Lingwa De Planeta (Lidepla) Grammar With Examples

with examples

Dmitry Ivanov,
Anastasia Lysenko,
Elena Ivanova,
Asya Vinogradova

Lingwa de Planeta (LdP for short) is a neutral international auxiliary language based on the ten most widely spoken world languages, including six western European — English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian — and Chinese, Russian, Hindi, and Arabic. LdP also includes words from other languages to some extent. See the more detailed general description at http://lingwadeplaneta. info/


Alphabet and pronunciation
Pronouns and Related Words
Word formation
Prepositions, conjunctions
Interjections, particles

Alphabet and pronunciation


The LdP alphabet is based on the Latin one and contains 25 letters:

A B Ch D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Y Z
a b ch d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u v w x y z

There is no letter q, and c is used only in combination ch.


b like b in bar
ch like ch in cheers
d like d in duck
f like f in fish
g like g in groom
h like ch in the German Fach (recommended), or h in home
j like j in jack
k like k in cake, aspirated
l like l in love
m like m in mamma
n like n in nanny
p like p in papa, aspirated
r Any kind of rhotic sound will do. After a vowel it is to be pronounced, however articulated
s like s in Sunday. Between vowels it may be voiced to some degree
sh like sh in shoe
t like t in type, aspirated
v like v in vale (also admissible like w in wall)
w like w in wall
z like dz in adze

The combination ng at the end of a word is pronounced as one sound: [ŋ] (like in doing) is preferred, but [n] is also possible. In the middle of a word this combination is read exactly as combination of n plus g.

The letter x denotes the combination of letters ks. Between vowels it is recommended to read it as the combination of letters gs. In the position before a consonant may be read as [s].

Double consonants are not used.

In some proper names one should read "sh" as two separate consonants, in such cases a delimitator ' is used: Mas'hadov.


a like a in father
e like e in bell
i like ea in tea
o like oa in boat
u like oo in cool

The letter "y".

The letters i and y denote the same sound [i]. The use of y basically indicates that the sound is not stressed: pyu [piú]. Besides, y at the end of a word indicates that the word is not a verb: krai to cry — skay sky.

The letter names

Aa — a
Bb — be
CH ch — che
Dd — de
Ee — e
Ff — ef
Gg — ge
Hh — ha
Ii — i
Jj — ja
Kk — ka
Ll — el
Mm — em
Nn — en
Oo — o
Pp — pe
Rr — er
Ss — es
Tt — te
Uu — u
Vv — ve
Ww — wa
Xx — iks
Yy — ye
Zz — ze

The combination of letters SH can be spelled either as "es ha" or "sha". Although the letter C alone, without H, is absent in the alphabet, it has the name "charli". The name for this letter may be needed when spelling words of other languages. Similarly, the symbol Q has the name "kebek".

When transmitting and receiving voice messages by radio or telephone, it may be advisable to use the ICAO spelling alphabet. In the case of Lidepla its symbols have the following pronunciation:

Aa — alfa
Bb — bravo
Cc — charli
Dd — delta
Ee — eko
Ff — foxtrot
Gg — golf
Hh — hotel
Ii — india
Jj — juliet
Kk — kilo
Ll — lima
Mm — maik
Nn — novemba
Oo — oska
Pp — papa
Qq — kebek
Rr — romio
Ss — siera
Tt — tango
Uu — uniform
Vv — vikta
Ww — wiski
Xx — ex rei
Yy — yanki
Zz — zulu

It is also possible to use full words beginning with a given letter for spelling, ex.:

a — amiga
b — bileta
ch — chipe
d — duma
e — egale
f — fabula
g — gana
h — hema
i — informa
j — jabra
k — kitaba
l — luna
m — mama
n — nocha
o — opa
p — pama
r — regula
s — salam
sh — shamba
t — tabla
u — unida
v — vino
w — worda
x — xilofon
y — yunga
z — zian


— Hey, yu audi ku? Skribi ba may el-meil adres! Tayar ku? Walaa: luna haifen duma haifen pama, akauda, informa nocha bileta opa xilofon, punta, regula unida.

— Hey, do you hear me? Write down my e-mail address! Ready? Here it is: luna haifen duma haifen pama, at sign, informa nocha bileta opa xilofon, dot, regula unida.


The main rule is: the vowel before the last consonant or "y" is stressed:

máta — mother
suóla — sole (of footwear)
matéria — matter
nóve — new
kórdia — heart
aktór — actor
aván — forward
krokodíl — crocodile
dúmi — to think
jámi — to gather
báya — bay (in coast)
jaopáy — signboard

In words of the shape (C)CVV like háo — good, well, krái — to cry the first vowel is stressed.

In the combinations "au", "eu" — "u" is not stressed:

áusen — outside
áudi — to hear
áuto — car
máus — mouse
káusa — cause
éuro — euro

In the combinations "ai", "ei", "oi" — "i" is not stressed:

máini — to mean
fáil — file
bréin — brain
méil — mail
asteróida — asteroid

There are 4 consonant endings which are never stressed. These are -en, -us, -um, -er:

ínen — inside
íven — even
désnen — to the right of
vírus — virus
fórum — forum
sírkum — around
ínter — between
kompyúter — computer

The endings of nouns and adjectives -ik-, -ul- are unstressed:


This doesn't apply to compound words with -fula like handafúla handful.

Non-standard stress is indicated through a doubled vowel:

kwantitaa — quantity
kwalitaa — quality
(and all abstract nouns derived from adjectives via the stressed suffix -(i)taa)
namastee — hello
adyoo — good-bye
bifoo — before
malgree — in spite of
shosee — highway
milyoo — milieu

The use of a doubled vowel is justified by that the stress in LdP is basically quantitative. A doubled vowel in a word without other vowels (like in 'zoo') is not regarded to be a stress mark.

Stress and word formation

In any derivation the stress of the basic word isn't shifted. It means that, for example, the plural endings -(e)s, the adverb suffix -em and the noun suffix -ing do not change stress:

kórdias — hearts
naturálem — naturally (from naturále — natural)
físhing — fishing (from físhi — to fish)

Only few suffixes beginning with a vowel are exceptions to this rule:

-isi, -ifi (glúbe — glubísi, glubífi)
-inka (snéga — snegínka)
-ina (dóga — dogína)
-ista (dénta — dentísta)
-(t)ive (ákti — aktíve)
-ale, -are (ménta — mentále, pol — poláre),

as well as the aforementioned stressed suffix -(i)taa.

Compound words retain the stress of their components:

auslándajén — foreigner
jánmalánda — native land, homeland

Suffixes beginning with a consonant may receive a secondary stress:

gínalík — womanly (from gína — woman)
kúsishíl — tending to bite (from kúsi — to bite)
ófnitúl — opener
vídibíle — visible

A text with stress indicated

Bashán om humanístike transfórma de sosietáa

Namastée, káre amígas!

Me jói sinsérem por vídi yu, me jói ke nu es snóva pa húnta e ke nu mog diréktem diskúsi kwéstas kel agíti nu óli.

Probléma, ke nu zun durán yo pyú kem shi yar, es do tal natúra, ke ye óltáim pyú de sey kwéstas e li bikám óltáim pyú agúde.

In may repórta sedéy me wud yáo detalísi plúri prinsíp-ney tésa prisénti-ney bay me in pási-ney yar.

Dan, al konklúsi may bugrán bashán, me shwo-te, ke fo nu es tótem evidénte ke humanístike transfórma de sosietáa es buevítibíle.

Pronouns and Related Words

Personal pronouns

me nu
yu yu
ta (lu, ela)

me — I
yu — you (sg., pl.)
ta — he, she, it (common for animate)
lu — he
ela — she
it — it (inanimate)
nu — we
li — they

Pronoun yu

General pronoun for 2nd person. If it's necessary to stress that you address a group, not a single person, you can use combinations like “yu oli” (you all), “yu ambi” (you both), “yu tri” (you three). Also it's possible to use "yu un" (you one) to clarify that you've switched from a group to an individual.

Pronoun ta

General pronoun for animate objects in 3rd person singular:

Kwo ta shwo? — What does he/she say?

Me vidi ta. — I see him/her (or an animal).

Es doga. Ta nami Sharik — It's a dog. Its name is Sharik.

This pronoun can be used instead of lu and ela, which is comfortable for native speakers of languages without genders and special pronouns for "he" and "she" (e. g., Chinese, Finnish). Besides, it is convenient to use this pronoun in situations when the gender of a person is not defined exactly:

Es sempre hao si jen jan kwo ta yao. — It is always good when a man (or it may be a woman as well) knows what he/she wants.

Pronoun it

The pronoun it relates to inanimate objects:

Se es auto. It go kway. — This is a car. It goes fast.

It does not have the meaning "this, that" (as reference to the actions, conditions or events mentioned in the preceding or following statement); these meanings are expressed by pronouns "se" (this) and "to" (that):

Me jan to. — I know that. ("Me jan it" would mean "I know it (something inanimate)").

Declension of personal pronouns

Personal pronouns are invariable:

Me jan ke yu lubi me. — I know that you love me.

Me dumi mucho om yu. — I think much about you.

Ob yu dumi-te mucho om me? — Did you think much about me?

Ela lubi lu. — She loves him.

Lu lubi ela. — He loves her.

The dative case is marked with the preposition "a":

Dai a me sey kitaba, plis! — Give me please this book!

Me dai sey kitaba a ela. — I give this book to her.

Lu diki a nu luy nove bao. — He shows us his new bag.

Dai a li pyu taim. — Give them more time.

Possessive forms of personal pronouns

These may be regularly derived with the help of the particle “ney”:

me-ney nu-ney
yu-ney yu-ney

But there are also shorter forms:

may nuy
yur yur
suy (luy, elay)

may — my

yur — your (sg., pl.)

suy — its, his, her, one's (general for 3rd person singular)

luy — his

elay — her

nuy — our

ley — their

Suy is the universal possessive pronoun for the 3rd person singular. It can be used instead of ta-ney, lu-ney, ela-ney, it-ney:

Suy jamile okos. — His/her beautiful eyes.

Es auto, suy kolor es rude. — This is a car, its colour is red.

It is natural to use "suy" or "ta-ney" in situations when the gender of a person is not specified:

Jen yusi ta-ney jansa fo adapti a milyoo. — Man uses his knowledge in order to adjust to the environment.

Demonstrative pronouns se and to

se — this (as a noun)

to — that (as a noun)

sey — this, these (before a noun, as an adjective)

toy — that, those (before a noun, as an adjective)


SE — this.

Used as a noun. Se, as compared with to, indicates a closer (in time or place) object, action, event, etc.

Se es auto. — This is a car (these are cars). (‘Se’ may be omitted in such sentences: Es auto. — This is a car, literally "is car".)

Me jan se. — I know this.


TO — that.

Used as a noun. To, as compared with se, indicates a more remote (in time or place) object, action, event, etc.

Se es auto e to es bisikla. — This is a car, and that is a bicycle.

To es avion, bu faula. — That is an airplane, not a bird.

Me ve shwo a yu om to. — I shall tell you about that.

Me jan to. — I know that/it.

To es — that is, i. e.

The expression "to ke" denotes "the thing(s) which, what":

To ke yu shwo a me es prave. — What you tell me is right.


SEY — this, these (before a noun, as an adjective).

Sey auto es hwan. — This car is yellow.

Sey autos es hwan. — These cars are yellow.

Ob sey dafta es yu-ney? — Is this copybook yours?

Sey daftas bu es yu-ney, es me-ney. — These copybooks aren't yours, they are mine.


TOY — that, those (before a noun, as an adjective).

Sey auto es hwan e toy auto es blu. — This car is yellow, and that car is blue.

Hu es toy jen? — Who is that person?

Ob toy dafta es yu-ney? — Is that copybook yours?

Toy daftas bu es yu-ney, es me-ney. — Those copybooks aren't yours, they are mine.


Sey-la, toy-la

Sey-la, toy-la — this (one) or that (one), the one — may replace objects already mentioned.


Dai a me kitaba! — Kwel? — Sey-la on tabla. — Give me the book! — Which one? — The one on the table.

Dai a me kitabas! — Kwel? — Sey-las on tana. — Give me books! — Which ones? — These ones on the shelf.

Walaa dwa kitaba. Sey-la es hao e toy-la es buhao. — Here are two books. This one is good, and that one is bad.

Walaa daftas. Sey-las es fo skribi e toy-las es fo rasmi. — Here are copybooks. These are for writing, and those are for drawing.

Interrogative and relative pronouns



Kwo es? — What is it?

Me jan kwo yu dumi. — I know what you think.


1) that (relative pronoun):

Me jan ke yu lubi me. — I know that you love me.

2) begins a modifying group after a noun, without prepositions:

Kitaba ke yu he lekti. — The book that you have read.

Dom ke nu jivi. — The house in which we live.

Jen ke me shwo. — The man I am talking about.

Dao ke yu go. — The way you are going.


what, which (interrogative):

Kwel es lu? — What is he like?

Kwel de li? — Which (one) from them?


which, what (relative):

jen kel zai lekti kitaba — the person that is reading a book;

kitaba om kel nu shwo-te — the book about which we spoke.

Combination "lo kel" means "what, which" as a noun:

Ela lai-te sun, lo kel joisi-te me gro. — She came quickly which pleased me much.

In the genitive kel-ney:

profesor kel-ney kitabas nulwan lekti — the professor whose books nobody reads.


1) how, in what way:

Komo lu zin-te hir? — How did he enter here?

Me bu jan komo lu zin-te hir. — I don't know how he entered.

2) how, how much:

Komo gao es toy baum? — How high is that tree?


1) as (in comparisons, references):

gran kom elefanta — big as an elefant;

kom me yo shwo-te — as I've already said;

2) as, in the capacity of:

nau me gun kom disainer — now I work as a designer.


how much, as much, how many, as many:

kwanto it kosti? — how much does it cost?

Me bu ve pagi tanto kwanto lu yao. — I will not pay as much as he wants.


so much, so many, thus much:

tanto kway kom posible — as quick as possible

Me es gro-fatigi-ney! Bu gai gun tanto. — I am so tired! I shouldn't work so much.

tanto kwanto treba — as much as needed.

tanto ke me jan — as far as I know

bu tanto…kom — not so much…as.


way — why
wen — when
wo — where
fon wo — where from
a wo — where, where to

Indefinite personal pronoun oni

Makes impersonal sentences like:

oni shwo — they say

oni samaji ke... — one understands that..., it's clear that...

Reflexive pronoun swa

Common reflexive pronoun for all persons and numbers:

yu jan swa — you know yourself

ela heni swa — she hates herself

me he woshi swa — I washed myself

lu he rasi swa — he shaved himself

li senti swa hao — they feel themselves good.

The possessive form is swa-ney (one's own, my own, your own, our own, their own):

bay swa-ney okos — with one's own eyes.

The pronoun wan

It means an individual:

Pyan wan — (someone who is) drunk.

Adulte wan — an adult.

Wan kel es hir, chu! — (The one) who is here, come out!

Wan kel jan, ta bu shwo. — He who knows, he doesn't speak (the one who knows, doesn't speak).

Toy wan kel yao mog go wek. — Those who want may go away.

The system of pronouns and adverbs

In LdP there is a system of compound pronouns and adverbs. Its important elements are:

koy — some
eni — any, whatever
kada — every
otre — other, another
ol — all, the whole of
nul — no (whatever), none (whatever)

These elements combining with others (loko — place (the suffix "lok" means "place" too), taim — time, ves — time (instance), wan — an individual, komo — how, -sa — noun suffix) may produce compound pronouns and adverbs:

koysa — something
koywan — someone
koylok — somewhere
koytaim — "somewhen", sometime
koygrad — to some degree
koykomo — in some way
enisa — anything, whatever
eniwan — anybody, anyone, any (person)
enilok — anywhere
enitaim — anytime
enikomo — in any way
kadawan — everyone
kadalok — everywhere
oltaim — all the time, constantly
nullok — nowhere
nulgrad — not in the least
nulwan — nobody
nulves — not once, never
unves — once, one day
koyves — sometimes
otreves — next time, another time
enives — ever (at any time)
otrelok — in another place.

But there are also short, simple words for some concepts:

always — sempre
never — neva
nothing — nixa
everything — olo
all, everybody — oli.


Verb types

There are two verb types:

i-verbs (type 1) and other verbs (type 2).

i-verbs are the verbs that end in consonant+i, e. g.:

vidi — to see
audi — to hear
fini — to finish
sidi — to sit
dumi — to think
fobisi — to frighten
pri — to like
chi — to eat
pi — to drink.

Monosyllabic i-verbs like pri, chi, pi constitute a specific subtype characterized by that in derivation their -i is always preserved, e. g.:

chi — chier, chiing
pi — pier, piing

(cf.: swimi — swimer, swiming).

Examples of type 2 verbs:

jan — to know
gun — to work
zun — to be occupied with, devote oneself to
shwo — to say, to speak
go — to go
yao — to want
lwo — to fall
flai — to fly
krai — to cry
prei — to pray
joi — to rejoice, be happy
jui — to enjoy, revel in
emploi — to employ
kontinu — to continue.

Verbs with prefixes fa- and mah-, which contain adjectives, are type 2 verbs too:

fa-syao — to diminish, become smaller (syao small)
fa-muhim — to become more important (muhim important)
mah-hao — make better, improve (hao good).

The main verb form

This is the only verb form that one has to memorize. It is used in all cases, with particles or adverbs added for clarity when needed.


treba dumi — one should think
me (yu, ta, nu, yu, li) dumi — I (you, he/she, we, you, they) think
Dumi! — Think!
Me yao ke yu dumi hao om to. — I'd like you to think well about it (“I want that you think well about it”).

Tu samaji es tu pardoni. — To understand is to forgive.
Es taim fo samaji ke... — It's time to understand that...
Nu samaji se. — We understand this.
Samaji! — Understand!
Wud bi muy hao, si yu samaji ke... — It would be very good if you understand that…

Tu go a kino es hao. — It is good to go to the cinema.
Lu sal go a kino. — He is going to go to the cinema.
Lu go a kino. — He goes (or is going) to the cinema.
Go ahir! — Go here!
Me nadi ke yu go a kino. — I hope that you go to the cinema.

Negation is formed by means of the particle bu placed before a verb or tense particle:

Me bu samaji. — I don't understand.
Lu bu yao. — He doesn't want.
Bu go dar! — Don't go there!
Bu shwo ke yu bu jan-te! — Don't say that you didn't know!

Verb forms

Verb forms are basically the main verb form plus a particle before or after the verb. If a particle comes after the verb, it is written with a hyphen. Thus, the main verb form is always evident, and its stress is preserved.

Particles before the verb:

ve — future tense marker;

he — past tense marker

zai — marker of continuous aspect

wud — conditional marker

gwo — remote past tense marker (some time ago, earlier in life, have been to somewhere or used to do something)

sal — immediate future marker (to be about to do something.)

yus — immediate past marker (have just done something; the word yus means just)

gei — marks the passive of becoming.

Particles after the verb:

-te — past tense marker

-she — present active participle marker

-yen — verbal adverb marker, "while -ing"

-ney — passive participle marker, or (for intransitive verbs) past active participle marker.


chi — to eat

ve chi — will eat

chi-te, he chi — ate or have eaten

zai chi — is eating

ve zai chi — will be eating

zai chi-te — was eating

ve he chi — will have eaten

he chi-te — had eaten

wud chi — would eat

wud chi-te — would have eaten

gei chi — is being eaten

ve gei chi — will be being eaten

gei-te chi — was being eaten

es chi-ney — is eaten

bin chi-ney — was eaten

ve bi chi-ney — will be eaten

chi-she — eating (active part.):

chi-she kota — the eating cat

chi-yen — (while) eating (verbal adverb)

afte chi — having eaten

gwo chi — used to eat, has experience of eating

sal chi — about to eat

yus chi-te — have just eaten.

Future tense


me ve shwo — I shall say (speak)

nu ve go — we shall go

ela ve lekti — she will read

yu ve gun — you will work

ve pluvi — it will rain

me bu ve go — I won't go.

Past tense

There are 2 particles for the past tense: he (before verb) means the completed action, -te (after verb) means the past tense for any action, completed or not:

He pluvi. — It has rained (and stopped).
Pluvi-te. — It rained or It has rained or It has been raining.

When -te and he are used together, they are equal to the English past perfect tense:

Wen lu lai-te a dom, ela he kuki-te akshamfan — When he came home, she had cooked supper.

The combination of ve with he is equal to the English future perfect tense:

Wen lu ve lai a dom, ela ve he kuki akshamfan. — When he comes home, she will have cooked supper.

•   The verb "bi" to be is special, and it has the past form bin:

Wo yu bin? — Where were you? Where have you been?

Imperative mode

To stress the imperative meaning, or to make it clearer, the particle ‘ba’ may be used after verb:

Go ba dar! — Go there!
Kan ba hir! — Look here!
Nu go ba! — Let's go!
Nu begin ba! — Let's begin!
Ta lai ba! — Let him come!

There is also the particle ‘hay’ (‘may, let’) expressing a wish or permission:

Hay olo bi hao! — May everything be good!
Hay forsa bi kun yu! — May the force be with you!
Hay oni shwo to ke oni yao. — Let them say what they like.

The negative imperative is formed with 'bu' or with a special particle 'bye':

Bu go! Bu go ba! — Don't go!
Boh bye lasi! — God forbid!

Continuous aspect

It is marked by ‘zai’ before the verb:

Me zai go fon shop. — I am going from the shop.

Nau lu zai gun om se. — Now he is working on this.

Me zai go-te fon shop, wen me miti-te lu. — I was going from the shop when I met him.

Ob yu es libre manya klok dwa? Manya klok dwa me ve zai lekti kitabas in kitabaguan. — Are you free tomorrow at 2? Tomorrow at 2 I shall be reading books in the library.

The use of ‘zai’ is not obligatory. It is used only if the continuous aspect of action should be stressed.

Present active participle

Formed with -she:

Tuza sidi-she in bush ek-salti aus e lopi kway-kway nich kolina. — A hare sitting in the bush jumped out and ran very quickly down the hill.

•   Basically the same meaning is conveyed through the suffix -anta, which some nouns in LdP have:

komersi — to trade
komersanta — trader
kolori — to color
koloranta — colorant
konsulti — to consult
konsultanta — consultant

But these words are not active participles, they are nouns with their own meaning.

•   Instead of active participles, constructions with kel may be used:

Tuza kel sidi in bush. — The hare that is sitting in the bush.

Constructions with kel are preferable when a direct object is involved:

Kota kel chi fish. — The cat that eats fish.

Verbal adverb

This is formed with -yen:

vidi-yen — seeing
jan-yen — knowing.

•   It should be noted that simultaneity of actions may be also expressed through the preposition al (at, in the process of):

Al pasi bus-stopika me he vidi ke ela stan dar. (=Pasi-yen bus-stopika…) — Passing by the bus- stop I saw her standing there.

Al vidi lu me krai-te: Namastee! (=Vidi-yen lu…) — Seeing him I cried: ‘Hello!’

•   Constructions “afte + verb”, “al he + verb” mean “having done something”:

afte vidi — having seen
afte smaili — having smiled
afte audi — having heard

Afte audi om se, me he desidi miti lu. — Having heard about this, I decided to meet with him.

Al he zin shamba, me depon shapa. — Having entered the room, I took off my hat.

Conditional tense

This is formed with the help of particle wud in both main and subordinate clauses:

Me wud yao audi farke opinas. — I'd like to hear different opinions.

Yu wud mog zwo to si yu wud yao. — You could do that if you'd like to.

Me wud go adar si me wud hev taim. — I would go there if I had time.

Yeri me wud go-te adar si me wud hev-te taim. — Yesterday I would have gone there if I had time.

Me bu wud go adar. — I wouldn't go there.

The particle wud may be shortened to 'd:

Me'd go. = Me wud go.

The immediate future and past

These are the constructions “to be about to do something” and “to have just done something”. The first one is “sal + verb”, the second is “yus + verb in past tense”:

Me sal chifan. — I am going to have a meal.
Me yus he chifan. — I have just had a meal.
Ta sal go a skola. — he (she) is about to go to school.
Ta yus he lai. — He (she) has just come.

Remote past tense

The remote past tense is formed with “gwo + verb” and expresses some action as a fact of the indefinitely remote past, which is connected with the present moment only in terms of having the corresponding experience. This is something that was taking place or used to take place some time ago:

Me gwo bi in Paris. — I have been to Paris.

Me gwo jivi in Paris. — I used to live in Paris.

Me gwo flai kelkem kadalok in munda. — I have flown everywhere in the world.

Me gwo audi musika de Prokofiev. — I have heard music by Prokofiev (I have had such an experience).

Ta gwo zun sporta. — He used to go in for sports.

Me bu gwo vidi ta. — I have never seen him before.

Tense marking

There are 2 variants of tense marking in LdP: the full and the simple one.

The full variant is when you mark verb tense according to sense and without tense concordance (independent from whether it is a main or subordinate clause). Basically it means that the tense in an indirect quotation (he said that he was leaving) should be the same as in a direct quotation (he said, "I am leaving").


Me jan-te kwo lu ve yao. — I knew what he would like.

May amiga ve skribi a me wo ta bin in saif. — My friend will write me about where he was last summer.

May amiga he skribi a me ke ta bin morbe bat nau ta sta hao snova. — My friend wrote to me that he had been ill but now he was well again.

Gela diki-te a nu suy nove kukla kel mog ofni e klosi okos. — The girl showed us her new doll which could open and close its eyes.

Me vidi-te ke lu zai lai e go-te versu lu. — I saw that he was coming (to me), and (I) went to meet him.

The simple variant is when you don't mark verb tense at all but use words like ‘today’, ‘yesterday’ etc. and the context to convey the information about time of action. This variant is appropriate in speech.


Preyeri me zai chu shop e miti may amiga. — The day before yesterday I was leaving the shop and met my friend.

Aftemanya me go fishi. — The day after tomorrow I'll go fishing.

Yeri pluvi e sedey bu pluvi. — Yesterday it rained, and today it isn't raining.

Laste mes me kan filma om polisyuan e lai-she mes me kan otre filma. — Last month I watched the film about a policeman, and next month I'll watch another film.

However, even in texts repeated past-tense marking is quite often superfluous, e. g., in narrating a series of past events.

Example (with a literal translation):

Se eventi mucho yar bak. Dwa jen zai go This happens many years ago. Two men walk
along kamina e miti un jen kel porti un along the road and meet a man who carries a
nangwa. pumpkin.
Li lai a ta, shwo: They come to him and say:
— Hey! Kwo es sub yur bracha? — Hey! What is it under your arm?


The prefix “fa” (“to get, to become”) may serve as an intransitivity marker:

astoni — “to astonish”
fa-astoni — “to be (become) astonished”

The causative prefix “mah” may serve as a transitivity marker:

lwo — “ to fall”
mah-lwo — “to drop, let fall”

Many verbs in LdP may be intransitive and transitive in the same form, the same as the English verbs, for example ‘begin’ (‘to begin something’ vs ‘the film begins’) and ‘develop’ (‘to develop a theory’ vs ‘to develop into a nice personality’). Usually, if the verb is followed by an object, the verb is transitive, otherwise it is not:

me begin gun — I begin to work
kino begin — the cinema begins

If ambiguity may arise, one can use the prefixes “fa” and “mah”.

Participles with -ney

Passive participle is marked with "-ney":

pi-ney akwa — the drunk water.

If you want to say that the water is being drunk, add "zai":

zai-pi-ney akwa — the water that is being drunk.

With intransitive verbs -ney is a past active participle marker:

apari-ney jen — the person that has appeared

morti-ney jen — the dead person

With some verbs both meanings are possible:

adapti-ney — adapted (either “that has become adapted” or “that has been adapted”).

To specify the exact meaning, if needed, use transitivity markers:

fa-adapti-ney — that has become adapted

adaptisi-ney — that has been adapted.

The passive of state

The passive of state is formed by "bi" and "verb+ney"; it indicates a state as a result of a finished process:

Olo es yo shwo-ney, ye nixa fo shwo pyu. — Everything has already been said; there's nothing more to say.

Toy auto bin kupi-ney char yar bak. — That car was bought 4 years ago.

The passive of becoming

The passive of becoming, formed by the auxiliary verb ‘gei’ and verb, indicates an unfinished process:

Dwar gei ofni lentem. — The door is being opened slowly (=gets opened)

(compare: dwar es ofni-ney — the door is opened).

To gei zwo. — That is being done (compare: to es zwo-ney — that is done).

Autos gei kupi kada dey. — Cars are bought every day.

The past tense is formed with ‘gei-te’; the future with ‘ve gei’:

Se gei-te zwo tak e to ve gei zwo otrem. — This was (being) done so, and that will be (being) done otherwise.

Verb doubling

This expresses that an action takes some time or is repeated many times. There may also be a connotation of certain ease and lack of constraint :

Nu shwo-shwo ba idyen. — Let's talk (chat) a little.

Nau treba kan-kan atenta-nem. — Now you should look carefully (keep an eye on something).

Treba dumi-dumi idyen. — One should think a little.

Kwo yu zwo-zwo? — What are you doing now?

The verb "bi" (to be)

This is an exceptional verb. It has the main form "bi", the present tense form "es", and the past tense form "bin".

•   "Es" does not need a subject in clauses like

Es hao. — This (it) is good.

Bu es posible. — This (it) is not possible.

•   In aphoristic sayings the link-verb ‘es’ might be dropped:

Tu shwo fasile, tu zwo mushkile. — To say is easy, to do is difficult.

Char gamba hao, dwa gamba buhao. — Four legs good, two legs bad.

The infinitive and the infinitive particle "tu"

The infinitive particle tu is used when the infinitive has a meaning close to that of a noun (substantivization):

Tu shwo veritaa es hao. — To tell the truth is good.

Tu begin es lo zuy mushkile. — To begin is the most difficult thing.

Tu chi fish es hao fo sanitaa. — To eat fish is good for health.

Tu pluvi es muhim fo rekola. — Raining is important for the crop.

•   If the infinitive is placed after another verb, "tu" is not used:

Ta pri chi masu. — He likes to eat beef.

Me wud yao lagi sub surya nau. — I would like to lie under the sun now.

Me nadi vidi yu sun. — I hope to see you soon.

Oli jen mus gun. — All people must work.

Sempre gai samaji lo shefe. — One should always understand the most important thing.

Lu pregi-te pi. — He asked to drink.

Ela fogeti-te klefi dwar. — She forgot to lock the door.

Stopi shwo! — Stop talking!

•   In cases where the infinitive completes the meaning of a noun or adjective, it uses the same preposition as a noun would — though that preposition may differ from its English equivalent:

mogsa de lopi longtaim — the ability to run for a long time (=mogsa de longtaim-ney loping)

Lu es tro fatigi-ney fo go. — He is too tired to go. (=Lu es tro fatigi-ney fo going.)

Lu es fatigi-ney por go. — He is tired of walking. (=Lu es fatigi-ney por going.)

kitaba fo lekti — a book to read (=kitaba fo lekting)

Ob yu es tayar fo go? — Are you ready to go? (=Ob yu es tayar fo going?)

Es taim fo samaji to. — It is time to understand this. (=Es taim fo samaja)

Sembli ke problema fo diskusi yok. — It seems that there are no problems to discuss. (=Sembli ke problema fo diskusa yok.)

Ela go-te a basar fo kupi yabla. — She went to the market to buy apples.

Ela afsosi por kupi grin yabla. — She is sorry to have bought green apples.

Me joi al vidi yu. — I am glad to see you.

Me he lai por vidi luma in yur winda. — I came because of seeing light in your windows.

•   In subordinate clauses after the relative words "ob", "wo", "komo", etc., the infinitive is used without "tu":

Ela he findi plasa wo kupi hwan yabla. — She found a place (where) to buy yellow apples.

Me bu es serte ob go adar o bu go. — I am not sure whether to go there or not.

Lu jan komo zwo to. — He knows how to do it.

•   The particle "tu" may be used to mark the infinitive group:

Lu he wadi a me tu bringi un interes-ney jurnal. — He promised me to bring an interesting magazine.

(But: Lu he wadi bringi un interes-ney jurnal a me).

Bu es fasile, tu begin rasmi in may yash. — It is not easy to take up drawing at my age.

The verb "ye" (there is)

The verb ye means "there is":

In shamba ye mucho stula. — In the room there are many chairs.

Stula dar ye. — There are chairs there.

The negative meaning (absence of something) is expressed through "bu ye" or yok (not available). The latter is placed after the object under discussion:

Bu ye stula in shamba. — There are no chairs in the room.

Stula in shamba yok. — There are no chairs in the room.

Mani ye-bu-ye? — Is there any money (to use)?

Mani yok. — No money available.

The helping verb "fai"

It has the general meaning ‘to do, to perform an action’ and is used in combination with nouns and adverbs:

fai kwesta — to make (ask) a question

fai kasam — to make (take) a vow

fai fiasko — to not succeed

fai interes om koysa — to take an interest in something

fai bak! — may mean "set back" or "throw back!" etc.

fai avan! — may mean "throw forward!" etc.

As distinct from ‘zwo’ (to do, to make) ‘fai’ is a helping verb and may be used only in combinations, so “Do it!” is “Zwo to!”

In speech the combination ‘fai+noun’ may sometimes replace verbs that you cannot remember. In such a case ‘fai’ means ‘to use the object in some usual way, to act in usual way in connection with the object’:

fai kitaba — to read a book

fai kama — to sleep or lie on a bed

fai kaval — to ride a horse

fai gitara — to play guitar

fai kino — to watch a cinema or to go to the cinema

fai (defai) butas — to lace (unlace) shoes.

Modal verbs

Mog — can, may:

Me bu mog lekti: kitaba yok. — I cannot read: there is no book.

Yu mog zwo to kom yu yao. — You may do it as you like.

Bu mog — one can't, it is impossible.

Bu mog jivi sin chi. — One can't live without eating.

Darfi — to have permission, be allowed, (one) may:

Lu darfi gun kom leker. — He is allowed to work as a doctor.

Me darfi zin ku? — May I come in?

Yao — want:

Kwo yu yao? — What do you want?

Me yao aiskrem. — I want ice-cream.

Me wud yao safari kun yu. — I would like to go on the trip with you.

Mus — must; have to:

Oli jen mus chi fo jivi. — All people must eat in order to live.

Manya me mus go a ofis. — Tomorrow I must go to the office.

Treba — it is necessary; require:

Treba zwo se olo til aksham. — It is necessary to do it all till the evening.

Treba kaulu to. — One should consider this.

Sey kwesta treba kaulusa. — This question requires consideration.

Treba pyu jen. — More people are needed/required.

("Treba" has a wider meaning than "nidi" and "gai").

Nidi — need:

Lu nidi yur helpa. — He needs your help.

Durtitaa sempre nidi ahfi swa. — Craftiness always needs to hide.

Gai — (one) should, (one) ought, supposed to:

Me gai lekti mucho. — I should read a lot.

Yu bu gai lanfai. — You should not be lazy.

Sempre gai zwo olo tak kom gai. — One should always do everything as needed.

Majbur — be compelled to, have to, there is no other way but:

En-pluvi, nu majbur go a dom. — It begins to rain, we have to go home.

Meteo es bade, majbur deri avion-ney departa. — The weather is bad, the plane's departure has to be delayed.

Si me bu findi kitaba, majbur kupi nove-la. — If I don't find the book, I'll have to buy a new one.

Pri — to like:

Me pri flor. — I like flowers.

Me pri sey flor. — I like this flower.

May kinda pri rasmi. — My child likes to draw.

"Intensive" verbs

Some verbs are used to add specific meanings to the action description.

Pai — (the basic meaning "to get, receive") imparts the meaning "to succeed, achieve, obtain":

nulwan pai kapti ta — nobody managed to catch it

pai kreki nuta — to (succesfully) crack the nut

pai ofni ken — to open can (at last)

nu pai zwo to — we did it.

Lwo — (the basic meaning "to fall") conveys the depth of transition into another state/condition:

lwo in plaki — burst into tears

lwo in ridi — burst out laughing; start roaring with laughter

lwo in pyani — take to hard drinking

lwo in lekti nove kitaba — to become thoroughly engrossed in reading a new book.

Dai — (the basic meaning "to give") conveys unexpectedness of action for observers or its unexpected intensity:

dai shwo — blurt out, plump out

ta lai e dai darbi ta in nos — he came and all of a sudden hit him in the nose

ta dai kwiti molya — he took and abandoned his wife.

Verb prefixes

be — when added to intransitive verbs, makes action apply to an object:

dumi — to think
bedumi koysa — to think something over

kresi — to grow
pelin bekresi korta — wormwood overgrows the yard

when added to transitive verbs, changes the object of action:

chori koysa — to steal something
bechori koywan — to rob somebody

planti koysa — to plant something
beplanti agra bay repa — to plant the field with turnips

pendi koysa — to hang something
bependi mur bay piktura — to cover the wall with pictures

de(s) — opposite action ("des" if before a vowel):

desharji — discharge

delodi — unload

desorganisi — disorganize

ek- — denotes that something is done only one time or rather suddenly (from Hindi "ek" one):

tuki — to knock
ek-tuki — to give a knock

krai — to cry
ek-krai — to cry out

salti — to jump
ek-salti — to jump up

en- — denotes the beginning of action:

en-somni — to fall asleep

en-lubi — to fall in love

en-krai — to start crying

en-tuki — to begin knocking

en-jan — to come to know, find out

fa — conveys the meaning "to get, to become":

akwa fa-warme — the water is getting warm

fa-tume — it is getting dark

fa-gran — to get bigger, enlarge

fa-syao — to diminish, get smaller

fa-dey — it dawns

luy wangas fa-rude — his cheeks redden

Fa-garme-te. — It became hot.

Jiva fa-hao oltaim pyu. — Life is always getting better.

When used with verbs, makes them intransitive:

astoni — “to astonish”
fa-astoni — “to be (become) astonished”.

mah — causative prefix meaning "to make, render, transform into, bring into a condition" (synonymous with the suffix -isi). It is practical to use it with adjectives like ‘hao, gao’. E. g.:

treba mah-hao situasion — one should improve the situation.

This prefix also modifies verbs:

jal — to burn, be burning

mah-jal — to burn (something).

Lu zai mah-jal papir. — He is burning the papers.

•   It should be noted that there is also a link-verb ‘mah’ meaning the same as the English “make”:

mah li zwo to — make them do it

mah kaval lopi — make the horse run

se ve mah yu fogeti to — this will make you forget it

se bu ve mah yu triste — this will not make you sad

mah koywan felise — to make someone happy

mah butas repari-ney — to have the boots repaired

mah gunsa zwo-ney — to get the work done.

mis — equal to the English mis-:

misyusi — to misuse
miskalkuli — to miscalculate.

ras — separation, division, or dispersion:

muvi — to move
rasmuvi — to move apart

dai — to give
rasdai — to distribute, give out to many

sendi — to send
rassendi — to send out/round

lwo — to fall
raslwo — to fall to pieces

ri — again, anew:

riapari — to reappear
rizwo — to redo.

tra — through(out):

tralekti — to read through (from begining to end);
tranochi — to spend the night.

Verb suffixes

isi — makes transitive verbs, means "to make, render, transform into, bring into a condition" (same as mah-):

agni — fire
agnisi — fire up, burn up

detal — detail (noun)
detalisi — detail (verb)

iri — be angry
irisi — anger, enrage

aktive — active
aktivisi — activate

klare — clear
klarisi — clarify

elektre — electric
elektrisi — electrify

If added to a noun ending in -ia, "-ia" is dropped:

mifologia mythology — mifologisi mythologise.

ifi — makes intransitive verbs, means "to get, to become" (same as fa-):

agni — fire
agnifi — flame up, burst into flame

iri — be angry
irifi — get angry

aktive — active
aktivifi — become more active

klare — clear
klarifi — become clear(er)

elektre — electric
elektrifi — electrify, become electric

vati — used for deriving verbs in cases where the use of –i is undesirable:

chay — tea
chayvati koywan — to take smb to tea

dandi — dandy, fop
dandivati — behave foppishly

kao — handcuffs
kaovati — to handcuff

pao — bubble
paovati — to bubble, form bubbles

surya — sun
suryavati koysa— to sun smth


Noun endings

Most nouns end in -a or consonants (but, as a rule, not 'b', 'g' or 'd'):

lingwa — language
jiva — life
kordia — heart
vagon — carriage
situasion — situation
aksham — evening
profesor — professor
dwar — door
nivel — level
mes — month
fish — fish
chokolat — chocolate
handak — ditch
taraf — side

Nouns may end also in other vowels:

kino — cinema
oko — eye
shampu — shampoo
madu — honey
kafee — cafe
shosee — highway
mani — money
gari — cart
taxi — taxi
chay — tea
skay — sky

The word "ski" ski, to ski has the same form as a noun and as a verb.

The singular

The basic noun form does not convey the grammatical meaning of singularity. To specify singularity, use "un" (one) or the optional marker of the singular "ge" (piece, single item):

doga — dog/dogs
un doga, doga-ge — one dog.


The basic noun form does not convey the grammatical meaning of singularity. To specify singularity, use "un" one. In order to specify plurality, the plural form of noun may be used. Its ending is -(e)s. If a noun ends in a vowel, add -s; otherwise add -es:

lingwa — language/languages
lingwas — languages

boy — boy/boys
boys — boys

aksham — evening/evenings
akshames — evenings

•   When speaking generally about a group or class of uniform objects, plural endings are not used:

Yan chi bush. — Sheep eat bushes.

Amiga sempre helpi. — A friend always helps.

Bobra es animal. — Beavers are animals.

•   After any indication of plurality (numerals; quantifiers like ‘mucho’ many, much, ‘kelke’ several, some, ‘shao’ little, ‘ambi’ both, ‘grupa de’ a group of, ‘menga de’ a lot of, ‘para’ a pair of; plural subject, personal pronouns 'nu' we, 'li' they), as a rule, plural endings are not used:

pet jen — five people

tristo dolar — three hundred dollars

trishi kilometra — thirty kilometers

mucho yar — many years

shao jen — few people

kelke pes sukra — some pieces of sugar

oli dey — all days

oli jen — all people

Sey jenta es hao guner. — These people are good workers.
(Jenta means folk, (a particular group of) people).

Li es may amiga. — They are my friends.

Luy amigas es studenta. — His friends are students.

Toy kelke rosa es jamile. — Those roses are beautiful.
(lit.: Those some roses are beautiful).

A note: plural endings may be used after “mucho” and “shao” in order to specify that countable objects are implied (in cases where a noun may be countable as well as uncountable):

shao ananas — few pineapples or little of pineapple
shao ananases — few pineapples
shao de ananas — little of pineapple

mucho fish — many fishes or much fish
mucho fishes — many fishes
mucho de fish — much fish.

•   In case of pair objects the plural endings are usually used:

okos — eyes
labas — lips
handas — hands
plechas — shoulders.

Sex indication

There is no grammatical gender. Animate nouns may be of both sexes:

doga — a dog (never mind whether male or female)

amiga — friend (generally)

gova — a bull or a cow (such notion is practical in plural form: govas — cows and bulls)

swina — a pig of any sex

gansa — a goose or a gander (gansas — geese).

If there is need to indicate sex, it may be done two ways.

The first, more frequent, way is the use of particles ‘man’ and ‘gin’:

man-doga — male dog
gin-doga — female dog

man-studentas — male students (‘studentas’ are students generally)

man-gova — bull
gin-gova — cow

man-swina — boar.

Another, less frequent, way is the use of suffixes -o for masculine and -ina for feminine. If a noun ends in -a, the latter is dropped, otherwise the suffix is simply added:

rega — king/queen
rego — king
regina — queen

dogo — male dog
dogina — female dog

studento — male student
studentina — female student

govo — bull
govina — cow

swino — male pig
swinina — female pig

ganso — gander
gansina — female goose.

It is obvious that it is not always needed to indicate sex, so it is correct to say:

Ela es hao leker. — She is a good doctor.

Ela es hao amiga. — She is a good friend.

Juchka es pumbe doga. — Zhuchka is a silly dog.

•   In several cases different words are used for the male and female:

mata/patra — mother/father

oma/opa — grandmother/grandfather

docha/son — daughter/son

kindocha/kinson — granddaughter/grandson

tia/onkla — aunt/uncle

sinior/madam — sir/madam.


Genitive is formed with the particle -ney (hyphenated):

sedey-ney sivilisasion — the today's civilization

mata-ney kitaba — mother's book

Alex-ney jaketa — the jacket of Alex.

Nouns meaning action

The correspondence between noun's form and its meaning is basically the following:

Meaning Nouns for i-verbs Nouns for other verbs
  (type 1) (type 2)
Act and its manifestation/instance/result/resulting state -a -sa
The very action as process; repeated action;
occupation, hobby, sport
-ing -ing


adi — to add
ada — addition (both act of adding and what is added)

konvinsi — to convince
konvinsa — persuasion, conviction, convictions, beliefs

konekti — to connect
konekta — connection

judi — to judge
juda — judgement (both judging and decision)

reflekti — to reflect
reflekta — reflection (action as well as image)

inviti — to invite
invita — invitation

inuspiri — to inhale
inuspira — inhalation

lubi — to love
luba — love

darbi — to strike
darba — strike

jivi — to live
jiva — life

joi — to rejoice
joisa — joy

gun — to work
gunsa — work

jan — to know
jansa — knowledge

begin — to begin
beginsa — beginning

kan — to look
kansa — a look

flai — to fly
flaisa — flight

krai — to cry
kraisa — a cry

prei — to pray
preisa — prayer

zwo — to do
zwoing — doing

go — to go
going — going; course

swimi — to swim
swiming — swimming

fishi — to fish
fishing — fishing

ski — to ski
skiing — skiing

boxi — to box
boxing — boxing

fumi — to smoke
fuming — smoking

bru — to brew
bruing — brewing

piloti — to pilot
piloting — piloting.

A note: if verb ends in -i, that ending is replaced with -ing; in other cases -ing is added. The only exception is monosyllabic i-verbs (ski to ski, pi to drink ): in their case -ing is added (skiing, piing).
An important remark: "ng" in this suffix may be read simply as "n". The suffix is never stressed.

Further examples:

shuti — to shoot
shuta — a shot
shuting — shooting

gloti — to swallow
glota — a swallow
gloting — swallowing

kiki — to kick
kika — a kick
kiking — kicking

kliki — to click
klika — a click
kliking — clicking

salti — to jump
salta — a jump
salting — jumping

lansi — to throw
lansa — a throw
lansing — throwing.

The concretizing suffixes -(i)ka, -tura, -wat

The suffix -(i)ka has the meaning "object, thing, something concrete":

mole — soft
molika — pulp

nove — new
novika — something new, novelty

metal — metal
metalka — a metal thing

brili — to shine
brilika — something shining

ofni — to open
ofnika — opener

plei — to play
pleika — toy, plaything

Derivation: in adjectives ending in -e and nouns ending in -a, this last vowel is transformed into -ika; in other cases -ka is added. With monosyllabic i-verbs, -ika is added with a hyphen:

ski — ski-ika
pi — pi-ika.

It should be reminded that the ending -ika is unstressed.

On the whole, one can regard this suffix as an equivalent of "kosa" (thing) or "koysa" (something). Thus the suffix -(i)ka is polysemantic, the exact meaning of a word following from the context. In order to be more precise, one can use the suffixes -er (tool, device), -tura (stresses the result, product of action), or -wat (indicates the object of action).

The suffix -tura denotes an end result/product of action:

produkti — to produce
produktura — produce, output

mixi — to mix
mixitura — mixture

solvi — to dissolve
solvitura — solution

texi — to weave
texitura — fabric, tissue

sekwi — to follow
sekwitura — consequence

derivi — to derive
derivitura — derivative

shwo — to say
shwotura — saying

Derivation: just added to a verb, however -titura=> -tura, -ditura=> -dura. NB: In some words like ‘temperatura’, ‘natura’ ‘tura’ is not a suffix.

The suffix -wat denotes object of action:

pi — to drink
piwat — beverage

chi — to eat
chiwat — food, eaten things

rosti — to roast
rostiwat — roast (meat)

sendi — to send
sendiwat — something sent

konteni — to contain
konteniwat — contents

Derivation: just added to a verb.

One can distinguish between mixiwat (something mixed, an ingredient) and mixitura (mixture, a result of mixing), solviwat (dissolved thing) and solvitura (resulting solution).

The suffixes of doer and tool

The suffix -er means both doer (person) and tool/ device/appliance.

When added to a verb, the final -i of the verb is dropped (except for the monosyllabic verbs ending in -i). When added to a noun, the final -a of the noun is dropped. In other cases -er is just added:

kapti — to capture, catch
kapter — trap or trapper/catcher

lekti — to read
lekter — reader (person or device)

vendi — to sell
vender — seller

kondukti — to conduct (heat etc.)
kondukter — conductor

zwo — to do
zwoer — doer

shwo — to speak
shwoer — speaker

ofni — to open
ofner — opener

banka — bank
banker — banker

ski — to ski
skier — skier

politika — politics
politiker — politician

milka — milk
milki — to milk
milker — milker (person or device)

astronomia — astronomy
astronomier — astronomer

historia — history
historier — historian

plei — play
pleier — player (person or device)

milion — million
milioner — millionaire

yuwel — jewel
yuweler — jeweller

To specify the meaning of doer, the suffix -sha may be used which is derived from the active participle marker -she; it is used only with verbs:

milki — to milk
milki-sha — milker (person)

plei — to play
plei-sha — player (person)

lekti — to read
lekti-sha — reader (person)

kapti — to catch
kapti-sha — catcher

To specify the meaning of tool/ device/appliance, one may use the suffixes -(i)ka (see above) or compound words with tul (tool, instrument):

ofni — to open
ofnika — opener

plei — play
pleika — toy, plaything

vinti — to screw
vintitul — screwdriver

komuniki — to communicate
komunikitul — means of communication

The suffix -ista denotes a person in relation to a certain doctrine (‘ism’) or profession:

komunista — communist
metodista — methodist
dentista — dentist
artista — artist
spesialista — specialist

This suffix is basically applied to other nouns.

The words ending in -or, -ator.

LdP also imports common European words ending in -or, -ator which mean either doer or tool:

kalkulator — calculator
ventilator — ventilator
aktor — actor
direktor — director
profesor — professor

NB: Not every word meaning a tool must have a suffix. Many verbs are derived from tool-nouns: 'hamri' to hammer from 'hamra' hammer.

Abstract nouns meaning quality

Abstract nouns meaning quality (as such) are formed with the suffixes -nesa and -(i)taa:

feble — weak
feblenesa — weakness

dule — tender
dulenesa — tenderness (-nesa is simply added)

diverse — diverse
diversitaa — diversity

probable — probable
probablitaa — probability

amiga — friend
amigitaa — friendship

If a word ends in the vowel e/a, it is transformed into -itaa. For adjectives like ‘gao, lao’ and those ending in a consonant the suffix has the form -taa:

shao — little (in quantity)
shaotaa — scarcity

karim — kind, good
karimtaa — kindness

donishil — generous
donishiltaa — generosity

•   The suffix -(i)taa differs in that the nouns formed with it have a broader meaning: not only that of quality but also that of a particular phenomenon connected with this quality:

reale — real
realenesa — realness
realitaa — reality (world)

gao — high
gaonesa — highness
gaotaa — height

vere — true
verenesa — trueness
veritaa — truth

•   The suffix -nesa also derives from verbs nouns with the meaning of the state which results from the action (-edness) or is otherwise connected with action:

adapti — to adapt
adaptinesa — adaptedness

koni — be acquainted with
koninesa — acquaintance

godi — be fitted/suited (for)
godinesa — suitability, fitness

•   A special case.

For adjectives which are longer than 2 syllables and end in -ente or -ante, abstract nouns end in -ensia or -ansia correspondingly:

presente — present
presensia — presence

abundante — abundant
abundansia — abundance

Other suffixes

The suffix -yuan means "employee, worker, organization member":

kafeeyuan — cafe worker
partiayuan — party member
polisyuan — policeman
shopyuan — shop worker
koalisionyuan — coalition member

The suffix -nik (when it is added the word's last vowel may be dropped) denotes a person as bearer of some characteristic feature or adherent of something:

batalnik — scrapper
fobnik — coward
shwonik — chatterer
novnik — novice
sindomnik — homeless person
fishnik — enthusiastic fisherman
ginnik — womanizer
sportnik — lover of sport
pyannik — drunkard
safarnik — confirmed traveller

The suffix -inka denotes one small part of something:

ramla — sand
ramlinka — grain of sand

snega — snow
sneginka — snowflake

pluva — rain
pluvinka — drop of rain

The suffix -menga denotes a certain multitude, gathering of uniform objects:

moskamenga — swarm of flies
jenmenga — crowd

The suffix -tot (from tota — a whole) means a whole, aggregate, system:

antra — gut
antratot — intestine

Compound words with jen, man, gina

auslanda — foreign countries
auslandajen — foreigner
auslandagina — female foreigner
auslandaman — male foreigner

samtaimjen — contemporary
samtaimgina — female contemporary
samtaimman — male contemporary

jadu — sorcery
jadujen — sorcerer/sorceress
jadugina — sorceress, witch
jaduman — sorcerer

lao — old
laojen — old person
laogina — old woman
laoman — old man

Names of countries, peoples and languages

Names of countries are written with a capital letter and are close to how they sound in the official language of the country:

Espania — Spain
Jungwo — China
Portugal — Portugal
Rusia — Russia
Nipon — Japan
Doichland — Germany
Frans — France
Ingland — England.

In case the country has two names or two official languages, it may have also an alternative name, especially if those names are not similar to each other:

Suomi / Finland — Finland
Bharat / India — India


Belgie — Belgium (based on Dutch, the country's name in the two other official languages, German and French, sounds similar).

Composite names are translated into LdP:

Unisi-ney Statas de Amerika (USA) — The United States of America.

A compound word from country's name and 'jen' (man) denotes an inhabitant/subject of the country (written with a hyphen):

Suomi-jen — an inhabitant of Finland
Rusia-jen — an inhabitant of Russia
Jungwo-jen — an inhabitant of China
USA-jen — a person living in the USA

These compound words should not be mixed with words for etnicity (a Russian, a Finn).

For ethnicity and the corresponding language a special word is used. It is close to how people refer to themselves. It plays the role of noun as well as adjective. "jen" and "lingwa" may be used for precision. Examples:

ruski — Russian; a Russian; the Russian language

me es ruski (jen) — I am Russian
me shwo ruski (lingwa) — I speak Russian
ruski fabula — a Russian fairy tale

inglish — English; an Englishman/-woman; the English language:

me bu shwo inglish — I don't speak English

doiche — German; a German; the German language:

doiche exaktitaa — German punctuality

amerikan — American (expressing the culture and national values of the USA); an American:

fama-ney amerikan poeta — a famous American poet
ta es amerikan, ta shwo inglish — he/she is American; he/she speaks English

espaniol — Spanish; a Spaniard; the Spanish language

portuges — Portuguese; a Portuguese; the Portuguese language:

me shwo espaniol, yoshi me samaji portuges — I speak Spanish; also I understand Portuguese

han — Chinese (ethnic); a Chinese; the Chinese language

Ta es han (jen), ta shwo han (lingwa). — He/she is a Chinese; he/she speaks Chinese.

Me es Jungwo-jen, bat me bu es han (jen). — I live in China, but I am not a Chinese.

hindi — Hindu (ethnic); a Hindu (ethnic); Hindi

suomen — Finnish; a Finn; the Finnish language

ukrainska — Ukrainian; a Ukrainian; the Ukrainian language

Ela es ukrainska jen, ela shwo ukrainska. — She is a Ukrainian; she speaks Ukrainian.

ukrainska-ruski lexikon — a Ukrainian-Russian dictionary

nihon — Japanese; a Japanese; the Japanese language

romale — Gipsy; a Gipsy; the Gipsy language:

jamile romale gana — a beautiful Gipsy song.

A hint on how to pronounce proper names:

If a proper name ends in several consonants and produces a difficult consonant cluster together with a following word, it's recommended to insert a neutral sound (which however isn't written).

For example, it's recommended to pronounce:


as if it were written



Adjective endings

Most of adjectives end in -e:

forte — strong
basike — basic
gamande — haughty

or (if derived from nouns) in -ney:

sekret — secret
sekret-ney — secret, confidential

abyas — habit
abyas-ney — habitual

Besides, there are adjectives some ending in -an:

blan — white
gran — big
suan — sore

some ending in -ao (of Chinese origin):

hao — good
gao — high
syao — little (in size)
lao — old

some ending in -im (of Arabic origin):

muhim — important
karim — kind, good
rahim — merciful

also some adjective suffixes (-ful, -lik, -shil, -val) end in a consonant:

joisaful — joyful
ginalik — womanly
gunshil — industrious

Then there are some adjectives ending in -u and -y:

blu — blue
kway — quick.

The final –ε of adjectives may be dropped if this doesn't complicate pronunciation:

jamile, jamil – beautiful
dine, din – thin.

Nouns and adjectives

One may qualify an object by placing a noun before another noun:

lingwa kanunes — language laws
akwa sportas — water sports
westa feng — western wind

A noun with the modifier-making particle -ney becomes an adjective:

Sey feng es westa-ney. — This wind is western.

Other ways of qualifying an object are:

1) using the preposition 'de':

kanunes de lingwa — laws of language

2) using the preposition 'do' which introduces a specific characteristic or purpose of an object that may be described in several words:

gela do grin okos — green-eyed girl
okula do surya — sun glasses
jen do lignagamba — a man with a wooden leg
es kosa do ridi — this is ridiculous

Adjective suffixes

The suffixes -ale and -are have a general meaning. They are taken ready-made into LdP together with common European words (as a rule, abstract ones) and are not productive. They are very rare among most frequent words; one can mention among the latter only the following:

kordia — heart
kordiale — cordial

sentra — centre
sentrale — central

The suffix -ike (unstressed) derives adjectives which mean 'relating or pertaining to this noun':

osean — ocean
oseanike — oceanic
sistema — system
sistemike — pertaining to system
fanata — fanatic
fanatike — fanatical
harmonia — harmony
harmonike — harmonious
historia — history
historike — historical

If added to a noun ending in -a or -ia, those endings are dropped. Nouns ending in -ika produce adjectives ending in -ike:

publika — publike
gramatika — gramatike

The suffix-particle ke derives adjectives of relation from verbs or from word groups containing verbs. With polysyllabic i-verbs hyphens are not used:

kompari — compare
komparike — related to comparing, comparative

vidi — see
vidike — related to seeing, visual

audi — hear
audike — related to hearing, auditory

shwo — speak
shwo-ke — related to speaking

festi — celebrate
festike — celebratory

gusti — have taste
gustike — gustatory

helpi — help
helpike — auxiliary

mucho-safari-ke gunsa — a work involving a lot of travelling
mucho-shwo-ke bashan — a wordy speech

sempre-snegi-ke meteo — a weather of perpetual snowing
shao-pluvi-ke klima — a climate of little rain

hao-audi-ke musika — a music that is good to hear
hao-chi-ke fan — a food that is nice to eat
hao-yusi-ke sikin — a handy knife
hao-lekti-ke kitaba — a book that is easy or interesting to read

The suffix -tive means 'doing or capable of doing, connected with doing'. It is added to a verb, then -titive=>-tive, -sitive=>-sive:

puni — punish
punitive — punitive

nutri — nourish
nutritive — nutritive

akti — to act
aktive — active

konvinsi — to convict
konvinsive — convincing

sugesti — to suggest
sugestive — suggestive

atrakti — to attract
atraktive — attractive

exklusi — to exclude
exklusive — exclusive

explosi — to explode
explosive — explosive

The suffix -lik means "characteristic of, similar in appearance or character":

matalik — maternal, motherly
amigalik — friendly
manlik — manly
ginalik — womanly
domlik — homely, cozy
suryalik — sun-like

The suffix -ful means "possessing (esp. in great quantity), full of":

joisaful — joyful
jivaful — lively, sprightly, vivacious
lumaful — spotlit, luminous, alight
misteriaful — mysterious
danjaful — dangerous

The suffix -bile corresponds to '-able, -ible':

samaji — samajibile understandable
vidi — vidibile visible
audi — audibile audible
persepti — perseptibile perceptible
chi — chibile edible

The suffix -ish means "to some extent, somewhat, moderately":

blan — white
blanish — whitish

interes-ney — interesting
interes-nish — more or less interesting

hao — good
haoish — passable

When adding this suffix, the final -e of adjectives or -a of nouns is dropped; -ney => -nish.

The suffix -shil means "having inclination or tendency to":

gun — to work
gunshil — industrious

kusi — to bite
kusishil — tending to bite

fobi — to fear
fobishil — timorous

The suffix -val means "worthy":

admirival — admirable
sey filma es goval — this film is worth going to see
sey geim es pleival — this game is worth playing

Substantivation of adjectives and participles

•   The particle 'lo' imparts to the adjective the meaning "that which is, things that are":

lo hao — the good, what is good
lo buhao — the bad, what is bad
lo resta-ney — the rest
lo vidi-ney — the seen, what is seen
lo vendi-ney — the sold, what is sold
lo sekwi-she — what follows
lo shwo-ney — the said
Lo tal bu mus repeti. — Such a thing must not happen again (repeat).

This particle may be dropped if there is another qualifier:

olo uuparen-shwo-ney — everything above-said
olo jamile — everything beautiful

•   If the adjective has the suffix -e, changing it to -a produces a noun with the meaning “something or somebody characterized with this quality”:

yunge — young
yunga — young man/woman (yungo young man, yungina young woman)

saje — wise
saja — sage

jamile — beautiful
jamila — beautiful woman/handsome man (jamilo handsome man, jamilina beautiful woman)

garibe — alien, extraneous
gariba — stranger

konstante — constant (adj.)
konstanta — constant (noun)

absolute — absolute (adj.)
absoluta — absolute (noun)

This transformation may not be applied to shortenings of words with -ney (see "Shortenings for words with -ney, -nem, -shem")

•   Using the pronoun wan (“an individual, one”) has a similar effect:

adulte — adult (adj.)
adulte wan — adult (noun)

Kapti-ney wan bu shwo-te nixa. — The captured (person) did not say anything.

•   Adjectives with plural endings are used in the role of nouns:

Flori ba, yunges! — Bloom, young ones!

Koys go-te a desna, otres a lefta. — Some went to the right, others to the left.

Om morta-neys gai shwo sol hao. — Speak only good of the dead.

•   The particle “la”, in plural “las” (written with a hyphen) placed after adjective or participle may be optionally used as a substantivator or a substitute word, in order to avoid repetition of the same noun:

Hir ye kelke rosa, ob yu preferi blan-las o hwan-las? — Hwan-las.
There are roses here; do you prefer the white or the yellow ones? — The yellow.

Walaa dwa kitaba. Sey-la es hao e toy-la es buhao. — Here are two books. This one is good, and that one is bad.

Place in a sentence

The adjective usually precedes the noun. However, to stress it or to add a poetic connotation it may be placed after the noun: you may say "She has large blue eyes" either as

"Ela hev gran blu okos" or

"Ela hev okos gran blu" or

"Ela hev gran okos blu".

Verbs from adjectives

The prefix mah- or suffix -isi mean "to make, render, transform into, bring into a condition":

garme — hot
mah-garme, garmisi — heat up
lenge — cold
mah-lenge, lengisi — cool

The prefix fa- or suffix -ifi mean "to get, to become":

garme — hot
fa-garme, garmifi — get hot, heat up
lenge — cold
fa-lenge, lengifi — get cold, cool down.

The suffix -fai makes verbs with meaning "to be such or act correspondingly":

hwan — yellow
hwanfai — appear/show yellow

podle — mean, base
podlefai — act meanly, behave like a scoundrel

dule — tender
dulefai — act in a tender way, indulge in caresses.

•   It is acceptable to derive verbs with the suffix -i from adjectives, under the following conditions:

1) the meaning of verb is clear from the context;

2) one should not derive nouns in -a from such verbs. Such verbs may be transitive as well as intransitive. Examples:

topale — lame
lu topali — he limps
topaling — limping, lameness

garme — hot
lu garmi akwa — he heats up water
akwa zai garmi — the water is heating up
garming — heating

tayar — ready
ela tayari sabahfan — she prepares breakfast
fan zai tayari — the food is preparing
tayaring — preparation.

Wherever ambiguity is possible, use -isi, -ifi or -fai.


•   Adverbs of manner are formed from adjectives by changing -e to -em:

klare clear — klarem clearly.

If the adjective ends in a consonant, -em is added:

santush satisfied, contented — santushem contentedly.

In other cases the adverb has the same form:

hao — good; well
kway — quick; quickly

•   Adverbs may be derived from nouns and verbs with "-nem" (from -ney) or "-shem" (from -she):

amiga — friend
amiga-ney — friend's, friendly
amiga-nem — in a friendly way

rega — king/queen
rega-ney — king's/queen's, kingly/queenly, regal
rega-nem — regally

ofensi — to offend
ofensi-ney — offended, resentful
ofensi-nem — offendedly
ofensi-she — offensive
ofensi-shem — in offensive way

respekti — to respect
respekti-she — respecting
respekti-shem — in respecting way, respectfully

grumbli — to grumble
grumbli-she — grumbling
grumbli-shem — grumblingly

ahfi — to hide, conceal
ahfi-shem — stealthily.

•   Underived adverbs may end differently:

poy — then, later
wek — away
uupar — up
for — further, on, forth.

•   Here are some spatial and temporal adverbs and prepositions:

avan — forward (where to?)
avanen — ahead (of) (at what place?)
aus — out (where to?)
ausen — outside (at what place?)
bak — back(wards)
baken — behind
in — in
inu — into
inen — inside;
a flanka — sideways
flanken — on one side
a lefta — to the left
leften — at the left (of)
a desna — to the right
desnen — at the right (of)
nich — down(wards)
nichen — down (at what place?)
uupar — up(wards)
uuparen — up (at what place?)
miden — in the middle of
afte — after
aften — afterwards, later on
bifoo — before
bifooen — formerly

One can see that the spatial adverbs expressing movement towards a certain point end in different ways, while those expressing being in (at) a certain point end in -en (this ending is unstressed).

•   Some adverbs are composed of (abridged) words:

kadalok — everywhere
enitaim — anytime
koygrad — to some extent

•   The preposition pa (of a wide meaning) introduces an adverbial phrase:

pa fortuna — fortunately
pa aksham — in the evening
pa un-ney kansa — by first sight
shwo pa LdP — speak LdP


•   The comparative degree of adverbs and adjectives is formed with the help of the words 'pyu' more ('... kem' ... than) and 'meno' less ('... kem' ... than); the superlative degree is formed with the help of the words 'zuy' most and 'minim' least.

hao — good; well
pyu hao — better
zuy hao — the best
meno hao — less good
minim hao — least good

bade — bad
pyu bade — worse
zuy bade — the worst
meno bade— less bad
minim bade — least bad

Es zuy muhim kwesta. — It's the most important question.

Sey kamisa es pyu hao kem toy-la. — This shirt is better than that one.

Pyu hao tardem kem neva. — Better late than never.

Ela es meno atenta-ney kem lu. — She is less attentive than he.

minim long — the least long

Lu hev zuy shao mani. — He's got the least money.

Lo zuy hao es tu returni. — The best thing is to return.

•   Equality of comparison:

sam… kom — as... as:

Lu es sam riche kom ela. — He is as rich as she is.

•   Pyu, meno, zuy and minim are also adverbs meaning to a greater/lesser/the greatest/the least extent:

Me pri se pyu. — I like this more.
Me pri se meno. — I like this less.
Me pri se zuy. — I like this most.
Me pri se minim. — I like this least.

•   The adverbs ‘mucho’ many, much and ‘shao’ few, little, besides regular comparative forms (pyu mucho, meno mucho, zuy mucho, minim mucho; pyu shao, zuy shao), have also short forms pyu, meno, maiste, minim:

Lu hev pyu. — He has more
Lu hev meno. — He has less.
Lu hev minim. — He has least. (=Lu hev zuy shao.)
Lu hev maiste. — He has most. (=Lu hev zuy mucho.)

‘Maiste’ is also an adjective meaning most, greatest in number/extent:

in maiste kasu — in most cases
maiste jen — most people
maiste parta — the most part
maiste taim — most of the time, the most time

•   Expressions like “as soon as possible”, “as little as possible” are expressed by means of 'tanto... kom posible', 'zuy ... posible':

Lai tanto kway kom posible. (Lai zuy kway posible.) — Come as soon as possible.

Shumi zuy shao posible. — Make as little noise as possible.

Safara mus bi zuy lente posible. — The journey should be as slow as possible.

•   The expressions "the more…, the more", "the less..., the less" — "kem pyu... tem pyu", "kem meno... tem meno":

Kem pyu lao, tem pyu stupide. — The older, the sillier.

Kem meno mani, tem meno problema. — Less money, less problems.

The word "tem" can also be used beyond the expression "tem...kem":

tem pyu hao — so much the better

Es tem pyu surprisive ke… — It's all the more surprising that…


The cardinal numbers

nol — 0
un — 1
dwa — 2
tri — 3
char — 4
pet — 5
sit — 6
sem — 7
ot — 8
nin — 9
shi — 10

(the numerals from 11 to 19 are written with a hyphen; the accent is on the second syllable)
shi-un — 11
shi-dwa — 12
shi-tri — 13
shi-char — 14
shi-pet — 15
shi-sit — 16
shi-sem — 17
shi-ot — 18
shi-nin — 19

(20, 30...90 are written together, the accent on the first syllable)
dwashi — 20
dwashi-un — 21
dwashi-dwa — 22...
trishi — 30
charshi — 40
petshi — 50
sitshi — 60
semshi — 70
otshi — 80
ninshi — 90
sto — 100
sto-un — 101
sto-dwa — 102 ...
dwasto — 200
tristo — 300
charsto — 400
petsto — 500
sitsto — 600
semsto — 700
otsto — 800
ninsto — 900
mil — 1000
milion — million

25473 — dwashi-pet mil charsto-semshi-tri (mil, milion are written separately, the others with a hyphen)

The ordinal numerals

These are formed with the help of the particle “-ney”:

un-ney — first
dwa-ney — second
tri-ney — third
char-ney — forth...
shi-ney — tenth
shi-un-ney — eleventh...
sto-petshi-char-ney — one hundred fifty forth.

Replacing –ney with –nem gives adverbial forms:

un-nem — firstly; at first
dwa-nem — secondly
tri-nem — thirdly
char-nem — in the forth place...
shi-nem — in the tenth place
shi-un-nem — in the eleventh place...
sto-petshi-char-nem — in the one hundred fifty forth place.

Numeral suffixes

•   -ka — the suffix forming nouns from numerals. For example, "petka" may denote a bus number 5, or grade of "five" signifying "excellent", or a five-dollar note ("fiver"), etc. Such nouns are practical with rather small numbers, up to 100.

unka — one
dwaka — two, deuce
trika — three
charka — four
petka — five…
shika — ten
shi-dwaka — dozen
dwashika — twenty
trishika — thirty
stoka — a hundred

•   -fen —forms fractions:

un (de) dwafen — one half
un trifen — one third
charfen — a quarter
sem shifen — seven tenths
tri stofen — three hundredths
pet otfen — five eighths.

Decimal fractions are pronounced with the help of the word koma (comma):

tri koma pet — 3,5
dwa koma semshi pet — 2,75

One can also say "dwa koma semshi pet stofen".

There is also a special word for "half":

haf — half
un e haf — one and a half
dwa e haf — two and a half

•   The suffix -ple:

dwaple — double
triple — triple
charple — quadruple, etc.

In the adverbial form it becomes -plem:

dwaplem — doubly
triplem — triply

•   A noun after a numeral is not pluralized:

pet jen — five men
tristo dolar — three hundred dollars
sem pes sukra — seven pieces of sugar

•   A composite modifier "numeral + noun of measure + adjective":

tri metra glube riva — a river three meters deep
Sey mur es dwa metra gao. — This wall is 2 meters high.
Govo, pagi-ney shi yar bak! — Trupa grauli. — Nu bu fai dela om osta kel es shi yar lao! — “A bull paid ten years ago!” the Pack snarled. “What do we care for bones ten years old?”

Days of the week, months

Names for days of the week are compounds from a number and the particle 'di', Monday is counted as the first day:

undi — Monday
dwadi — Tuesday
tridi — Wednesday
chardi — Thursday
petdi — Friday
sitdi — Saturday
semdi — Sunday

Names for months are based on Latin ones, which are spread very widely. However, compounds ("month"+number) are also acceptable:

January — januar (mes-un)
February — februar (mes-dwa)
March — marto (mes-tri)
April — april (mes-char)
May — mey (mes-pet)
June — yuni (mes-sit)
July — yuli (mes-sem)
August — augusto (mes-ot)
September — septemba (mes-nin)
October — oktoba (mes-shi)
November — novemba (mes-shi-un)
December — desemba (mes-shi-dwa)

Possible ways of expressing the date:

Dey dwashi-un de mes-nin. — The twenty first of September.
Dey 21 mes 9 yar 1945. — The 21 September 1945.

Word formation

LdP tends to keep words unchanged, so it basically uses either (hyphenated) particles or suffixes beginning with a consonant which are simply added to a word. We believe that this makes word structure clearer and understanding easier.

Diminutive and augmentative particles and suffixes

There is an augmentative particle gro-, a diminutive particle -ki (these particles are hyphenated), an augmentative suffix "gron", and a diminutive suffix "kin".

The suffixes are used to make notions which qualitatively differ from the basic noun:

dom — house
domkin — a house that is inherently small (cabin, hut)
domgron — a house that is inherently large (mansion)

denta — tooth
dentagron — tusk

barela — barrel
barelakin — keg

As to the particles, they modify the meaning within the limits of a given quality; gro- is used before the modified word, -ki after it:

dom-ki — a little house
gro-dom — a big house.

The suffixes are used to form nouns only, while the particles may be used with different parts of speech:

gro-danke — thank you very much
gro-gran — huge
gro-gao — very high
lu gro-pi vodka kom akwa — he swills vodka like water
gro-chifan — to guzzle, overeat
zai gro-pluvi — it is pouring
zai pluvi-ki — it drizzles
treba chifan-ki — one should have a snack
somni-ki — to take a nap

It should be noted that there is also an intensifying adverb "gro", so that the mentioned phrases may also be constructed as: lu pi vodka gro, kom akwa; chifan gro; zai pluvi gro.

"Gro" expresses a greater extent of augmentation/intensification, than "muy" (very):

muy hao! — very well!
gro-hao! — great! excellent!

The particles may also be used with proper nouns:

Jon-ki — Johnny

Particles NEY, SHE and their derivatives

ney — genitive particle; modifier-making particle; with verbs denotes passive participle; makes ordinal numerals. Ex.:

mata — mother
mata-ney klaida — mother's clothes

jen — man/woman
jen-ney — human

rude-fas-ney jen — red-faced person

gran-oko-ney gela — big-eyed girl

yu-oli-ney idea — the ideas of all of you

vidi — to see
vidi-ney — seen

tri-ney — third

nem — the adverbial form from -ney:

parta-ney — partial
parta-nem — partially, partly

un-ney — first
un-nem — at first, firstly

ofensi-ney — offended, resentful
ofensi-nem — resentfully

she — active participle marker:

ahfi — to hide, conceal
ahfi-she — hiding

respekti — to respect
respekti-she — respecting

shem — the adverbial form from -she:

respekti-she — respecting
respekti-shem — respectfully

ahfi-she — hiding
ahfi-shem — stealthily

dumi-she — thinking
dumi-shem — thoughtfully, pensively

sha — suffix of doer:

milki — to milk
milki-sha — milker (person)

kapti — to catch
kapti-sha — catcher

kan — to look
kan-sha — onlooker, viewer.

Compound words

In compound words the modifying word stands before the main word:

guntaim — working time
flaifish — flying fish
suryaflor — sunflower
akwagarmiser — water-heater
mauskapter — mouse trap
lernikitaba — textbook
sendijen — envoy
saltikorda — skipping-rope

The adjective suffix -e may be dropped:

garibjen — stranger (garibe jen)
platbota — flat-boat (plate bota)

Shortenings for words with -ney, -nem, -shem

For nouns ending in Ca (where C is a consonant) one may shorten Ca-ney => Ce and Ca-nem => Cem, for example:

farka-ney => farke
farka-nem => farkem

But if "ney" expresses the genitive, shortening may not be done: mata-ney kitaba (not "mate kitaba").

For polysyllabic i-verbs one may shorten Ci-ney => Cen and Ci-nem => Cem, for example:

ofensi-ney => ofensen
ofensi-nem => ofensem

If no ambiguity arises, one may also shorten Ci-shem => Cem:

ahfi-shem => ahfem

The short forms are given in the dictionary in brackets after the full forms.

Endearment forms

Endearment forms of names may be constructed by shortening and adding -i:

Robert => Robi
Dimitri => Dimi
Attilio => Ati
Oxana => Oxi
Natalia => Nati

Other cases:

mama => mami — mummy
doga => dogi — doggie
yunkota => yunkoti — kitty

These endearment forms differ from the forms with particle -ki, as the latters may express not only endearment but also diminution:

doga-ki may mean any little dog while dogi means the pet dog.

The list of productive affixes

Hyphenated prefixes

ek- — denotes that something is done only one time or rather suddenly (from Hindi "ek" one):

tuki — to knock
ek-tuki — to give a knock

krai — to cry
ek-krai — to cry out

en- — denotes the beginning of action:

en-somni — to fall asleep
en-stan — to stand up

fa- — conveys the meaning "to get, to become":

gran — big
fa-gran — to increase

hao — good
fa-hao — to improve, become better

fuy- — the prefix of disgust, repugnance:

fuy-jen — a nasty person

gin- — feminine prefix:

gin-yan — ewe
gin-leker — female doctor
gin-doga — bitch

Synonymous with the suffix -ina.

gro- — augmentative/intensifying particle:

kitaba — a book
gro-kitaba — volume, folio
hao — good
gro-hao — great, excellent

haf- — half:

haf-dey — half a day
haf-ora — half an hour

ko- — joint action or being:

ko-exista — co-existence
ko-senti — to feel with
ko-jen — companion, helpmate

mah- — causative prefix meaning "to make, to bring into a condition":

hao — good
mah-hao — to improve, make better
jal — to burn, be burning
mah-jal — to burn (something)

man- — masculine prefix:

man-yan — ram
man-leker — male doctor
man-doga — male dog

Synonymous with the suffix -o.

pro- — pro:

pro-guverna-ney sirkula — pro-government circles
pro-westa-ney stata — a pro-Western state

swa- — self- (directed at oneself):

swa-luba — self-love
swa-kontrola — self-control

shma- — disparaging prefix:

shma-kaval — nag
shma-dom — shack

stif- — "step":

stif-mata — stepmother
stif-patra — stepfather


bu — negation:

gran — big
bugran — not big, not great

komparibile — comparable
bukomparibile — incomparable

de(s) — opposite action ("des" if before a vowel):

desharji — discharge
desorganisi — disorganize

dus — "bad, mal-, ill-":

fauha — smell
dusfauha — fetor, stench

trati — to treat
dustrati — to maltreat

dusfama-ney — ill-famed
dustaim — bad times

kontra — counter-:

kontratoxin — antidote

mis — incorrectly, wrongly:

misyusi — to misuse
miskalkuli — to miscalculate

no — makes antonyms:

juste — just
nojuste — unjust

pinchan — ordinary
nopinchan — extraordinary

pra — means:

1) remote kinship:
praopa — great-grandfather
prajanmer — forebear

2) primordiality, antiquity:
pralingwa — parent language
prajen — ancestor, forefather

pre — precedence, pre-, fore-:

previdi — to foresee
pre-existi — to preexist
prenam — forename
preyeri — the day before yesterday
pregoer — predecessor
prejuda — prejudice

ras — separation, division, or dispersion:

muvi — to move
rasmuvi — to move apart

dai — to give
rasdai — to distribute, give to several people

sendi — to send
rassendi — to send out/round

lwo — to fall
raslwo — to fall to pieces

ri — again, anew:

riapari — to reappear
rizwo — to redo

sin — -less:

sinsensu-ney — senseless
sinvalor-ney — of no value

tra — through(out):

tralekti — to read through (from begining to end)
tranochi — to spend the night

yun — with names of animals means young animal:

doga — dog
yundoga — pup

kota — cat
yunkota — kitten


bile — "-able, -ible":

samaji — understand
samajibile — understandable

vidi — see
vidibile — visible

chi — to eat
chibile — eatable

dan — denotes container:

chaydan — teapot
nayudan — butterdish
milkadan — milk-can

em — adverb suffix:

klare — clear
klarem — clearly

er — "doer or tool":

plei — play
pleier — player (person or device)

fen — forms fractions:

un (de) trifen — one third
sem (de) shifen — seven tenths

ful — "possessing (esp. in great quantity), full of":

joisaful — joyful
jivaful — lively, sprightly, vivacious
lumaful — spotlit, luminous, alight
misteriaful — mysterious
danjaful — dangerous

guan — "institution, establishment":

fanguan — dining-rooms, canteen, restaurant
frisiguan — hairdresser's
kitabaguan — library
printiguan — printing-house

ifi — "to get, to become":

iri — be angry
irifi — get angry

klare — clear
klarifi — become clear(er)

(i)ka — "object, thing, something concrete". In adjectives ending in -e and nouns ending in -a, this last vowel is transformed into -ika; in other cases -ka is added. With monosyllabic i- verbs, -ika is added with a hyphen:

nove — new
novika — something new, novelty

ski — to ski
ski-ika — something for skiing

plei — to play —
pleika — toy, plaything

ike — (unstressed) derives adjectives of relation from nouns:

osean — ocean
oseanike — oceanic

harmonia — harmony
harmonike — harmonious

historia — history
historike — historical

If added to a noun ending in -a or -ia, these endings are dropped. Nouns ending in -ika produce adjectives ending in -ike:

publika => publike
gramatika => gramatike

ina — feminine suffix:

amiga — friend
amigina — girl/female friend

doga — dog
dogina — bitch

Synonymous with the prefix gin-.

inka — denotes one small part of something:

ramla — sand
ramlinka — grain of sand

snega — snow
sneginka — snowflake

pluva — rain
pluvinka — drop of rain

If added to a noun ending in -a or -ia, these endings are dropped.

ish — means "to some extent":

blan — white
blanish — whitish

interes-ney — interesting
interes-nish — more or less interesting

hao — good
haoish — passable

When adding this suffix, the final -e of adjectives or -a of nouns are dropped; -ney => -nish

isi — "to make, to bring into a condition":

detal — detail
detalisi — detail

iri — be angry
irisi — anger, enrage

klare — clear
klarisi — clarify

If added to a noun ending in -ia, "ia" is dropped:

mifologia — mythology
mifologisi — mythologise

ista — denotes a person in relation to a certain doctrine ("ism") or profession:

komunista — communist
dentista — dentist
artista — artist

(i)taa — makes abstract nouns from adjectives:

probable — probable
probablitaa — probability

jen — "man, person":

samlandajen — fellow countryman
lubijen — loved one
sendijen — envoy

lik — "characteristic of, similar in appearance or character":

matalik — maternal, motherly
amigalik — friendly
manlik — manly
ginalik — womanly
domlik — homely, cozy
suryalik — sun-like

lok — "place":

habitilok — dwelling (-place), habitation
twolilok — threshing-floor
koylok — somewhere
enilok — anywhere

menga — denotes a certain multitude, gathering of uniform objects:

moskamenga — swarm of flies
jenmenga — crowd

nesa — makes abstract nouns from adjectives:

dule — tender
dulenesa — tenderness

nik — denotes person as bearer of some characteristic feature or adherent of something:

batalnik — scrapper
fobnik — coward
shwonik — chatterer
pyannik — drunkard
safarnik — confirmed traveller

When it is added the word's last vowel may be dropped.

o — masculine suffix:

doga — dog
dogo — male dog

amiga — friend
amigo — boy/male friend

Synonymous with the prefix man-.

ple — numerals suffix:

dwaple — double, twofold
triple — triple, threefold

sa — noun suffix of general meaning, a part of pronouns koysa something, enisa anything. Forms nouns from the verbs of type 2:

flai — to fly
flaisa — flight;

gun — to work
gunsa — work

jan — to know
jansa — knowledge

shil — "having inclination or tendency to":

gun — to work
gunshil — industrious

kusi — to bite
kusishil — tending to bite

fobi — to fear
fobishil — timid, timorous

-te (hyphenated) — past tense marker:

ta shwo-te — he said

val — "worthy":

admirival — admirable
sey filma es goval — this film is worth going to see
sey geim es pleival — this game is worth playing

vati — used for deriving verbs in cases where the use of –i is undesirable:

chay — tea
chayvati koywan — to take smb to tea

surya — sun
suryavati koysa— to sun smth

yuan — "employee, worker, organization member":

kafeeyuan — cafe worker
partiayuan — party member
polisyuan — policeman
koalisionyuan — coalition member

The prefixes anti-, arki-, auto-, bi-, ex-, mono-, multi-, poli-, pseudo-, retro-, which occur in technical and scientific words, need not be explained. They are not hyphenated.

Prepositions, conjunctions


1) preposition of aim, direction, "to":

Treba go a shop. — One should go to the shop.
Lu he returni a Moskva. — He returned to Moscow.

2) dative case preposition, "to":

Me dai kitaba a ela. — I give the book to her.
Me rakonti a yu. — I tell you.
Ela shwo a lu. — She says to him.


After (in temporal as well as spatial meaning); in (in temporal meaning):

un afte otre — one after another
afte se — after this
afte tri dey — in three days
aftemanya — the day after tomorrow


1) with verbs denotes simultaneity of actions (= "verb+yen"):

Al pasi bus-stopika me he vidi ke lu stan dar. — Passing the bus-stop I saw him standing there.
al shwo om se — when speaking about it;
al kupi auto — when buying a car

2) introduces current circumstances, situation, denotes simultaneity:

al to — at that, in the process
al bakdao — on the way back
al klosi-ney dwar — behind closed doors, with doors closed
al sey halat — under these conditions
al un-ney kansa — at first sight
Me joi al vidi yu. — I am glad to see you.



along riva — along the river
along gata — along the street


indicates object of action:

fai gola an koysa – take aim at smth
darba an tabla – a strike on the table
wuli an luna — howl at the moon
kansa an dwar — a glance at the door
lopi kun sikin an koywan — to run at someone with a knife


(preposition and adverb) out (of):

1) expresses movement outwards:

Lai aus! — Come out!
Lu go-te aus shamba. — He went out of the room.

2) denotes material:

botela aus glas — bottle made of glass, glass bottle


(preposition and adverb) outside (at what place?), beyond the limits of:

ausen dom — outside the house
Me jivi ausen urba. — I live out of town.
Dwar bu ofni fon ausen. — The door does not open from outside.
Ausen ye frosta. — It freezes outdoors.
ausen-temperatura — the outside temperature
lo ausen — the outside


(preposition and adverb) ahead (of):

avanen kolona — ahead of the column
Lu es dalem avanen. — He is far ahead.
May kloka es pet minuta avanen. — My watch is 5 minutes fast.


(preposition and adverb) behind (at what place?):

Surya bin baken badal. — The sun was behind the clouds.
urba resti baken — the city stayed behind
My kloka es pet minuta baken. — My watch is 5 minutes slow.


1) introduces a means or tool, "by", "with", "by means of":

ta he darbi ta bay stik — he/she hit her/him with a stick
Treba replasi lao bataria bay nove-la. — One should replace the old battery with new one.
bay forsa — by force
Ela lai-te bay avion. — She came by airplane.
bay tren — by train
sendi leta bay aviameil — to send a letter by air mail

bay to ke — in that, by the fact that:

Ais farki fon akwa bay to ke it es twerde. — Ice differs from water in that it is solid.

2) refers to doer or author:

Se es zwo-ney bay me. — This is done by me.
kitaba bay Gogol — book by Gogol


Before (in temporal as well as spatial meaning):

Woshi handas bifoo chifan! — Wash your hands before eating!
Lu zai stan-te bifoo me. — He was standing before me.
bifoo ke lu en-somni — before he fell asleep
bifoo-ney — former


Because (= por ke).


(preposition and adverb) near, nearby, beside, close by:

bli may dom — near my house
bli klok char — around 4 o'clock (one may say also "sirke klok char")
Ela zai sidi bli. — She is sitting beside.


In order to, in order that:

dabe oli samaji problema... — in order that everyone understands the problem...
dabe zwo olo kom gai... — in order to do everything as needed...

Dank a

Thanks to:

dank a lu — thanks to him
dank a fakta ke... — thanks to the fact that...


The preposition of genitive case, "of":

lingwa de planeta — the language of planet
deskovra de Amerika bay Kolombo — the discovery of America by Columbus

The preposition may also denote an amount or portion of something:

tasa de chay — a cup of tea (but 'tasa chay' is also acceptable)


Since, starting from, for (in temporal meaning):

Me es hir depos klok shi. — I have been here since ten o'clock.
depos ke me lai hir — since I came here
depos longtaim — long since


Preposition introducing a specific characteristic, distinctive feature, or purpose of object:

gela do grin okos — green-eyed girl
okula do surya — sun spectacles
jen do lignagamba — a man with wooden leg
es kosa do ridi — this is ridiculous
mashina do skribi — typewriter



duran gwer — during the war
duran laste dwa yar — in the course of the last two years
duran ke — while
duran to — meanwhile



me e yu — me and you
me sal go a kino, e yu? — I am going to go to the cinema, and you?

See i


(coordinating conjunction introducing new, often little expected circumstances):

Ta en-chi ewalaa ye tro mucho pepa. — As he began to eat, he felt that there is too much pepper added.

Me zin shop ewalaa may amiga zai kupi pan. — When I entered the shop, I saw that my friend was buying bread.

Pa un dey saja zai prei, ewalaa orla pasi, mah-lwo maus inu saja-ney handas. Saja ofni okos, ewalaa ye maus in handas. — One day when the sage was praying, an eagle happened to pass by and the eagle dropped a mouse in the hands of the sage. The sage opened his eyes, and there was a mouse in his hands.



oli exepte me — everyone except me



1) indicates the object, aim, or purpose of an action or activity:

es fo yu — this is for you
me lai-te fo vidi yu — I came to see you
fo ke — in order to (=dabe)

2) indicates duration or a specific time:

fo kelke taim — for some time
mita aranji-ney fo klok dwa — the meeting arranged for two o'clock



Me zai go fon teatra — I am going from the theatre.
fon kapa til peda — from head to foot
fon sabah til aksham — from morning till evening


"i… i..." — "both... and...":

i lu i ela — both he and she
i sey-las i toy-las — these as well as those

too, also (relates to the following word)

I me koni lu. — I too know him.
Me jan i ela. — I know also her.



1) refers to place:

Nu jivi in Rusia. — We live in Russia.

2) refers to time:

in petdi — on Friday
in lai-she yar — in the next year

3) expresses other meanings:

in nove palto — in a new overcoat
kreda in Boh — belief in God
in tal kasu — in such case


(preposition and adverb) inside, within:

inen dom — within the house
Dwar es klosi-ney fon inen. — The door is closed from inside.
inen me — within me
Lu es inen. — He is inside, he is in.
inen-temperatura — the inside temperature
lo inen — the inside


instead (of), in place (of):

Go dar inplas me! — Go there instead of me!
Inplas resti lu go-te for. — Instead of remaining here he went on.
Lu plei inplas gun. — He plays instead of working.



inter dwar e winda — between the door and the window.
Lu lai-te inter klok ot e shi de sabah. — He came between 8 and 10 in the morning.
mutuale samaja inter jenmin — mutual understanding between the peoples


(preposition and adverb) into:

Ela go-te inu shamba. — She went into the room.
Kan inu! — Look inside!
Nulwan mog transformi fer inu golda. — Nobody can change iron into gold.


(preposition and adverb):

1) against, contrary to:

kontra may vola — against my will

2) opposite, in front of (in space):

Dom es kontra. — The house is on the opposite side.

3) against (contact from an opposite direction):

apogi kontra mur — lean against the wall


kontratoxin — antidote
kontrakosa — opposite (noun)



Krome ke nu es fatigi-ney, nu bu hev pyu taim. — We are tired, and besides we don't have any more time.
krome to — besides that, moreover


With, along with:

ela shwo kun smaila — she said with a smile
filma kun Jeki Chan — a film with Jackie Chan
kompari kun koysa — to compare with something
Lu klosi-te dwar kun shum. — He closed the door with a noise.
kun forsa — with force (cf.: bay forsa — by force)


In spite of.


Amid, in the middle; among:

miden shamba — in the middle of the room
miden amigas — among friends
Miden li ye diverse jen. — There are various people among them.


(preposition and adverb) down(wards):

go nich — to go down
nich kolina — down the hill


(preposition and adverb) down (at what place?), at the lower part of:

Lu es nichen. — He is down.
nichen bey — at the lower part of back
nichen kolina — at the bottom of the hill
nicha — bottom, lower part


Though, although:

Obwol me jan urba aika hao, sey plasa, me totem bu jan it. — Although I know the city quite well, this place is completely unknown to me.

Oda (the short form is 'o')


yu o lu — you or he

"oda... oda..." — "either... or..."


Indicates that a mechanism or connection is off:

Radio es of. — The radio is off.
mah-of radio — to switch the radio off


About, concerning, on (refers to the subject of activity):

Me dumi-te om yu. — I thought about you.
Nau om otre kosas. — Now about other things.
Li oli ridi-te om sey insidenta. — They all laughed about this incident.
Nu zai gun om sey problema. — We are working on/at this problem.



1) indicates that something is on a surface:

on tabla — on the table

2) indicates that a mechanism or connection is on:

Radio es on. — The radio is on.
mah-on radio — to switch the radio on


Preposition of wide meaning, often can be used instead of other prepositions:

1) indicates place, time (at, on, in):

pa dom — at home
pa mur — on the wall
pa gata — in the street
sidi pa tabla — sit at the table
London lagi pa Tems. — London lies on the Thames.
Ob mani es pa yu? — Is the money with you?
pa vesna — in spring

2) introduces an adverbial phrase:

shwo pa inglish — speak (in) English
pa un-ney kansa — at first sight
Ta jivi pa shi kilometra fon mar. — He lives 10 km from the sea.
pa exponenta — exponentially
pa ol mogsa — with all one's might
pa char — four (together)
pa fortuna — fortunately


Per, for each (every):

6% per yar — 6% per year.
pinchanem dwashi dolar per jen — usually 20 dollars per head
100 gram per kilo — 100 gram per kilo


Refers to distribution in portions:

Olo es po dwa dolar. — Everything costs 2 dollars apiece.
po tri — in threes
po shao, shao-po-shao — little by little


Due to, because of:

Ela bu lai-te por bade meteo. — She did not come because of bad weather.
Lu zwo se por gamanditaa. — He does this out of vanity.
Danke por atenta! — Thank you for your attention!


Pro, in favor of:

Li es pro guverna. — They support government.


1) For, in exchange for:

kupi pur mani — to buy for money
rekompensa pur gunsa — recompense for the work
Lu gun pur shi dolar per wik. — He works for 10 dollars per week.

2) for, in place of:

Lu chifan pur tri jen. — He eats for two men.


In relation to:

Lu es neutrale relatem sey kwesta. — He is neutral in relation to this question.


According to, in accordance with:

segun laste investiga — according to last investigations
pikter segun vokasion — painter by vocation

Segun ke — as, in proportion as:

Segun ke presa fa-syao, volum fa-gran. — As pressure diminishes, the volume grows.


At -'s house/place, with. Corresponds to the French chez, indicating:

1) abode:

Lu resti-te she nu. — He remained with us/at our house.
Me ve bi she me. — I shall be at my house.
Me jivi bu dalem fon she yu. — I live not far from you.
Me zai lai fon she ela. — I am coming from her house.
Sta ba kom she yu! — Make yourself at home!

2) land, country:

she ruski jenta — among Russians, in Russia
she dushman — in enemy territory, among the enemy

3) author:

she Homer — in Homer

4) found in/among (person or animal):

es abyas she lu — it is a habit with him
instinkta she animal — instinct in animals



sin me — without me


Approximately, about, around:

Dar ye-te sirke dwashi jen. — There were about 20 people there.
sirke mil dolar — around 1000 dollars


(preposition and adverb) around:

sirkum dom — around the house
kan sirkum — to look around
lo sirkum — surroundings


Above, over:

sobre may kapa — above my head
sobre urba — over the city



sub tabla — under the table
sub nuy kontrola — under our control


Till, until:

til nau — until now
fon kapa til peda — from head to foot
Til aksham! — Till the evening!
Til manya! — Till tomorrow!


Through; over, across, to (on) the other side of:

Lu zai go-te tra urba. — He was going through the town.
Tra winda oni vidi gao baum. — Through the window one can see a high tree.
Lu gun-te om to tra mucho yar. — He worked on this through many years.
Kaval salti-te tra bariera. — The horse leaped over the barrier.
Lu jivi tra osean. — He lives over/across the ocean.


(preposition and adverb) up(wards):

kan uupar — to look up
uupar kolina — up the hill


(preposition and adverb) up (at what place?); at the upper part of:

Lu es uuparen. — He is up there.
uuparen kolina — at the top of the hill
fon uuparen — from above
uupara — top, the upper part/side



versu westa — to the west
Me turni-te versu dom. — I turned towards home.
elay senta versu lu — her feelings towards him



via radio — via radio
a London via Paris — to London via Paris
Me en-jan-te sey habar via may visin. — I learned this news through my neighbour.

Interjections, particles


Greetings like Good day! have a similar structure in LdP:

Good morning! — Hao sabah!
Good day! — Hao dey!
Good evening! — Hao aksham!
Good night! — Hao nocha!

Any major greetings from major languages are also acceptable:

Sdrastvuy(te)! Sdraste!
Salut! Salud!

Many of these greetings are also used to say goodbye.


Goodbye! Adieu!
shwo adyoo — to say goodbye


An exclamation of understanding, recognition:

Aa, es yu! — Ah, it's you!
Aa, me samaji. — Oh, I see.

Written with two letters for distinction from the conjunction "a" (but pronounced the same way).










Imperative particle:

Go ba dar! — Go there!
Kan ba se! — Take a look at this!
Nu go ba! — Let's go!
Ta lai ba! — Let him come!


Thank you.


Accusative particle, used in the case of inverted word order:

Me chi yabla. — I am eating an apple.
Kwo yu chi? — What are you eating?
Den yabla me chi! — The apple I am eating!


May, let (wish; leave):

Hay olo bi hao! — May everything be good!
Hay forsa bi kun yu! — May the force be with you!
Hay oni shwo kwo oni yao. — Let them say what they like.


Hey! (calling for another's attention)


An emphatic particle, emphasizing the previous word; it is pronounced with a certain stress:

Me hi zwo-te se. — It's me who did it.
Ela ve go dar hi. — It's there that she will go.


Hm, ahem.




1) fie, faugh

2) a prefix of distaste, disgust:

fuy-jen — a nasty, repulsive person


Come on!


An interrogative particle at the end of a sentence or directly after the word to which it relates:

Yu lai ku? — Will you come?
Faula ku es dar dalem, avion ku? — Is it a bird there far away, is it a plane?
Me lai, hao ku? — I shall come, OK?
Me darfi zin ku? — May I come in?


Marker of improvised image-bearing words including onomatopoeic:

Oli bakak salti inu akwa laik plah-plah-plah. — All the frogs jumped in the water with plops.
In avion me sempre sta laik muak-muak. — In a plane I always feel sick.
(The improvised word muak-muak is derived from the verb muaki).


I wish, if only:

Magari ta lai! — If only he would come!



Non, me bu go. — No, I am not going.


1) An interrogative particle at the beginning of a sentence

2) whether, if:

Ob ta lai? — Will he/she come?
Me bu jan ob ta lai. — I don't know whether he/she will come.
Kan, ob lu he lai. — Take a look if he has come.


1) Oh (an exclamation expressive of surprise, pain, pleasure, etc.):

Oo es ya jamile! — Oh, how beautiful!
Oo ya! — Oh yes!

2) O (marks address):

Hay fortuna go kun yu, oo Shefa de wulfas! — Good luck go with you, o Chief of the Wolves!

Written with two letters for distinction from the conjunction "o" or.


Hush! Sh!


1) if

2) a likening particle (“sort of, similar to, something like, a kind of, as if, seemingly”)

Ta bildi un dom-si aus brancha. — He built a kind of house using branches.
Kwo lopi tra shamba? - Un maus-si. — What is running across the room? - A mouse or something.
rude-si — reddish
shi-si — about ten




Good luck! May fortune favour you! Everything good to you!




Optional apposition marker:

kota to kapter — cat the catcher
avion to fortesa — a plane that is also a fortress
Me to kitabnik lekti mucho. — Being a book lover, I read a lot.


An exclamation expressing tiredness or relief, appeasement:

Uf, sey bao es grave! — Oh (gosh), this bag is heavy!
Uf, me sta fatigi-ney! — Gosh, I am tired!
Uf, pa fin me es pa dom! — Oh, at last I am at home!


Long live!
Viva unitaa de Arda! — Long live the unity of the Earth!


Walaa nu. — Here we are.
Walaa fin. — That's all.


1) Away, off:

Wek! — Get out, go away!
Ta go-te wek. — He went away.
Ta es wek. — He is away.

2) Starting signal:

Un, dwa, tri, wek! — One, two, three, go!


Well (interjection):

Wel, e poy? — Well, what next?
Wel, wel... me bu jan kwo shwo. — Well, well... I don't know what to say.


1) Yes (affirmative interjection).

2) Emphatic particle, "you know", "indeed":

Lu es ya experta. — He is an expert, you know.
Yu jan ya ke me bu pri fish. — But you know that I don't like fish.
Ya munda es gro-jamile! — What a beautiful world!
Es ya gro-gao baum! — This tree is so big!


There is no, not available:

Mani yok! — I have no money! No money available.
Problema yok! — No problem!

"Yok" is placed after the object under discussion and used when its absence/unavailability is stressed.


Word order

Word order is direct:

subject — predicate — object.

This is natural for a language without case endings:

"lu vidi yu" means something quite different than "yu vidi lu".

An accusative particle "den" placed before the object makes it possible to change its place, e. g. for the sake of emphasis:

Me pren yabla — I take an apple.
Kwo yu pren? — What do you take?
Den yabla me pren! — The apple I take!

Pronouns in unstressed form before verbs, as in Romance languages (e. g. "je t’aime"), are not used in LdP.

Interrogative sentences

There are two interrogative particles. One of them (ob) is placed at the beginning of an interrogative sentence, the other (ku) at the end or directly after the word to which it relates. It is practical to use "ob" with longer sentences and "ku" with shorter ones:

Ob yu mog shwo a me, wo es zuy blise fanshop? — Can you tell me, where is the nearest food store?

Yu lai ku? — Will you come?

Me lai, hao ku? — I'll come, OK?

The particle "ob" also plays the role of the conjunction "whether":

Me bu jan, ob lu es in dom. — I don't know whether he is at home.

While ob relates to the whole clause, ku may shift the interrogative emphasis to the word that stands before it:

Yu ku lai? — Is it you who will come?

Yu bu gun! — Me ku bu gun? You don't work! — Who, me?

There is one more variant of building interrogative sentences: you repeat a verb placing the negative particle "bu" in the middle:

Yu go-bu-go? — Are you going (or not)?

Ye-bu-ye koy idea? — Are there any ideas?

There is no necessity to use special pronouns (as "anything" instead of "something" in English questions). A question word like "kwo" what or "kwel" which may be placed at the beginning of interrogative sentence, although it may not be the subject:

Kwo yu dumi om to? — What do you think about it?

Subject-predicate inversion is allowed only in the case of “es”:

Wo es may kalam? — Where is my pen?

The expression "isn't it?" is "bu ver?":

Es hao filma, bu ver? — It's a good film, isn't it?

Negative sentences

The negative particle "bu" is used in negative sentences:

Me bu jan. — I don't know.
Bu is always placed before a tense particle:
Nu bu go. — We don't go.
Nu bu ve go. — We won't go.
Nu bu he go. — We didn't go.
Nu bu wud go. — We wouldn't go.

Multiple negations are allowed:

Lu bu samaji nixa. — He doesn't understand anything.

Compound sentences

When building compound sentences, the subject and predicate of each clause should be clearly marked off. There should not be infinitive phrases:

Me yao ke yu go adar (not "Me yao yu go adar"). — I want you to go there.

Me he vidi ke lu stan dar (not "Me he vidi lu stan dar"). — I saw him standing there.

Topic subclauses

One of the ways of building a sentence is to mention the key word of your idea (topic) and then to comment on it:

Sey winda, treba shanji it tanto kway kom posible. — This window, it should be changed as soon as possible.

Sey aksham, ob yu sal go a koylok? — Are you going to go anywhere this evening?

Adjectival predicative

In order to avoid ambiguity, by default the adjectival predicative relates to the nearest noun or pronoun:

Lu pikti ela nude. — He is painting her naked. (She is naked, and he painting her.)

Here nude relates to ela, not to lu. One can also indicate this with the apposition marker to or the equivalent combination kel es:

Lu pikti ela to nude. Lu pikti ela kel es nude.

One should note that in order to express another meaning — «He is painting her as naked» — one should use the preposition kom:

Lu pikti ela kom nude.

Impersonal sentences

Impersonal sentences do not have a subject:

Pluvi. — It rains.

Bikam-te klare ke treba akti kway. — It became clear that one should act quickly.

Sembli ke problema fo diskusi yok. — It seems that there are no problems to discuss.

Lai-te a may kapa ke... — It came to my mind that....

The particles ti, na

The optional particles ti and na are used to delimitate semantic groups. Ti is a marker of a noun group, na marks an end of a semantic group:

In skay gao ti blan badal floti. — In the high sky white clouds float.

Oli gwerjen kel akompani-te shefa na he tabahi. — All the warriors that accompanied the chief have perished.

The construction ti... na allows to place subordinate clauses before a noun:

Me kwesti lu om ti lu jivi na planeta. — I asked him about the planet on which he lives.

Me bu yao diskusi ti yu shwo na kwesta. — I don't want to discuss the question that you mention.

The first element ti may be dropped if no ambiguity arises:

Ta jivi na planeta. — The planet on which he lives.

Me dumi na kwesta. — The question I am thinking about.

Eventi pa septemba na konferensa. — The conference to take place in September (or: The conference that has taken place in September).

The constuction with ke after a noun

A modifying group (containing subject) may be placed after a noun and "ke":

Dom ke nu jivi. — The house in which we live.

Jen ke me shwo. — The man I am talking about.

Dao ke yu go — The way you are going.

The constructions with ti... na and ke let us avoid subordinating conjunctions.


Separated with commas are:

1) homogeneous parts of the sentence

2) various parenthetical or explanatory clauses. Separation of subordinate clauses is optional.

The End