo) disillusionment, disenchantment, disappointment

imaja — (kwo) image

imajini — (zwo) imagine (to form a mental image of something; to envision or create something in one's mind; to use one's imagination)
imajina — (kwo) imagination

imbati — (zwo) strike (against), run (against), run into, bump into, stumble upon
imbati kontra chyenlok — run aground

imiti — (zwo) imitate
imita — (kwo) imitation

impedi — (zwo) impede, hinder
impedi-korda — hobble, fetter
— (kwo) hindrance, impediment

imperia — (kwo) empire
imperator —
(kwo) emperor

importi — (zwo) import
importa —
(kwo) import, importation
Ant.: exporti

impresi — (zwo) impress (produce impression, affect strongly)
impresa — (kwo) impression

impulsa — (kwo) impulse

in — (konekti) 1) in, at (refers to location)
Me jivi in Rusia. — I live in Russia.
In sey shulin funga yok. — There are no mushrooms in this forest.
2) in, on (refers to time)
in petdi — on Friday
in same taim — at the same time (=samtaim-nem)
in lai-she yar — in the next year
3) in (other meanings)
Lu es in nove palto. — He wears a new overcoat.
kreda in boh — belief in god
in tal kasu — in such case
inen — (konekti-komo) inside, within
Inen dom es warme. — It's warm inside the house.
Me es inen, zin ba! — I am inside, come in!
inenklaida — (kwo) underclothes, underwear
inenlanda —
(kwo) inland
inen-taraf — (kwo) the inside

incha — (kwo) inch (unit of length)

indexa — (kwo) index (number, ratio)

India — (kwo) India (also "Bharat")
 See also: hindi

indigni — (zwo) be indignant
indigna —
(kwo) indignation
indigna-nem (indignem) —
(komo) indignantly

indiki — (zwo) indicate, point
indika —
(kwo) indication (act of pointing out; sign, token)

individu — (kwo) individual (single person or animal)
individuale — (kwel) individual
individualisma — (kwo) individualism

indulgi — (zwo) be indulgent, make allowance for, forbear to inflict
indulga —
(kwo) lenience, indulgence
indulgishil —
(kwel) indulgent, lenient

infanta — (kwo) infant

infarkta — (kwo) infarction

infekti — (zwo) infect
infekta —
(kwo) infection

inferna — (kwo) hell, inferno
inferna-ney, infernalik —
(kwel) infernal, hellish

inflama — (kwo) inflammation (morbid condition)
inflami — (zwo) inflame

infli — (zwo) inflate
infli balon/tara — inflate a baloon/tire
infla — (kwo) inflation (for the economical meaning “inflasion” is used)

influsi — (zwo) influence, affect
influsa —
(kwo) influence

informi — (zwo) inform
informa —
(kwo) information (also “info”)

infrarude — (kwel) infrared

Ingland — (kwo) England
Ingland-jen — inhabitant/citizen of England

inglish — (kwel, kwo) English (relating to ethnicity, language or country); English (person of English ethnicity); English language
Ob yu shwo inglish? — Do you speak English?

ingoma — (kwo) a kind of African drum

ingravi — (zwo) carve, engrave
ingrava —
(kwo) carving, engraving

inisi — (zwo) initiate (to set going by taking the first step; to introduce into a sosiety, club, etc. by formal rites)
inisa — (kwo) initiation
Syn.: begin

inisiativa — (kwo) initiative

injenior — (kwo) engineer

inkarni — (zwo) incarnate
inkarna —
(kwo) incarnation

inklina — (kwo) slant, slope; physical tilt or bend; inclination (act; mental tendency)
flanka-inklina — (kwo) list, heel, careen, bank
inklini —
(zwo) incline (bend; slope; tend)

inklusi — (zwo) include
inklusi-yen —
(konekti) including
inklusa —
(kwo) inclusion

inkombri — (zwo) encomber, obstruct, block, hinder in passing

inkweri — (zwo) inquire, make inquiries

inloo — (gramatika)  marks non-immediate relatives
mata-inloo —
(kwo) mother-in-law
brata-inloo —
(kwo) cousin
son-inloo —
(kwo) nephew
kindocha-inloo —
(kwo) grandniece
brata-inloo-inloo —
(kwo) second cousin

inlubi — (zwo) fall in love (with)
Lu es inluben om/in ela. — He is in love with her.
inluba — (kwo) the state of having fallen in love

inmurisi — (zwo) immure, mure, wall up, brick up
(Origin: in+mur+isi)

inosente — (kwel) innocent, guileless, artless
inosensia —
(kwo) innocence

inplas — (konekti) instead (of), in place (of)
Dai a me sey kalam inplas toy-la. — Give me this pencil instead of that one.
Go dar inplas me! — Go there instead of me!
Gai zwo inplas shwo. — One should act, not speak.
Lu plei inplas gun. — He plays instead of working.
inplasi — (zwo) be instead of, fill in, act as a substitute

insekta — (kwo) insect

inserti — (zwo) insert, put in, set in
inserta —
(kwo) insertion

insidenta — (kwo) incident, occurrence

insisti — (zwo) insist

inspiri — (zwo) inspire (by divine instruction, poetic spirit, ideas)
inspira —
(kwo) inspiration

instali — (zwo) install
instali swa —
(zwo) install oneself
Afte instali swa in may favorite stula, me bu pri en-stan. — Once I've installed myself in my favourite chair, I don't like to get up.
instala — (kwo) installation

instinkta — (kwo) instinct
instinkta-ney —
(kwel) instinctive

institut — (kwo) institute

instrukta — (kwo) instruction (directions on procedure, a direction to be obeyed — cf. “talim”)
instrukti — (zwo) instruct, brief, give instructions
instrukting —
(kwo) briefing, instruction

insulti — (zwo) insult, affront
insulta —
(kwo) insult, affront

integre — (kwel) integral, entire, complete, whole, all parts properly united and present
integritaa —
(kwo) integrity, entirety
teritoriale integritaa —  territorial integrity
integri — (zwo) integrate (intr./tr.)
integrisi — (zwo) integrate, render entire
integrifi —
(zwo) integrate (intr.)
integrisa, integrifa —
(kwo) integration

intele — (kwel) clever
nointele —
(kwel) silly, stupid
(cf. "saje")

intelekta — (kwo) intellect
intelekta-ney —
(kwel) intellectual

intense — (kwel) intense, intensive
intensisi — (zwo) intensify (tr.)
intensifi — (zwo) intensify (intr.)

intenti — (zwo) intend, purpose, have in mind
intenta —
(kwo) intention, purpose
hao intenta — good intentions
pa intenta — on purpose, intentionally
sin intenta — unintentionally
intenta-ney (intente) — (kwel) intentional, deliberate, premeditated
intenta-nem (intentem) —
(komo) intentionally, on purpose

inter — (konekti) between
inter skay e arda — between the sky and the earth
mutuale samaja inter jenmin — mutual understanding between the peoples
interen — (komo) between (them), in between; in the meantime

interes — (kwo) interest (attention, concern)
interes-ney —
(kwel) interesting
interesi —
(zwo) interest
se interesi me gro — it interests me greatly
fai interes
om koysa — take an interest in smth
defai interes om koysa — lose interest in smth

interfai — (zwo) intervene, interfere
interfai inter gambas — get under smb's feet

intermiti — (zwo) intermit

internasion-ney — (kwel) international
Syn.: interjenmin-ney

interne — (kwel) internal
Syn.: inen-ney
Ant.: externe

internet — (kwo) Internet

interplexi — (zwo) interlace, intertwine
(Origin: inter+plexi)

interrupti — (zwo) interrupt, break off

intershanji — (zwo) exchange; interchange
(kwo) exchange; interchange

interspas — (kwo) interspace
(Origin: inter+spas)

intertaim — (kwo) a period between
pa intertaim —
(komo) in the meanwhile, meantime
Ta ve lai sun. Pi ba kahwa pa intertaim. — He'll be back soon. Meantime, have a cup of coffee.
(Origin: inter+taim)

interval — (kwo) interval

intervyu — (kwo) interview
intervyui —
(zwo) interview

intrigi — (zwo) intrigue
intriga —
(kwo) intrigue

introdukti — (zwo) introduce (begin, preface; put inside or into; bring into use; provide smb with a beginning knowledge — cf. “prisenti”)
introdukta —
(kwo) introduction

intrusi — (zwo) intrude
intrusa — (kwo) intrusion

intuision — (kwo) intuition
intuision-ney —
(kwel) intuitive

inu — (loko-komo) into
Ela lopi-te inu shamba. — She ran into the room.
Kan inu! — Look inside!
Nulwan mog transformi fer inu golda. — Nobody can change iron into gold.

inundi — (zwo) inundate, flood
inunda —
(kwo) flood, inundation

inuspiri — (zwo) inhale, breathe in
inuspira —
(kwo) inhalation
Ant.: ausspiri

invadi — (zwo) invade
invada —
(kwo) invasion

invalida — (kwo) invalid (one who is sickly or disabled)

inventi — (zwo) invent
inventa —
(kwo) invention

inverse — (kwel) inverse, inverted
inversem —
(komo) vice versa
inversa —
(kwo) the contrary, the reverse, opposite

investigi — (zwo) investigate, research, inquire into
investiga —
(kwo) investigation, research

inviti — (zwo) invite
invita —
(kwo) invitation

inyekti — (zwo) inject
inyekta —
(kwo) injection

iradi — (zwo) find fault, carp, cavil, nag

iri — (zwo) be angry (om koysa/koywan — at/with smth/smb)
ira —
(kwo) anger, ire, wrath
gro-ira — great anger, rage
ira-ney — (kwel) angry, cross
ira-nem —
(komo) angrily, crossly
irisi —
(zwo) anger, enrage
irisi-ney —
(kwel) incensed, infuriated, enraged
irishil —
(kwel) short-tempered

ironia — (kwo) irony
ironike —
(kwel) ironical

isla — (kwo) island
islajen —
(kwo) islander

islam — (kwo) Islam
islamjen —
(kwo) Islamite

isoli — (zwo) isolate; insulate
isola —
(kwo) isolation; insulation

it — (inplas-kwo) it (inanimate)
Es may tabla. — This is my table.
Me pri it. — I like it.
Me pon kitaba on it. — I put a book on it.

Italia — (kwo) Italy
Italia-jen —
(kwo) inhabitant/citizen of Italy

italiano — (kwel), (kwo) Italian (relating to ethnicity, language or country); Italian (person of Italian ethnicity); Italian language

iva — (kwo) willow

iven — (komo)  even
ta bu jan iven to — he doesn't know even that
ta gun iven al morbi — even when he is sick, he works
(cf. "yoshi")

jabra — (kwo) jaw

jadu — (kwo) sorcery
fai jadu — do/practice sorcery, conjure
mah-jadu — (zwo) bewitch, enchant
(kwo) sorcerer/sorceress
(kwo) sorcerer
jadugina —
(kwo) sorceress; witch
jaduleker —
(kwo) witch-doctor, quack doctor
jadu-shwosa —
(kwo) spell, exorcism

jagi — (zwo) be awake; vigil
jaging, jaga —
(kwo) wakefulness, vigil
en-jagi, jagifi —
(zwo) wake up (intr.)
jagisi —
(zwo) wake up (tr.)
jagiser — alarm clock

jaka — (kwo) jacket (a short coat)

jaketa — (kwo) jacket (a piece of a person’s suit)

jal — (zwo) be on fire, burn
ek-jal —
(zwo) burn, cauterize
ek-jal finga — burn one's fingers
jalsa — (kwo) burning
jal-she —
(kwel) ablaze, burning
jalka —
(kwo) fuel
mah-jal —
(zwo) burn (to cause to be consumed by fire)
finjal — (zwo) burn down

jalusa — (kwo) jealousy
jalusi —
(zwo) be jealous (of)
jalusnik —
(kwo) jealous man

jami — (zwo) gather
jami amigas — gather friends
jami asembla — gather a meeting
jami fruta — gather fruits
jamitura — (kwo) that which has been gathered
(cf. "kolekti, rekoli")

jamile — (kwel) beautiful, handsome, pretty
ela es jamile gina — she is a pretty woman
jamilitaa — (kwo) beauty (property)
jamilina —
(kwo) beauty (beautiful woman)
jamilo —
(kwo) handsome man

jan — (zwo) know
Me jan to. — I know that.
Ta bu jan nixa. — He doesn't know anything.
en-jan — (zwo) get to know, learn
jansa —
(kwo) knowledge
jan-sha, jannik —
(kwo) connoisseur
(cf. "koni")

jangla — (kwo) jungle

janmi — (zwo) be born; give birth to
ta janmi in yar 1975 — he/shi was born in 1975
janma — (kwo) birth
janmadey —
(kwo) birthday
janmalanda —
(kwo) native land, homeland, motherland
janmalok —
(kwo) native place, home
janmalingwa —
(kwo) native language
(kwo) birthmark, mole
(kwo) childbirth, delivery
(kwo) parent

janmog — (zwo) know how to, can
Me janmog gani, yu janmog rasmi, bat nu ambi bu janmog swimi. — I can sing, yu can draw, but we both cannot swim.
janmogsa —
(kwo) ability, skill, know-how
(Origin: jan+mog)

januar — (kwo) January (also mes-un)

jaopay — (kwo) signboard

japat — (kwo) fit (seizure; outburst of emotion); gust
feng japat — a gust of wind
japat-ney feng — gusty wind

japunga — (kwo) dragonfly

jatile — (kwel) intricate, sophisticated

jawabi — (zwo) answer
(kwo) answer
jawaba-ney —
(kwel) reply, return
jawaba-ney leta — reply (letter), return mail

jay-jay — (exklami) hip, hip, hooray!
jay-jaysa —
(kwo) cheers, hurrahing
jay-jayka —
(kwo) cheer (a shout of congratulation)
Syn.: huraa

jel — (kwo) gel

jelee — (kwo) jelly

jem — (kwo) jam (sweet mixture of fruit boiled with sugar)

jen — (kwo) man (human, any man or woman)
jenley —
(kwo) mankind
jen-ney —
(kwel) human
jenlik —
(kwel) human, humane (characteristic of human)
jenful —
(kwel) crowded
auslandajen —
(kwo) foreigner
lubijen —
(kwo) loved one, lover
samlandajen —
(kwo) compatriot
samtaimjen —
(kwo) contemporary (coexistent in time)
sendijen —
(kwo) envoy

jengun-ney — (kwel) man-made, artificial
jengun-silka — artificial silk

jenmin — (kwo) people (nation)
jenmin(-ney) —
(kwel) people's
interjenmin-ney —
(kwel) international

jenta — (kwo) folk, (a particular group of) people
islajenta es hao jenta — islanders are good folk
urbajenta sempre hasti — townspeople always hurry
gunjenta — (kwo) workpeople
yunge jenta —
(kwo) youth, young people

jesti — (zwo) gesture, gesticulate
jesta —
(kwo) gesture (motion of the limbs or body)
jestalingwa — the gesture language, pantomime

jesting —
(kwo) gesticulation

jet-ney — (kwel) jet, jet-propelled
jet-avion — jet, a jet-propelled aircraft

jigyas — (kwo) curiosity, inquisitiveness
jigyas-ney —
(kwel) curious (eager to learn — cf. “kuriose”)

jila — (kwo) vein (blood vessel; nervure; lode; a long strip of a different colour — cf. “vena”)

jinja — (kwo) ginger

jinsa — (kwo) jeans, denim

jirafa — (kwo) giraffe

jita — (kwo) victory
jiti —
(zwo) win

jiva — (kwo) life
(jive) —
(kwel) living, alive
jivaful —
(kwel) lively, animated
jivika —
(kwo) living thing/being/creature
jivi —
(zwo) live
jivishil —
(kwel) viable, tenacious of life
rijivi —
(zwo) resuscitate, revive
Krista rijivi! — Christ has arisen!
rijivifi — (zwo) return to life
rijivisi —
(zwo) bring back to life

joi — (zwo) be glad, be happy, rejoice
me joi al vidi yu — I am glad to see you
joisa —
(kwo) joy
joisaful —
(kwel) joyful
joisi —
(zwo) gladden, make happy

joki — (zwo) joke
(kwo) joke

jor — (kwo) joint, articulation

jota — (kwo) harness
joti —
(zwo) harness

judi — (zwo) judge
judike —
(kwel) judicial
juda —
(kwo) judgement
judura —
(kwo) judgement of court
judiguan —
(kwo) law-court; tribunal
judidela —
(kwo) court trial, case
judista —
(kwo) judge
prejuda —
(kwo) prejudice

jui — (zwo) enjoy (feel with pleasure, revel in)
prejui — (zwo) look forward to, foretaste
juisa —
(kwo) delight, enjoyment

juk — (kwo) beetle, bug
meyjuk —
(kwo) cockchafer, may-bug
gubrajuk —
(kwo) dung-beetle
lumijuk —
(kwo) firefly, glowworm
saltijuk —
(kwo) grasshopper
preijuk —
(kwo) mantis

juli — (zwo) defraud, cheat, swindle
jula —
(kwo) fraud (act)
julnik — (kwo) fraud (person)
Syn.: trompi

jumla — (kwo) clause, sentence (gram.)

Jungwo  — (kwo) China
Jungwo-jen —
(kwo) inhabitant/citizen of China
See also: han

jupa — (kwo) skirt

Jupiter — (kwo) Jupiter

jura — (kwo) law (legal system — cf. “kanun”)
internasion-ney jura — international law

jura-ney —
(kwel) juridical, law, legal
jurista —
(kwo) lawyer, jurist

jurap — (kwo) stockings
jurap-tasma —
(kwo) garter

juri — (kwo) jury

jurnal — (kwo) magazine (periodical), journal
jurnalista —
(kwo) journalist, newsman

jus — (kwo) juice; sap
frutajus — fruit juice
jus-ney — (kwel) juicy
jusnesa —
(kwo) succulence

juste — (kwel) just (equitable, fair)
justitaa —
(kwo) justice, fairness
nojuste —
(kwel) unjust, unfair
nojustitaa —
(kwo) injustice, unfairness

justifiki — (zwo) justify
gola justifiki medias — the end justifies the means
justifika — (kwo) justification

justis — (kwo) justice (the civil power dealing with law)

kabel — (kwo) cable (assembly of wires for electricity or a communications system)

kabina — (kwo) cab, cockpit, cabin (compartment for driver, pilot, or user)

kabluk — (kwo) heel (part of shoe — cf. “topuk”)

kabra — (kwo) grave, sepulchre, tomb
kabralok —
(kwo) cemetery, graveyard

kabu — (kwo) cape, promontory

kada — (inplas-kwel) every
kada dey — every day
kadalok — (inplas-komo) everywhere
kadawan — (inplas-kwo) everyone
kadawan jan, ke... — everyone knows that...
Me inviti yu oli. Kadawan mog lai. — I invite all of you. Everyone may come.

kadena — (kwo) chain
kadena de montas — chain of mountains

kafee — (kwo) coffee house/bar/shop, café, cafeteria
kafeeyuan —
(kwo) café worker

kafkaf — (kwo) cough
kafkafi —
(zwo) cough
ek-kafkafi —
(kwo) cough once, give a cough

kafsa — (kwo) cage (an enclosure made of bars)

kahwa — (kwo) coffee
kahwa bona — coffee beans
kahwadan — (kwo) coffee-pot
kahwabaum —
(kwo) coffee tree
kahwameler —
(kwo) coffee-mill

kaif — (kwo) delight, rapture, ecstasy
Syn.: juisa

kaila — (kwo) wedge

kaki — (zwo) do caca
kaka —
(kwo) caca
Syn.: feki

kalabi — (zwo) tumble, somersault
kalaba —
(kwo) tumble, somersault

kalafati — (zwo) caulk

kalam — (kwo) a writing tool; pencil
bolkalam —
(kwo) ballpoint pen
kalamdan —
(kwo) pencil-box
sikin do kalam —
(kwo) penknife
kolorkalam —
(kwo) colour pencil

kalamar — (kwo) squid

kalenda — (kwo) calendar

kalibra — (kwo) calibre, bore, gauge
kalibri —
(zwo) calibrate, gauge
kalibring —
(kwo) calibration

kalina — (kwo) viburnum, guelder-rose

kalka — (kwo) tracing paper; tracing paper copy; calque
kalki —
(zwo) trace (copy)

kalkuli — (zwo) calculate, compute
kalkula —
(kwo) calculation

kalkun — (kwo) turkey
man-kalkun (kalkuno) —
(kwo) turkey cock
gin-kalkun (kalkunina) —
(kwo) turkey hen
yunkalkun —
(kwo) turkey-poult

kalme — (kwel) calm (cf. “kyete”, “trankwile”)
kalmitaa —
(kwo) calm
kalmi —
(zwo) calm (intr./tr.)
kalmifi (fa-kalme) —
(zwo) become calm, calm down
kalmisi (mah-kalme) —
(zwo) make calm, calm
kalmiser —
(kwo) sedative
kalming —
(kwo) calming

kalson — (kwo) long johns, long underwear, drawers

kalve — (kwel) bald, having but little hair
kalvika —
(kwo) bald spot/patch

kalyum — (kwo) potassium

kama — (kwo) bed (for sleeping — cf. "kyar, chwan")
fai kama — go to bed

kamar — (kwo) girdle
pa kamar, in kamar — in one's belt
kamari — (zwo) girdle

kamarada — (kwo) comrade, mate

kamel — (kwo) camel

kamera — (kwo) camera (photo, video)

kamfer — (kwo) camphor

kamila — (kwo) camomile

kamin — (kwo) fireplace

kamina — (kwo) road
hao kamina — good road

kamion — (kwo) lorry, truck (motor vehicle)

kamisa — (kwo) shirt

kamon — (exklami)  come on (an expression of encouragement, hurrying up, or disbelief)
kamon, shwo! — come on, speak!
kamon, go kway! — come on, go quickly!

kampa — (kwo) camp (outdoor place; group of people)
kampi —
(zwo) camp

kampania — (kwo) campaign

kan — (zwo) look (try to see; to face or present a view), watch (view)
kan TV — watch TV
winda kan gata — windows face the street
kan sirkum — to look around
kan bak — look behind, glance back
ek-kan — glance quickly
kansa — (kwo) look (action of looking; expression of eyes), glance
al un-ney kansa — at first sight

kana — (kwo) cane, reed (bot.)
sukra-kana — (kwo) sugar-cane

kanal — (kwo) canal; channel

kanalya — (kwo) rascal, scoundrel

kanapa — (kwo) hemp
kanapafibra —
(kwo) hemp fiber

kandela — (kwo) candle
kandeladan —
(kwo) candlestick

kandidat — (kwo) candidate

kanela — (kwo) cinnamon

kanga — (kwo) comb (a toothed implement)
kangi —
(zwo) comb
kangi swa — comb one's hair
trakangi — (zwo) comb (search thoroughly; look through)
kanging —
(kwo) combing

kanguruu — (kwo) kangaroo

kanon — (kwo) cannon (artillery piece)

kanser — (kwo) cancer (disease)

kanula — (kwo) cannula

kanun — (kwo) law
kanun-ney —
(kwel) legal
nokanun-ney —
(kwel) illegal

kanva — (kwo) canvas

kao — (kwo) shackles, irons; handcuffs, manacles
handa-kao —
(kwo) handcuffs, manacles
kaovati —
(zwo) handcuff

kaosa — (kwo) chaos

kapa — (kwo) head; prow
spilakapa — pinhead
kol-kapa — head of cabbage

kapable — (kwel) capable, able
kapablitaa —
(kwo) ability, faculty, capability

kapak — (kwo) lid (cover)
genukapak — kneecap, patella
winda-kapak — shutter


kapal — (kwo) skull

kapase — (kwel) capacious, able to hold
kapasitaa —
(kwo) capacity

kapitan — (kwo) captain (milit., naval)

kaporal — (kwo) corporal (officer)

kapra — (kwo) cloth (woven fabric, material, stuff); linen
koton kapra — cotton fabric
kamakapra — bed linen
linkapra — linen cloth
mortakapra — shroud, cerement
kama-kapras —

kaprisa — (kwo) whim, caprice
kaprisi —
(zwo) be capricious
kaprisnik —
(kwo) capricious/self-willed person

kapti — (zwo) catch, capture, seize
kapta, kapting —
(kwo) capture (act of capturing), catching
kaptiwat —
(kwo) capture (smth captured), prey
kapter, kaptika —
(kwo) snare, trap
kapter, kapti-sha —
(kwo) catcher (smb that catches)

kapushon — (kwo) hood (covering); cap (protective cover)
kalam kapushon — pen cap

karabe — (kwel) corrupt, tainted, spoilt; depraved
karabisi —
(zwo) corrupt (taint, spoil; deprave, demoralize)

karada — (kwo) lathe
karadi —
(zwo) lathe, operate a lathe
karader —
(kwo) turner, lathe operator

karaf — (kwo) carafe, decanter

karakter — (kwo) character (distinctive quality of a person or thing)
karakter-ney — (kwel) characteristic
karakterisi —
(zwo) characterize

karamel — (kwo) caramel
karamelisi —
(zwo) caramelize

karat — (kwo) carat

karavan — (kwo) caravan

karbon — (kwo) carbon (chem.)
karbonisi — (zwo) carbonize
karbonisa —
(kwo) carbonization

kardamom — (kwo) cardamom

kare — (kwel) dear (loved — cf. “guy”)
Kare amigas! — Dear friends!

karesi — (zwo) caress, fondle with affection
karesa —
(kwo) caress

karga — (kwo) freight, cargo, lading
— (zwo) freight

kariera — (kwo) career (occupation; the general course or progression of one's working life or one's professional achievements)

karikatura — (kwo) caricature
— (zwo) caricature caricaturist
— (kwo) caricaturist

karim — (kwel) kind (kindhearted)
bi karim — will you be so kind as, please
karimtaa — (kwo) kindness

karitaa — (kwo) charity, spiritual benevolence

karkasa — (kwo) framework, skeleton
See also: skelet

karke — (kwel) rough, coarse, rude, harsh, rugged
karkem —
(kwel) roughly, coarsely, rudely

karmin — (kwo) carmine
— (kwel) carmine

karota — (kwo) carrot

karpenti — (zwo) carpenter
karpenter —
(kwo) carpenter
karpentifah —
(kwo) carpentering

karpus — (kwo) watermelon

karta — (kwo) card
nam-karta —
(kwo) visiting card
armee-karta —
(kwo) military ID
yuan-karta —
(kwo) membership card

karton — (kwo) cardboard, pasteboard

kartun — (kwo) cartoon (animated film)

kartush — (kwo) cartridge (ammunition)
kartushdan —
(kwo) bandoleer, ammunition belt

karwe — (kwel) bitter
karwitaa —
(kwo) bitterness

kasa — (kwo) cash-box, till; cashier’s stand; fund
kaser —
(kwo) cashier

kasak — (kwo) Cossack

kasam — (kwo) oath, vow
fai kasam — to make (take) a vow, swear
defai kasam — take one’s vow/oath back
tori kasam — break one's oath

kaseta — (kwo) cassette

kasha — (kwo) porridge, gruel, mush; squash; slush, mess, jumble
snega-kasha —
(kwo) slush, mire

kaskasa — (kwo) scales (platelike dermal or epidermal structures — cf. "vaka")
kaskasinka —
(kwo) a single scale

kasrat — (kwo) morning exercises

kastana — (kwo) chestnut

kastela — (kwo) castle